1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Pearsonia Dümmer

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Africa..

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The current state of knowledge of the Crotalarieae was reviewed by Van Wyk (1991a) and by Van Wyk & Schutte (1995a). The most conspicuous recent change has been the exclusion of the Argyrolobium group (six genera, i.e. Argyrolobium, Dichilus, Melolobium, Polhillia, Anarthrophyllum and Sellocharis), which belong in tribe Genisteae rather than in Crotalarieae, where they were previously placed (Polhill, 1981q: 399 –402). New insights into relationships within the tribe have come mainly from chemosystematic studies of alkaloids (summarised in Van Wyk & Verdoorn, 1990) and several recent generic monographs (see below).

    The Crotalarieae forms part of a monophyletic clade, the ‘core genistoids’ (Fig. 36) which also includes Genisteae, Podalyrieae, Thermopsideae, Brongniartieae, Euchresteae and Sophoreae sens. strict. (Crisp et al., 2000; Pennington et al., 2000a; Kajita et al., 2001). Crotalarieae appears to be sister to the Genisteae and both are sister to the Podalyrieae (Crisp et al., 2000; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). This clade is in turn sister to the Thermopsideae and Sophoreae sens. strict. (including Euchresteae).

    The Crotalarieae shares with the Podalyrieae the absence of a-pyridone alkaloids such as cytisine and anagyrine that are a typical feature of all other ‘core genistoid’ tribes. Despite a lack of defining characters, the monophyly of the tribe as circumscribed here is well supported by molecular evidence (Crisp et al., 2000; Wink & Mohamed, 2003) and by cladistic analyses of morphological, cytological and chemical characters (Van Wyk & Schutte, 1995a). The latter study suggested an early diversification of the genera with uniform anthers and lupanine-type esters of quinolizidine alkaloids (Pearsonia, Rothia and Robynsiophyton) followed by the poorly known Spartidium and then the so-called ‘Cape group of genera’ (Polhill, 1981q: 399–402), which now includes Lotononis and Crotalaria. Relationships between the seven genera of the ‘Cape group’ remains unresolved despite several recent molecular studies because sampling is still relatively poor. However, a basally branching position in the tribe of the ‘Cape group’, notably Lebeckia and Wiborgia — as considered by Polhill (1976, 1981q) — is now accepted here. The exclusion of the Argyrolobium group, based on morphological and chemical characters, is also strongly supported by DNA sequence data. Due to reticulate and overlapping patterns of character state distribution in the Crotalarieae sens. strict., generic delimitations are intricate and subject to misinterpretation. Several of the large and diverse genera appear to be either monophyletic or paraphyletic depending on the choice of characters. As currently circumscribed the tribe includes 11 genera and c. 1204 species (Fig. 37).

    Morphologically similar to Lotononis (particularly in the lotononoid calyx) but distinctive in the gullet-type pollination mechanism and the accumulation of unique esters of quinolizidine alkaloids, two features shared only by Rothia and Robynsiophyton (Van Wyk & Verdoorn, 1991)
    Habit
    Shrublets and herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical to subtropical montane xerophytic bushland, shrubland and grassland, sometimes in forest or woodland; on sand or rocky outcrops
    Distribution
    Africa and Madagascar (12 spp. in Africa S of the equator, mainly in the southern Afromontane Region [Drakensberg and Inyangani Centres], and 1 sp. in Madagascar)
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Perennial herbs or small shrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves digitately 3-foliolate; stipules linear to foliaceous or lacking.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or leaf-opposed, the flowers in racemes or solitary on long peduncles, sometimes resupinate; bract and bracteoles linear to elliptic-obovate.
    Calyx
    Calyx not or slightly inflated; lobes rarely subequal, usually with the upper sinuses slightly to much shallower than the lower sinuses, the lateral sinuses sometimes the shallowest, the lowest lobe narrower than the others.
    Corolla
    Standard yellow or white marked purplish, generally elliptic to oblong-obovate, concave in the lower part, usually hairy outside; wings broadened upwards, generally sculptured; keel relatively small, narrow, long-clawed, usually pointed with a small forwardly directed tip.
    Stamens
    Stamens in a sheath open on the upper side and not much longer than the free parts, the vexillary filament sometimes free; anthers narrowly oblong, subequal, but 6 (including the carinal one) attached higher up.
    Style
    Style nearly straight or pointed downwards.
    Fruits
    Pods sessile, linear-oblong to ellipsoid, pointed, laterally compressed, dehiscent, 1–many-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds ± oblique-cordiform, with a small hilum.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Perennial herb
    Leaves
    Leaves digitately 3-foliolate
    Stipules
    Stipules similar to the leaflets, in pairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, sometimes leaf-opposed, pedunculate, racemose, few-flowered; bracts and bracteoles inconspicuous
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes acute, with the upper 2 united farther up than the lower ones
    Corolla
    Standard ovate or elliptic, with a short claw; wings as long as the standard; keel much shorter, rounded at the apex
    Stamens
    Stamens of unequal length (see fig. 116), 9 united, 1 free; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, with numerous ovules; style curved downwards; stigma small, capitate
    Fruits
    Pod oblong, slightly inflated
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Pearsonia Dümmer appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J. Bot. 50: 353 (1912)

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Campbell-Young & Balkwill in Nordic J. Bot. 20: 547–555 (2000).
    • Polhill in Kew Bull. 29: 383–410 (1974).
    • in J. Bot. 50: 353 (1912).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0