Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.
Sida rhombifolia

[FWTA]

Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A widespread perennial weed
Note
Requiring further taxonomical study throughout its range.There appear to be three varieties in our area: — Sida rhombifolia var. α, Sida rhombifolia var. β and Sida rhombifolia var. γ

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 1800 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb or subshrub.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.

[FZ]

Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Annual or biennial herb or suffrutex or shrublet, up to c. 1 m. tall; erect, often ± virgate, usually not much branched; stems terete, grey or brown, stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose, ultimately glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 2–6 × 0·5–2·5 cm., oblong to lanceolate-oblong or somewhat rhomboid, shortly and sparsely stellate-pubescent or almost glabrous on the darker upper surface, shortly stellate-pubescent to velutinous on the pale lower surface, apex usually obtuse to rounded or rarely acute, margin finely crenate or subserrate, base broadly cuneate to rounded; petiole usually less than 5 mm. long; stipules c. 5. mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pale yellow to cream, axillary, solitary; pedicels rarely exceeding 20 mm. long in flower and 35 mm. long in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–5 mm. long, saucer- to cup-shaped, divided to about 1/3, stellate-velutinous or more sparsely pubescent, 10-nerved; lobes triangular, acute, sometimes mucronate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals c. 8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube glabrous or sparsely glandular-papillose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 8–12, c. 4 mm. long, birostrate, with awns usually connivent until dehiscence of the fruit, glabrous except for the usually shortly pubescent awns.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds smooth and glabrous except for the pubescent area around the hilum.

[FTEA]

Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Type: ? Jamaica, Linn. Herb. 886.3 (LINN!, lecto.) (left hand side fruiting specimen) (see note)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial often subshrubby herb 0.3–2(–3) m tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems usually erect or ascending, stellate-pubescent or tomentose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblanceolate to ovate, elliptic or rhombic (some Asiatic infraspecific taxa have obcuneate leaves with a retuse apex), 0.5–13 × 0.3–6 cm, rounded to acuminate at the apex, cuneate to rounded at base, finely stellate-pubescent, with simple hairs or almost glabrous above, usually more densely so beneath, the hairs often of different sizes (densely tomentose in some New World varieties), serrate except near base sometimes; petiole 0.2–2.5 cm long; stipules linear, 3–8(–12) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary and/or in short axillary cymes sometimes aggregated at apex of shoots; pedicel 0.2–3.5(–6) cm long including up to 1.3 cm long joint; calyx 5–8 mm long, always 10-ribbed at base, the ribs distinctly yellowish, at least when dry, with scattered small and larger stellate hairs and sometimes long hairs, divided to middle into broadly ovate-triangular lobes, sometimes ciliate, glabrous inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white or pale yellow to apricot, sometimes reddish or purplish at base, 6–12 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal column 1–3 mm long, with stalked glands and simple hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps (7–)8–14, (2–)3–3.5 mm long, ± smooth to slightly or strongly reticulate-ribbed on back and sides and the outer margins often ± serrate in some varieties, glabrous, glandular or puberulous, dehiscent or indehiscent, the beak part with 1–2 short or long awns or without awns but splitting and appearing birostrate but with nothing or scarcely anything projecting beyond the outline of the mericarp (in one South American variety the awns are very long, pubescent and flexuous).

[KBu]

Verdcourt, B. (2004). The Variation of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) in East Africa. Kew Bulletin, 59(2), 233-239. doi:10.2307/4115855

Morphology General Habit
Perennial often subshrubby herb 0.3 - 2(- 3) m tall; stems usually erect or ascending, stellate pubescent or tomentose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblanceolate to ovate, elliptic or rhombic (some Asiatic infraspecific taxa have obcuneate leaves with a retuse apex), 0.5 - 13 x 0.3 - 6 cm, rounded to acuminate at the apex, cuneate to rounded at the base, finely stellate-pubescent, with simple hairs or almost glabrous above, usually more densely so beneath, the hairs often of different sizes (densely tomentose in some New World varieties), serrate save sometimes near base; petioles 0.2 - 2.5 cm long; stipules linear, 3 - 8(- 12) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary and/or in short axillary cymes, sometimes aggregated at apex of shoots; pedicels 0.2 - 3.5(- 5) cm long including up to 1.3 cm long joint
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5 - 8 mm long, always 10-ribbed at base, the ribs distinctly yellowish, at least when dry, with scattered small and larger stellate hairs and sometimes long hairs, divided to middle into broadly ovate-triangular lobes, sometimes ciliate, glabrous inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Staminal column 1 - 3 mm long, with stalked glands and simple hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white or pale yellow to apricot, sometimes reddish or purplish at base, 6 - 12 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps (7 -) 8 - 14, (2 -)3 - 3.5 mm long, ± smooth to slightly or strongly reticulate-ribbed on back and sides and the outer margins often ± serrate in some varieties, glabrous, glandular or puberulous, dehiscent or indehiscent, the beak part with 1- 2 short or long awns or without awns but splitting and appearing birostrate but with nothing or scarcely anything projecting beyond the outline of the mericarp (in one South American variety the awns are very long, pubescent and flexuous).
Type
?Jamaica, Linnaean Herb. 866.3, left hand fruiting specimen (lectotype LINN, selected by Rodrigo 1944).

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Escoba, Escoba babosa, Escoba cimarrona, Escoba negra, Escobadura, Escobilla, Escobo, Escobo amarillo

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1800 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPB]
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Azores, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Central American Pac, Chile Central, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Kansas, Korea, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique Channel I, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Sinai, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

Spanish
Escoba cimarrona, escobadura, escoba, escobo amarillo, escoba babosa, escobo, escoba negra, escobilla, escobo.

Sida rhombifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 7, 2017 Hinton, G.B. [10745], Mexico K001105289
Jan 7, 2017 Hinton, G.B. [11445], Mexico K001105265
May 16, 2016 Hawkes, J.G. [2063], Honduras K001259182
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [186], Cape Verde K001134098
May 1, 2009 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 98], Vietnam K000610618
May 1, 2009 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 595], Vietnam K000610619
May 1, 2009 Nguyen Van Du et al. [HNK 1869], Vietnam K000610621
May 27, 2008 Jones [450], Sabah K000224917 Unknown type material
May 27, 2008 Phuong, V.X. et al. [595], Vietnam K000224916 Unknown type material
May 27, 2008 Clunie-Ross [126], Vanuatu K000224918 Unknown type material
Dec 1, 2006 Amith, J. [1173], Mexico K001105231
Dec 1, 2006 Amith, J. [1050], Mexico K001105232
Feb 7, 2006 Reynoso et al. [14806], Philippines K000223828
Feb 7, 2006 Kulip [141062], Sabah K000223830
Feb 7, 2006 Mohtar et al. [56167], Sarawak K000223831
Feb 7, 2006 Wace [C 12], Christmas I. K000223832
Feb 7, 2006 Billy Bau [83060], Papua New Guinea K000223833
Jan 1, 2004 Sanders, A.C. [11788], Mexico K001105259
Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7917 A], Cameroon K000198136
Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9308], Cameroon K000198135
Dec 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [828], Cameroon K000337659
Dec 1, 2000 Kamundi, D. [631], Cameroon K000337656
Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [378], Cameroon K000337655
Dec 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [827], Cameroon K000337654
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2337], Cameroon K000337660
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3426], Cameroon K000337657
Mar 1, 1997 Buzgo, M. [633], Cameroon K000337658
Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [357], Cameroon K000086077
Jan 1, 1987 Tenorio L., P. [9820], Mexico K001105260
Jan 1, 1937 Matuda, E. [96], Mexico K001105234
Darko, K.O. [521], Ghana 8858.000
Bally, P.R.O. [5376], Kenya 8860.000
Rogers [20463] K000240413
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], Myanmar K001114481
Hinton, G.B. [1770], Mexico K001105220
Bourgeau, E. [1571], Mexico K001105244
Hernández A., C. [124], Mexico K001105278
Botteri [762], Mexico K001105274
Botteri [761], Mexico K001105272
Sachet, M.-H. [315], Mexico K001105275
Burchell [4585], Brazil K001214813
Krapovickas, A. [42051], Brazil K001214820
Burchell [9010], Brazil K001214808
Burchell [828], Brazil K001214811
Eiten, G. [1698], Brazil K001214843
Lima, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001214845
s.coll. [1310], Brazil K001214857
Hinton, G.B. [4659], Mexico K001105222
Bourgeau, E. [1721], Mexico K001105245
Drumond [s.n.], USA K001105243
Hinton, G.B. [1685], Mexico K001105219
Cervi, A.C. [7161], Brazil K001214800
Harley, R.M. [1122], Brazil K001214821
Pringle, C.G. [8490], Mexico K001105288
Burchell [9765], Brazil K001214810
Moseley [s.n.], Cape Verde K001035835
Griffith [s.n.], Brazil K001214853
Harris [3000], Brazil K001214817
Rambo, B. [46071], Brazil K001214861
Maitland, T.D. [118], Cameroon K000105296
Burchell [2448], Brazil K001214804
Hinton, G.B. [5852], Mexico K001105223
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114483
Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214814
Marquez R., W. [281], Mexico K001105276
Nash, G.B. [2399], USA K001105285
Gouin [s.n.], Mexico K001105238
Botteri [756], Mexico K001105225
Burchell [8643], Brazil K001214806
Burchell [8696], Brazil K001214829
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114485
Costa, M.A.S. [500], Brazil K001214801
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214846
s.coll. [1305], Brazil K001214850
Lindeman, J.C. [13221], Brazil K001214860
Rose, J.N. [5352], Mexico K001105268
Riedel [259], Brazil K001214844
Krapovickas, A. [43959], Brazil K001214823
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114482
Pabst, G.F. [9257], Brazil K001214818
Hinton, G.B. [471], Mexico K001105217
Mueller, F. [42], Brazil K001214852
Lowe, J. [4168], Brazil K001214824
Dusén, P. [9150], Brazil K001214828
Eiten, G. [10326], Brazil K001214859
s.coll. [1305], Brazil K001214854
Marquez R., W. [519], Mexico K001105279
Burchell [8652], Brazil K001214834
Burchell [4512], Brazil K001214833
Meissner [14], Mexico K001105235
Santoro, J. [816], Brazil K001214819
Bourgeau, E. [34], Mexico K001105237
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], India K001114486
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114484
Brunt, M.A. [696], Cameroon K000105294
Bourgeau, E. [2641], Mexico K001105242
Burchell [8680], Brazil K001214835
Burchell [6971], Brazil K001214838
Tweedie [s.n.], Argentina K001214848
Mexia, Y. [4513], Brazil K001214825
Irwin, H.S. [15635], Brazil K001214812
Burchell [739], Brazil K001214809
Nicolás, F. [817], Mexico K001105228
Morton, C.V. [2533], Mexico K001105283
Burchell [2160], Brazil K001214836
Hage, J.L. [231], Brazil K001214858
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], India K001114487
Arséne, F. [s.n.], Mexico K001105246
Friedrichsthal [s.n.], Guatemala K001105269
Dunlap [30], Cameroon K000105309
Botteri [758], Mexico K001105239
Anthony, A.W. [327], Mexico K001105247
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214856
Brunt, M.A. [251], Cameroon K000105295
Sands, M.J.S. [1371], Papua New Guinea K000607642
Gourlay, W.B. [48], Mexico K001105263
Migeod, F. [245], Cameroon K000105313
Bourgeau, E. [562], Mexico K001105236
Bartolomeu, J.G. [15198], Brazil K001214802
Maitland, T.D. [254], Cameroon K000105300
Parry, C.C. [86], Mexico K001105270
Hora, F.M.D. [16], Brazil K001214816
Morton, J.K. [0s.n.], Cameroon K000105312
Maitland, T.D. [809], Cameroon K000105310
Burchell [6971], Brazil K001214839
Hill, S.R. [12906], Brazil K001214855
Ortega, R. [30], Mexico K001105280
Langlassé, E. [649], Mexico K001105227
Gay, J. [s.n.], Peru K001105240
Hinton, G.B. [13136], Mexico K001105264
Palmer, E. [202], Mexico K001105287
González Ortega, J. [530], Mexico K001105226
González Ortega, J. [5336], Mexico K001105229
Burchell [9766], Brazil K001214807
Swainson [s.n.], Brazil K001214827
Gómez Chalaga, B. [387], Mexico K001105230
Rambo, B. [45777], Brazil K001214863
Nicolás, F. [768], Mexico K001105267
Rosa R., M. [1], Mexico K001105281
Botteri [757], Mexico K001105271
Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.7], Cameroon K000105305
Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214830
Burchell [4511], Brazil K001214837
Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001214831
Burchell [8688], Brazil K001214840
Burchell [2448], Brazil K001214805
Galeotti, H. [4076], Mexico K001105284
Hinton, G.B. [4033], Mexico K001105221
Rambo, B. [46596], Brazil K001214842
Hoehne, W. [13448], Brazil K001214803
Fryxell, P.A. [728], Mexico K001105282
Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214832
Botteri [759], Mexico K001105273
Mexia, Y. [4513], Brazil K001214826
Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K001214849
Burchell [8688], Brazil K001214841
Hinton, G.B. [109], Mexico K001105218
Hinton, G.B. [5721], Mexico K001105224
Gardner [323], Brazil K001214851
Virgo, K.J. [181], Mexico K001105262
Krukoff, B.A. [1230], Brazil K001214815
s.coll. [7], Cape Verde K001134099
Pringle, C.G. [4291], Mexico K001105286
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214862
Lyonnet [215], Mexico K001105233
Hinton, G.B. [12490], Mexico K001105261
Bourgeau, E. [2907], Mexico K001105241
Moseley [s.n.], Cape Verde K001035834
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114480
Arsene, G. [5560], Mexico K001105266
Irwin, H.S. [3804], Brazil K001214822
Chazaro B., M. [147], Mexico K001105277
Frame, D. [145], Brazil K001214864

First published in Sp. Pl.: 684 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1979). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 6: 1-636. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brandão, J.L. & al. (2017). Synopsis of Sida (Malvaceae, Malvoideae, Malveae) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil Phytotaxa 307: 205-227.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Thailand 14(2): 185-358. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Flores-Palacios, A., Martínez-Gómez, J.E. & Curry, R.L. (2009). La vegetación de isla Socorro, archipiélago de Revillagigedo, México Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de México 84: 13-23.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Verloove, F. (2017). New xenophytes from the Canary islands (Gran Canaria and Tenerife; Spain) Acta Botanica Croatica 76: 120-131.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Xuyen, D.T. (2013). A synopsis of tribe Abutileae from Vietnam Thai Journal of Botany 5: 143-169.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 58.
  • F.T.A. 1: 181
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 684 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1979). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 6: 1-636. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Flores-Palacios, A., Martínez-Gómez, J.E. & Curry, R.L. (2009). La vegetación de isla Socorro, archipiélago de Revillagigedo, México Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de México 84: 13-23.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1962). Flora and vegetation of Clipperton island Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 31: 249-307.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Xuyen, D.T. (2013). A synopsis of tribe Abutileae from Vietnam Thai Journal of Botany 5: 143-169.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Blumea 14: 193 (1966)
  • Bol. Soc. Bot. Ser. 2, 54: 65–85 (1980)
  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 2: 101, t. 25, fig. 6 (2000)
  • Exell & Mendonça C.F.A. 1: 149 (1937)
  • F.A.C. 10: 172 (1963)
  • F.T.A. 1: 181 (1868)
  • F.Z. 1: 480, t. 92A (1961)
  • Fawcett & Rendle, Fl. Jamaica 5: 117, fig. 46 (1926)
  • Fl. Brasil. 12 (3): 338 (1891)
  • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2 (2): 254 (1995)
  • Fl. Mascarenes 51 Malvacées: 15 (1987) pro parte
  • K.B. 38: 41 (1983) pro parte
  • K.B. 59: 233 (2004).
  • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed 2, 1: 339 (1958)
  • Rev. Mus. de la Plata, Bot. 6: 173, t. 28 (1944)
  • Sivarajan & Pradeep, Malv. S. Pen. India: 245, figs. 82, 87, 109 A–B (1996)
  • Sp. Pl.: 684 (1753)
  • T.T.C.L.: 307 (1949)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/