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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum americanum Mill.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is New World. It is used as a medicine.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type: specimen in Herb. Miller (BM, lectotype, fide Edmonds (1972), photo) of a plant cultivated in the Chelsea Physic Garden, London (England), said to have come from Virginia (United States, North America).
    General
    Erect or widely spreading annual to short-lived perennial, (10)20–76(150) cm tall, sometimes flushed purplish, glabrescent to moderately pubescent with simple, curved, usually appressed, eglandular hairs
    Ovary
    Ovary c.  1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 1. 3–4 mm long, straight or obscurely sigmoidal, the stigma level with the tip of the anthers or protruding by up to 1. 2 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits shiny, black or purplish-black, with shiny, opaque 4–7(8) mm in diameter, globose or slightly depressed-globose, with or without sclerotic granules, glabrous, edible when mature Fruits shiny, black or purplish-black, with shiny, opaque 4–7(8) mm in diameter, globose or slightly depressed-globose, with or without sclerotic granules, glabrous, edible when mature.
    Seeds
    Seeds 24–70(100) per berry, with light bone-colour and often flushed with purple, 0.8–1. 5 mm long, ± ovate in outline, pitted all over Seeds 24–70(100) per berry, with light bone-colour and often flushed with purple, 0.8–1.5 mm long, ± ovate in outline, pitted all over.
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24 Edmonds in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 75: 143 (1977) recognized 2 varieties under S. americanum, viz.: var. americanum, pilose, and var. patulum (L.) Edmonds, more glabrous. Common name: “American Black Nightshade” or “Glossy Nightshade”.
    Ecology
    One of the most widespread species of Solanaceae, widely distributed from tropical to warm-temperate regions, and at higher altitudes when closer to the Equator, usually as a weed. Deep forest, riverine vegetation, dry thickets on littoral dunes and dry grassland, mountain slopes, waste and cultivated ground in gardens and fields; up to 1460 m.
    Distribution
    Zambia Malawi Mozambique ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM E, MAL N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M
    Habit
    Erect or widely spreading annual to short-lived perennial, (10)20–76(150) cm tall, sometimes flushed purplish, glabrescent to moderately pubescent with simple, curved, usually appressed, eglandular hairs.
    Branches
    Branches ± angular to narrowly winged, the ridges or wings smooth or with widely spaced, short teeth or prickle-like hairs. Branches ± angular to narrowly winged, the ridges or wings smooth or with widely spaced, short teeth or prickle-like hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or occasionally geminate; petiole 0.45–5 cm long, ± narrowly winged particularly distally; lamina 1.8–12 × 0.8–5.5 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, base truncate or rounded to cuneate, oblique, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or acute, ± acuminate, entire to sinuate, rarely sinuate-dentate, ciliolate, both surfaces often sparsely pubescent, glabrescent. Leaves solitary or occasionally geminate; petiole 0.45–5 cm long, ± narrowly winged particularly distally; lamina 1. 8–12 × 0.8–5.5 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, base truncate or rounded to cuneate, oblique, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or acute, ± acuminate, entire to sinuate, rarely sinuate-dentate, ciliolate, both surfaces often sparsely pubescent, glabrescent
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, unbranched, ± umbelliform, (1)3–6(10)-flowered; peduncle 0.2–2.8 cm long, slender, deflexed in bud, erect or ascending later, in fruit elongated to 3.7 cm; pedicels 2–7 mm long, slender, in fruit elongated to 14 mm, usually erect and splayed, occasionally reflexed. Cymes lateral, unbranched, ± umbelliform, (1)3–6(10)-flowered; peduncle 0.2–2.8 cm long, slender, deflexed in bud, erect or ascending later, in fruit elongated to 3.7 cm; pedicels 2–7 mm long, slender, in fruit elongated to 14 mm, usually erect and splayed, occasionally reflexed
    Calyx
    Calyx 1–2(2.5) mm long, campanulate, in fruit somewhat enlarged; lobes 0.2–1.2 × 0.2–1 mm, oblong, semi-elliptic or ovate to lanceolate, rounded to acute, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, in fruit elongated to 1.5 × 2 mm, often strongly reflexed. Calyx 1–2(2.5) mm long, campanulate, in fruit somewhat enlarged; lobes 0.2–1. 2 × 0.2–1 mm, oblong, semi-elliptic or ovate to lanceolate, rounded to acute, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, in fruit elongated to 1. 5 × 2 mm, often strongly reflexed
    Corolla
    Corolla white, cream or yellowish, with or without a conspicuous yellow-green eye, sometimes flushed with purple, mauve or blue, 1.6–4(5) mm across, rotate to deeply stelliform; lobes 1.5–3.5 × 0.5–1.7 mm, oblong or ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or acute, puberulous outside. Corolla white, cream or yellowish, with or without a conspicuous yellow-green eye, sometimes flushed with purple, mauve or blue, 1. 6–4(5) mm across, rotate to deeply stelliform; lobes 1. 5–3.5 × 0.5–1. 7 mm, oblong or ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or acute, puberulous outside
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0.3–1.5 mm long; anthers 0.7–1.5(2) mm long, oblong. Stamen filaments 0.3–1. 5 mm long; anthers 0.7–1. 5(2) mm long, oblong
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous; style 1.3–4 mm long, straight or obscurely sigmoidal, the stigma level with the tip of the anthers or protruding by up to 1.2 mm.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 0 - 2600 m.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Conservation
    Least concern.
    Distribution
    Native from Colombia.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated Chelsea Physic Garden, introduced from Virginia, Miller s.n. (BM!, holo)
    General
    Annual herb, 0.3–1.5 m high, occasionally suffrutescent at base, erect, procumbent or scrambling, spreading up to 2 m; stems green to densely purple, angular or smooth with edentate or slightly dentate ridges, all parts pilose with appressed eglandular hairs, often glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves often membranaceous, light to dark green, sometimes densely purple, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or ovate, (1.9–)3–8(–15) × 1.1–4.8(–10.8) cm, sometimes smaller on short-shoots, bases cuneate and decurrent, margins entire, sinuate or sinuate-dentate with deep usually obtuse lobes, apices acute to acuminate; surfaces pilose to glabrescent; petioles 0.3–4(–6) cm. Inflorescences simple condensed umbellate cymes, rachides absent or < 2 mm, usually extra-axillary, 3–7(–10)-flowered; peduncles erect and 0.4–2(–3.5) cm long in flower, 1.2–2.8 cm long in fruit; pedicels erect to reflexed and 3–9 mm long in flower, typically erect and splayed and 7–14 mm in fruit but often reflexed and nodding in the Flora area; axes pilose
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 1.1–2(–2.5) mm long, pilose externally; lobes broadly ovate, 0.5–1.1 × 0.5–1 mm, acute to obtuse, often unequal; enlarging to 0.7–1(–1.5) × 1–1.5 mm in fruit when usually reflexed away from berry bases
    Corolla
    Corolla white, sometimes with purple tinge and occasionally purple median veins to the lobes, with translucent to yellowish-green basal star, deeply stellate, 6–10(–12) mm diameter, tube 0.5–1(–1.3) mm long; lobes spreading to reflexed, ovate with acute apices, 2.5–4(–5) × 1.5–2.5 mm, shortly pilose externally with papillate margins
    Filaments
    Filaments free for 0.5–1.4 mm, villous internally; anthers yellow, 0.8–1.5(–2) × 0.5–0.7 mm, connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary brownish, 0.5–1 × 0.5–0.9 mm; style 2–3(–4.2) mm long, lower half shortly pilose, exserted up to 1 mm before anthesis after which absent, straight or geniculate; stigma capitate, 0.2–0.3 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries typically borne erect but fruiting pedicels sometimes reflexed in the Floral area, black to purplish-black (occasionally dark green outside Africa) with shiny opaque cuticle, globose, rarely broadly ovoid, 4–7(–9) mm diameter, surrounded basally by reflexed calyx lobes; deciduous from calyces
    Seeds
    Seeds (3–)15–80(–101) per berry, yellow, light or dark brown, obovoid, discoidal to orbicular, 0.8–1.4 (1.8) × 0.8–1.3 mm, reticulate; sclerotic granules present (when up to 4 per berry) or absent
    Figures
    Fig 17/12–14, p 126
    Ecology
    Common weed of cultivation (maize and cassava plots, banana plantations, gardens), old cultivation areas, waste land and disturbed places, grassland, open bush and forest clearings, shrubland, stony cleared land, and upland rain forest; sea-level to 3200 m
    Note
    Several duplicates of the type collection of S. imerinense have been traced and although the specimens have sinuate-dentate leaf margins and some reflexed fruiting pedicels, the remaining inflor- and infruct-escence characters are identical to those found in S. americanum. Although a type specimen of S. sancti-thomae has not yet been seen, the plant habit and tiny flowers described in the protologue suggest conspecificity with S. americanum. This is probably the most widespread and morphologically variable species in the section Solanum and is diploid (2n=2x=24). A more complete list of synonyms of this cosmopolitan species is given in Edmonds (1972) and Mansfeld (2001). The species is typically characterised by umbellate cymes of very small flowers, which are succeeded by small globose berries typically on erect, spreading or splayed pedicels. In Africa the fruiting pedicels are often reflexed and indeed Henderson (1974) recognised a similar variant as the subsp. nutans in Australia. However, extensive growth of many duplicates of S. americanum collected from throughout world indicated that many of the features characterising the species can be extremely variable including fruiting pedicels which can often be reflexed in field-grown plants, but erect in glasshouse- grown ones. Moreover, in some plants, the lower pedicel of the inflorescence can arise up to 2 mm below the condensed umbel. Other characters showing great variation include plant habit; pigmentation; leaf size, shape, and margin shape; flower colour and size; berry shape, colour and sclerotic granule presence or absence (cf. Jardine & Edmonds in New Phytol., 73: 1259 (1974) & Edmonds in J.L.S., 76: 27 (1978)). A number of infraspecific variants of this species have been formally described. Edmonds (1971, 1977) recognised two ecogeographical varieties of this species in South America with var. americanum being pilose and var. patulum (L.) Edmonds being glabrescent. This distinction is not so apparent elsewhere in the world including Africa, where both types occur and are best identified as S. americanum sensu lato . Though sclerotic granules are generally absent from the berries of South American plants of this species, they are often found in the African representatives. Olet (2004) recognised two morphological forms of S. americanum in Uganda, which she proposed could be given infraspecific recognition, though her molecular work suggested that there might be three groups, one of which could have been composed of hybrid plants. The synonymy of S. nodiflorum with S. americanum was based on examination on the type material of both species (Edmonds, 1971). Using material of this taxon from throughout the world, Manoko (2007) & Manoko et al. (2007) concluded from their molecular and crossability results that these two species were distinct. However, it is thought that the material which they identified as S. americanum, derived from the USA, is the distinct species S. ptycanthum Dunal. The clustering behaviour of all their other accessions, with the exception of a few from Brazil, confirmed their conspecificity, and in my view support their identification as S. americanum sensu stricto. There are reports of the use of this species as a vegetable in Uganda (U 1), Kenya (K 3) and Tanzania (T 2, 3 & 6) including its sale in local markets. It is also frequently used as a vegetable in Madagascar and for its fruits, though there are reports of the toxic alkaloids in the raw fruits causing nausea, diarrhoea, constipation, apathy, circulatory or respiratory problems (cf. D’Arcy & Rakotozafy, 1994). There are a number of specimens in SW Ethiopia and East Africa which appear florally intermediate between this taxon and the next species S. tarderemotum, which usually has slightly larger flowers and lax cymose many-flowered inflorescences in which the fruiting pedicels are reflexed. A new species S. umalilaense Manoko (Manoko et al. in Manoko, Syst. Study of African Solanum L. Sect. Solanum (Solanaceae), Chap. 4: 69–73 of Doctoral Thesis presented to Radboud University, Njimegen (2007) was recently described for tetraploid plants possibly endemic to the Umalila Forest Reserve region of the southern highlands of Tanzania. This was previously identified as affin. S. americanum, with which it is superficially similar. However, among the characters by which Manoko differentiated it are terminal inflorescences, shortly accrescent fruiting calyces, and small yellowish translucent berries which remain attached to the plants at maturity; its distinction from other African section Solanum species was supported by his AFLP analyses. It is species A in Schippers (2004), and the type material cited was Gereau et al. 5084 (DSM, holo.; K!, MO, NHT, iso.). This taxon is a popular vegetable which is extensively grown by the Umalila people. It is thickly sown in large plots, and the leaves harvested three to four weeks after planting until flowering commences when they become too bitter. It is widely sold in local markets. Morphologically the plants are somewhat intermediate between the diploid S. americanum and tetraploid S. tarderemotum. It could be an autopolyploid form of the former, but recent (2010) field work suggests that it is a good species which is widespread in cultivation, though no wild populations were found (van der Weerden, pers. comm.). Further experimental work on these collections is currently underway before the new species is formally published. It is probable that S. triangulare is synonymous with S. americanum. The protologue is brief but the possible holotype has a similar inflorescence structure with erect pedicels and bears tiny flowers with the corolla being described as pale violet and the anthers ± 1mm long. The specimen later cited by Dunal (1852) for this species – Gaudichaud s.n. (G-DC) is not conspecific and seems to belong to S. villosum subsp. miniatum. It is generally accepted that Schultes’ S. dillenii, though based on Dillenius’ Solanum procerius patulum vulgaris fructu was described from a mixture of specimens – representing some quite different species (see Thellung in Botan. Exch. Club Reports, 8: 186 (1926–1928); Polgár in Botan. Közlemenyek 23: 3 (1926) & in Acta Hort. Got. 13: 281 (1939)). To clarify the confusion surrounding this species, Polgár later described the Swedish adventive which he thought identical to the Dillenian plant as S. dillenianum (see above). The protologue and morphology of the holotype of S. depilatum clearly demonstrates its conspecificity with S. americanum, though sclerotic granules are absent from the berries in this case.
    Distribution
    Range: Generally considered to be an adventive in much of the Old World Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K1 K3 K4 K ?6, K7 T2 T3 T6 T7 Z Range: Madagascar, W Indian Ocean Islands, Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia, Malesia, N, C and S America, the West Indies, New Zealand, New Guinea and Australia. Controversy surrounds its place of origin Range: Cape Verde, Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, São Tóme, Bioko, CongoKinshasa, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa
    [UPB]
    Gene Sources
    Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Inflammation
    Infructescences - Used in poultices for the treatment of skin inflammation (Lagos-López 2007). Leaves - Used in poultices and topical medications as an anti-inflammatory (Lagos-López 2007). Infructescences - Used in poultices and in topical medications as an anti-inflammatory (Lagos-López 2007). Leaves - Used in poultices in the treatment of skin inflammation (Lagos-López 2007).
    Sensory System Disorders
    Leaves - Used in poultices in the treatment of conjunctivitis (Lagos-López 2007). Infructescences - Used in poultices for the treatment of conjunctivitis (Lagos-López 2007). Leaves - Used in poultices (Lagos-López 2007).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Botswana, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Chad, Chatham Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Yerbamora.

    Other Data

    Solanum americanum Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2017 Wheeler, J.M. [ANU5730], New Guinea K001168080
    Jan 1, 2016 Gentry, H.S. [4232], Canada K001159884
    Jan 1, 2016 Baker, C.F. [231], USA K001159685
    Jan 1, 2016 Lyall [s.n.], USA K001159880
    Jan 1, 2016 Wolley-Dod, A.H. [336], USA K001159731
    Jan 1, 2016 Kitching, L. [s.n.], USA K001159886
    Jan 1, 2016 Killip, E.P. [41162], USA K001159703
    Jan 1, 2016 Hansen, G. [1175], USA K001159686
    Jan 1, 2016 Abrams, L. [2570], USA K001159727
    Jan 1, 2016 Brown, S. [198], Bermuda K000676982
    Jan 1, 2016 Collins, F.S. [281], Bermuda K000676981
    Jan 1, 2016 Franceschi, F. [16], Guadeloupe K001159729
    Jan 1, 2016 Thompson, J.W. [3729], USA K001159683
    Jan 1, 2016 Thompson, J.W. [3802], USA K001159684
    Jan 1, 2016 Moldenke, H.N. [442], USA K001159885
    Jan 1, 2016 Lewis, W.H. [388], Panama K001164882
    Jan 1, 2016 s.coll [69], Bermuda K000676980
    Jan 1, 2016 s.coll [s.n.] K001159882
    Jan 1, 2016 Burch, D. [1033], Panama K001164883
    Jan 1, 2016 Tsang, W.-.T. [412], China K001152449 isotype
    Jan 1, 2016 Lau, S.-.K. [209], China K001152446 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2016 Amer, T. [s.n.], USA K001159887
    Jan 1, 2015 Cowan, R.S. [629], USA K001155597
    Jan 1, 2015 Degener, O. [34133], USA K001155596
    Jan 1, 2015 Sykes, W.R. [1804/CI], Cook Is. K001155562
    Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [15195], Pitcairn K000649666
    Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [15044], Pitcairn K000649668
    Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [16199], French Polynesia K001155555
    Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [16070], French Polynesia K001155556
    Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [15383] K001155557
    Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [14659], French Polynesia K001155558
    Jan 1, 2015 Fosberg, F.R. [11337], Pitcairn K000649667
    Jan 1, 2015 Gillespie, J.W. [4348], Fiji K001155595
    Jan 1, 2015 Heller, A.A. [2509], USA K001155599
    Jan 1, 2015 Heller, A.A. [2867], USA K001155600
    Jan 1, 2015 Forbes, C.N. [2348.O.], USA K001155594
    Jan 1, 2015 Florence [10774], French Polynesia K000649669
    Jan 1, 2015 Florence [10290], French Polynesia K001155551
    Jan 1, 2015 Florence, J. [4365], French Polynesia K001155560
    Jan 1, 2015 Florence, J. [4154], French Polynesia K001155561
    Jan 1, 2015 Leland, B. [78], French Polynesia K001155553
    Jan 1, 2015 Quayle, E.H. [209], French Polynesia K001155552
    Jan 1, 2015 s.coll [s.n.] K001155554
    Jan 1, 2015 Rock, J.F.C. [3165], USA K001155601
    Jan 1, 2015 Schäfer, P. [5306], French Polynesia K001155559
    Jan 1, 2014 Kaune, S.M. [616], USA K001159879
    Jan 1, 2011 Lambdon, P.W. [A036], United Kingdom K000369885
    Sep 1, 2009 Komaromi, R. [61], Cameroon K000023420
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [7117], Cameroon K000541992
    Jan 1, 2008 Cable, S. [498], Cameroon K000518862
    Jul 1, 2006 Malcomber, S. [1716], Madagascar K000212422
    Jan 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [7470], Cameroon K000109674
    Jan 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [1556], Cameroon K000109680
    Jan 1, 2006 Ryan, P. [289], Cameroon K000109673
    Jan 1, 2006 Loher, A. [4380], Philippines K000196867
    Jan 1, 2006 Cuming, H. [649], Philippines K000195888
    Jan 1, 2006 Biye, E. [55], Cameroon K000109672
    Jan 1, 2006 Kamundi, D. [673], Cameroon K000460273
    Jan 1, 2005 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212301
    Jan 1, 2005 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Mauritius K000212302
    Jan 1, 2005 Ponsonby, L. [26], Madagascar K000212263
    Jan 1, 2005 Humbert, H. [11309], Madagascar K000212307
    Jan 1, 2005 Humbert, H. [19091], Madagascar K000212311
    Jan 1, 2005 Baron, R. [860], Madagascar K000212264
    Jan 1, 2005 Baron, R. [1916], Madagascar K000212265
    Jan 1, 2005 Hildebrandt, J.M. [3796], Madagascar K000212303 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2005 Decary [755], Madagascar K000212308
    Jan 1, 2005 Henderson, R.J. [H518], Queensland K001080528 isotype
    Jan 1, 2005 Croat, T.B. [28684], Madagascar K000212299
    Jan 1, 2005 Decary, M. [6656], Madagascar K000212312
    Jan 1, 2005 Hodgkin, H.T. [23], Madagascar K000212266
    Jan 1, 2005 Hodgkin, H.T. [82], Madagascar K000212267
    Jan 1, 2005 s.coll. [1744], Madagascar K000212305
    Feb 1, 2004 Olet, E.A. [066], Uganda K000787982
    Feb 1, 2004 Olet, E.A. [001], Uganda K000823772
    Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [3983], Peru K000201910
    Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [39833984], Peru K000201911
    Jun 1, 2000 Irwin, H.S. [30413a], Brazil K000903963
    Jun 1, 2000 Eiten, G. [7211], Brazil K000903966
    Jun 1, 2000 Eiten, G. [6239], Brazil K000903967
    Jun 1, 2000 Eiten, G. [7876], Brazil K000903972
    Jun 1, 2000 Bolland, G. [s.n.], Brazil K000903971
    Jun 1, 2000 Berg, C.C. [P19836], Brazil K000903960
    Jun 1, 2000 Campbell, D.G. [P22040], Brazil K000903958
    Jun 17, 1997 Henz [29638], Brazil K000903968
    Jan 1, 1997 Hinton, G.B. [5709], Mexico K000063643
    Jan 1, 1997 Palmer, E. [959], Mexico K000063644
    Jan 1, 1997 Palmer, E. [554], Mexico K000063640
    Jan 1, 1997 Palmer, E. [11], Mexico K000063642
    Jan 1, 1997 Langlassé, E. [606], Mexico K000063639
    Jan 1, 1997 Calzada, J.I. [1848], Mexico K000063636
    Jan 1, 1997 Arsène, G., Mexico K000063638
    Jan 1, 1997 Botteri, M. [846], Mexico K000063641
    Jan 1, 1993 Decary, R. [6179], Madagascar K000212313
    Jan 1, 1993 Humbert, H. [19707], Madagascar K000212306
    Jan 1, 1990 Mexico K000063658
    Jan 1, 1990 Krapovickas, A. [33562], Brazil K000903956
    Jan 1, 1990 Nee, M. [16674], Mexico K000063652
    Jan 1, 1990 Palmer, E. [934], Mexico K000063645
    Jan 1, 1990 Palmer, E. [40], Mexico K000063646
    Jan 1, 1990 Palmer, E. [27], Mexico K000063653
    Jan 1, 1990 Gaumer, G.F. [479], Mexico K000063655
    Jan 1, 1990 Gaumer, G.F., Mexico K000063656
    Jan 1, 1990 Gaumer, G.F. [61], Mexico K000063657
    Jan 1, 1990 Gentry, H.S. [1269], Mexico K000063647
    Jan 1, 1990 Fosberg, F.R. [57408], Brazil K000903959
    Jan 1, 1990 Hartweg, C.T. [202], Mexico K000063651
    Jan 1, 1990 Moran, R.V. [6914], Mexico K000063649
    Jan 1, 1990 Moran, R.V. [6448], Mexico K000063650
    Jan 1, 1990 Rosas R., M. [52], Mexico K000063637
    Jan 1, 1990 Márquez, W. [677], Mexico K000063648
    Jan 1, 1990 Hernández A, C. [90], Mexico K000063659
    Jan 1, 1990 Menendez, F. [216], Mexico K000063654
    Jan 1, 1990 Jonsson, G. [893], Brazil K001058021
    Jan 1, 1990 Prance, G.T. [6797], Brazil K000903973
    Jan 1, 1990 Prance, G.T. [58736], Brazil K000903974
    Jan 1, 1990 Zola Baez, M.G. [428], Mexico K000063660
    Jan 1, 1987 Nee, M. [34965], Brazil K000903961
    Jan 1, 1984 Sperling, C.R. [5653], Brazil K000903957
    Jan 1, 1982 Harley, R.M. [22926], Brazil K000903962
    Jan 1, 1981 Migeod, F. W. H. [88], Cameroon K000028581
    Jan 1, 1981 Ngomba, J.N. [3], Cameroon K000028579
    Jan 1, 1981 Ngomba, J.N. [2], Cameroon K000028580
    Jan 1, 1976 Croat, T.B. [28489], Madagascar K000212298
    Jan 1, 1976 Croat, T.B. [28440], Madagascar K000212300
    Jan 1, 1970 Lindeman, J.C. [1955], Brazil K000903964
    Jan 1, 1968 Irwin, H.S. [19170], Brazil K000903969
    Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4753], Brazil K000903965
    Jan 1, 1965 Klein, R. [5448], Brazil K001058035
    Jun 28, 1905 Jacobs, M. [7173], Philippines K000195885
    Jun 28, 1905 Borden, T.E. [2070], Philippines K000195891
    Jun 28, 1905 Sulit, M.D. [16987], Philippines K000195879
    Jun 28, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [79580], Philippines K000195895
    Jun 28, 1905 Barbon, E.B. [PPI1565], Philippines K000195896
    Jun 28, 1905 Banlugan, G. [72719], Philippines K000195886
    Jun 28, 1905 Elmer, A.D.E. [17677], Philippines K000195883
    Jun 28, 1905 Elmer, A.D.E. [8105], Philippines K000195892
    Jun 28, 1905 Elmer, A.D.E. [15697], Philippines K000195898
    Jun 28, 1905 Elmer, A.D.E. [8788], Philippines K000195899
    Jun 28, 1905 Williams, R.S. [1079], Philippines K000195900
    Jun 28, 1905 Merrill, E.D. [464], Philippines K000195887
    Jun 28, 1905 Merrill, E.D. [361], Philippines K000195893
    Jun 28, 1905 Barnes, F.T. [955], Philippines K000195894
    Jun 27, 1905 Carvalho, ? [4305], Equatorial Guinea K000658420
    Jun 14, 1905 Sellow, F. [s.n.], Brazil K000196566
    Jun 3, 1905 Migeod, F.W.H. [358], Cameroon K000028577
    Jun 3, 1905 Migeod, F.W.H. [358], Cameroon K000028578
    Hubbard, C.E. [2508], Australia K001153861
    Andrews, F.W. [A1415], Sudan K001156018
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F1085], Zambia K001158366
    Harley, R.M. [27292], Brazil K001161262
    Harley, R.M. [22191], Brazil K001161263
    Harley, R.M. [27292], Brazil K001161265
    Hepper, F.N. [6132], Yemen K001151852
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10430], Tanzania K001156768
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10440], Tanzania K001156769
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10387], Tanzania K001156790
    Hunt, D.R. [6329], Brazil K001058023
    Hunt, D.R. [6479], Brazil K001058032
    Philcox, D. [3986], Brazil K001058024
    Philcox, D. [4732], Brazil K001058026
    Womersley, J.S. [24678], Papua New Guinea K001153696
    Whiting, M.M. [100], China K001152438
    Harrison, S.G. [502], Guyana K001162673
    Robertson, S.A. [2781], Seychelles K001158881
    Robertson, S.A. [3015], Seychelles K001158882
    Robertson, S.A. [3093], Seychelles K001158884
    Rodway, G. [1334], Australia K001153867
    Glover, E.C. [3608], Kenya K001156767
    Johnson, L. [1272], Australia K001153879
    Symon, D.E. [4879], Australia K001153855
    Symon, D.E. [4880], Australia K001153856
    Symon, D.E. [4779], Australia K001153857
    Symon, D.E. [s.n.], Australia K001153862
    Symon, D.E. [s.n.], Australia K001153863
    Green, P.S. [1571], Australia K001153880
    Richards, M. [24130], Tanzania K001156781
    Kairo, A. [60], Papua New Guinea K001153693
    Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Australia K001153872
    Wood, J.R.I. [16605], Bolivia K000441077
    Wood, J.R.I. [13577], Bolivia K001162640
    Willis, J.C. [s.n.], British Indian Ocean Territory K000679157
    Willis, J.C. [s.n.], British Indian Ocean Territory K000679158
    Willis, J.C. [s.n.], British Indian Ocean Territory K000679159
    Radcliffe-Smith, A. [3884], Oman K001151854
    Pedersen, T.M. [3079], Argentina K001166690
    Archbold, M.E. [2545], Tanzania K001156783
    Kenneally, K.F. [6095], Australia K001153837
    Coveny, R. [6398], Australia K001153874
    Coveny, R. [6486], Australia K001153875
    Argent, G. [6362], Brazil K001058031
    Conn, B. [323], Papua New Guinea K001153694
    Clarkson, J.R. [5498], Australia K001153838
    Clarkson, J.R. [9357], Australia K001153840
    Henderson, R. [H299], Australia K001153841
    Henderson, R. [H298], Australia K001153842
    Zarucchi, J.L. [4198], Colombia K001162643
    Gardner [1788], Brazil K000532496 syntype
    Krapovickas, A. [41990], Brazil K001058020
    Krapovickas, A. [20006], Argentina K001166684
    Beaman, J.H. [10798], Malaysia K001153377
    Beaman, J.H. [9048], Malaysia K001153378
    Beaman, J.H. [8216], Malaysia K001153379
    Beaman, J.H. [9079], Malaysia K001153380
    Beaman, J.H. [6908], Malaysia K001153392
    Bunting, G.S. [105], Venezuela K001162646
    Hassler, E. [3104], Paraguay K000532497 isolectotype
    Hassler, E. [622], Paraguay K001161269
    Hassler, E. [12197], Paraguay K001161274
    Mori, S.A. [11624], Brazil K001161264
    Whistler, A. [8858], Samoa K000658394
    Welwitsch [6102], Angola K001029775
    Richards, H.M. [4426], Zambia K001158365
    Lugas, L. [2760], Malaysia K001153389
    Bruce, E.M. [524], Tanzania K001156782
    Schipp, W.A. [842], Belize K001160020
    Schomburgk [s.n.], Guyana K001058029
    Irwin, H.S. [10990], Brazil K001058022
    Irwin, H.S. [9141], Brazil K001058025
    Irwin, H.S. [18095], Brazil K001058027
    Irwin, H.S. [9186], Brazil K001058028
    Irwin, H.S. [5865], Brazil K001058030
    Irwin, H.S. [18123], Brazil K001058033
    Irwin, H.S. [13755], Brazil K001058034
    Heringer, E.P. [15204], Brazil K001161284
    Eiten, G. [10152], Brazil K000903955
    Steyermark, J.A. [88968], Venezuela K001162648
    Nee, M. [31258], Venezuela K001162647
    Peck, M.E. [189], Belize K001160019
    Tucker, J.M. [714], El Salvador K001160023
    Amaral, I.L. [808], Brazil K001161261
    Jenman [4573], Guyana K001162669
    Jenman [5131], Guyana K001162670
    Jenman [4510], Guyana K001162671
    Schinini, A. [18228], Argentina K001166680
    Schinini, A. [6806], Argentina K001166693
    Tsang, W.T. [331], China K001152445
    Rodd, A. [1751], Australia K001153878
    Holst, C. [2840] K001156784
    Grimshaw, J.M. [JMG94145], Tanzania K001156778
    Hoare, A. [16], Malaysia K001153390
    Hoare, A. [125], Malaysia K001153391
    Montes, J.E. [3431], Argentina K001166683
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [3401a], Madagascar K001168086
    Cavalerie, J. [7581], China K001152441
    Ekman, E.L. [815], Argentina K001166682
    Swynnerton, C.F.M. [481] K001158368
    Gandoger, M. [17], Tunisia K001152243
    Vandenberg, J. [40062], Papua New Guinea K001153700
    Flenley, J.R. [2192], Papua New Guinea K001153698
    Flenley, J.R. [2192], Papua New Guinea K001153699
    Arvidsson, I. [191], Mauritius K001152242
    Miller, A.G. [7715], Oman K001151853
    Anderson, D.J. [s.n.], China K001152442
    Grossweiler, J. [464], Angola K001029759
    Gaumer, G.F. [479] K001160018
    Lei, C.I. [159], China K001152439
    Henderson, R.J. [H1303], Australia K001153843
    Henderson, R.J. [1358], Australia K001153844
    Henderson, R.J. [1414], Australia K001153845
    Henderson, R.J. [H544], Australia K001153849
    Henderson, R.J. [H563], Australia K001153850
    Henderson, R.J. [H559], Australia K001153851
    Henderson, R.J. [H564], Australia K001153852
    Henderson, R.J. [H1572], Australia K001153853
    Henderson, R.J. [1361] K001168081
    Henderson, R.J. [1356] K001168083
    Henderson, R.J. [1357] K001168084
    Longman, H.A. [s.n.], Australia K001153860
    Gwynne [875], Seychelles K001158896
    Dowson, W.J. [299], Kenya K001156763
    Steward, A.N. [9691], China K001152447
    Coville, F.V. [1256], USA K001159881
    Duaneh, J. [444], Malaysia K001153381
    Duaneh, J. [319], Malaysia K001153384
    Duaneh, J. [320], Malaysia K001153385
    Badcock, W.J. [145], Bolivia K001162641
    Stoddart, D.R. [1053], Seychelles K001168085
    Stoddart, D.R. [1021], Seychelles K001168087
    Stoddart, D.R. [7238a], Mauritius K001158886
    Stoddart, D.R. [1443], Seychelles K001158887
    Stoddart, D.R. [1003], Seychelles K001158890
    Stoddart, D.R. [1383], Seychelles K001158895
    Lowe, J. [4153], Brazil K001161260
    Shabani [513], Tanzania K001156779
    Vanni, R. [731], Argentina K001166689
    Vanni, R. [804], Argentina K001166694
    Schunke Vigo, J. [6077], Peru K001162656
    Keighery, G.J. [1282], Australia K001153836
    Keighery, G.J. [5018], Australia K001153846
    Giraldi, J. [s.n.], China K001152451
    Edwards, D.C. [3104], Kenya K001156760
    Millett [s.n.], China K001152452
    Hill, B. [328], Kenya K001156764
    Balsinhas, A. [647], Mozambique K001158364
    Hu, S.Y. [6781], Hong Kong K001152453
    Hu, S.Y. [5432], Hong Kong K001152455
    Hu, S.Y. [7009], Macao K001152456
    Kerfoot, O. [638], Kenya K001156766
    Fosberg, F.R. [48896], Seychelles K001158894
    Soakai, E. [364], Tonga K001155598
    Lejeune [55], Congo K001155834
    Schäfer, P.A. [7053], Mozambique K001158360
    Hooker, W.J. [s.n.], New Zealand K001152443
    Proctor [4149], Seychelles K001158883
    Milliken [219], Venezuela K001162645
    Iltis, H.H. [744], USA K001168088
    Iltis, H.H. [407], Peru K001162657
    Jansen, P.C.M. [8065], Mozambique K001158363
    Blackmore, S. [77428], Seychelles K001158889
    Kisena [529], Tanzania K001156776
    Shabani, S. [335], Tanzania K001156773
    Hutchinson, P.C. [3458], Peru K001162658
    Merton [7022], Seychelles K001158891
    Saint Clair Thompson, G.W. [854], Tanzania K001156786
    Parodi, L.R. [9346], Argentina K001166685
    Calzada, J.I. [JIC 24498], Mexico K001160017
    Türckheim, H. von [8554], Guatemala K001160024
    Hartweg, K.T. [262], Mexico K001160022
    Seemann, B.C. [535], Panama K001162665
    Everist, S.L. [10054], Australia K001153848
    Everist, S.L. [5606], Australia K001153859
    McDonald, T.J. [548], Australia K001153854
    Lorence, D.H. [M179], Mauritius K000679160
    Balgooy, van [3555], Indonesia K001153374
    Balgooy, van [3555], Indonesia K001153375
    Sibil, J. [171], Malaysia K001153376
    Sibil, J. [252], Malaysia K001153382
    Sibil, J. [317], Malaysia K001153383
    Sibil, J. [48], Malaysia K001153386
    Plowman, T.C. [2709], Argentina K001166679
    Plowman, T.C. [4831], Peru K001162655
    D'Arcy, W.G. [6052], Panama K001162663
    Quarín, C. [357], Argentina K001166691
    Lawlor, D.W. [410], Nigeria K001155674
    Ruiz-Teran, L. [11959], Venezuela K001162668
    Lewis, W.H. [2955], Panama K001162661
    Schwarz, G.J. [4554], Argentina K001166681
    Lugo, S.H. [4003], Ecuador K001162649
    Lugo, S.H. [6082], Ecuador K001162650
    Lugo, S.H. [6094], Ecuador K001162651
    Lugo, S.H. [4291], Ecuador K001162652
    Cárdenas, M. [2154], Bolivia K001162642
    Kisalye, N. [515] K001156758
    Tressens, S.G. [3100], Argentina K001166692
    Anderson, A.B. [1920], Colombia K001162644
    Clubbe, C. [CC 76] K000775148
    Zak, V. [1980], Ecuador K001162660
    Soibeh, D. [51], Malaysia K001153387
    Johnstone, R. [2311], Australia K001153864
    Heath, A. [ARH1023], Botswana K001158367
    Greenaway, J. [50], Montserrat K000703053
    Renvoize, S.A. [3329], Argentina K001166678
    Renvoize, S.A. [1258], Seychelles K001158892
    Renvoize, S.A. [885], Seychelles K001158893
    Oliver, R.L. [2677], Panama K001162662
    Balansa, B. [2108], Paraguay K001161268
    Cuming, H. [999], Peru K001162654
    Corcoran, M.R. [MARC 42] K000703047
    s.coll [7407], Australia K001153870
    s.coll [830], Australia K001153871
    s.coll [69/306], Australia K001153881
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168073
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168074
    s.coll [1362] K001168082
    s.coll [s.n.] K001156017
    s.coll [123], Tanzania K001156780
    s.coll [22] K001158888
    s.coll [183], Costa Rica K001160025
    s.coll [1], Dominica K001160986
    s.coll [R.B168], Guyana K001161256
    s.coll [s.n.] K001162664
    Burne, E. [86], Somalia K001156033
    Millar [15825], Papua New Guinea K001153697
    Baxter, P. [s.n.], Australia K001153847
    Haegi, L. [1607], Australia K001153876
    s.coll. [4269], Madagascar K000212304
    Shabetal, J.R. [4861180], Egypt K001151851
    Barry, R. [9], Australia K001153873
    Rodway, J.A. [735], Australia K001153865
    Rodway, J.A. [1092], Australia K001153866
    Rodway, J.A. [1377], Australia K001153868
    Rodway, J.A. [2258], Australia K001153869
    Gardner [1788], Brazil K000903970
    McDaniel, S. [30219], Peru K001162659
    Simonis, J.E. [125], Paraguay K001161270
    Conn [88], Papua New Guinea K001153695
    Hugh, H. [1593], Peru K001162653
    Bakia, A. [603], Malaysia K001153388
    Herb Morrison, A. [19014], Australia K001153839
    Brunet [37], Seychelles K001158885
    Ren-xin, X. [40], China K001152436
    Zhong-tao, W. [870016], China K001152437
    Fan, C.-.S. [179], China K001152440
    Lim, B.K. [1440], China K001152444
    Chien, S.-.S. [395], China K001152448
    Chun, N.-.K. [40185], Hong Kong K001152450
    Goring, V. [2], Hong Kong K001152454
    Steenis, C.G.G.J. [7839], Indonesia K001153393
    Cunningham, I. [s.n.], Australia K001153858
    McConish, J.D. [46], Australia K001153877
    Herb. Gay, J. [s.n.] K001168072
    Herb. Berro, M.B. [6777], Uruguay K001166686
    Burkett, A. [7643], Argentina K001166687
    Crovetto-Leguizamon, M. [5714], Argentina K001166688
    Tweed, R.D. [s.n.], Argentina K001166695
    Rao, M.K. [64], India K001168075
    Rao, M.K. [58], India K001168076
    Rao, M.K. [54], India K001168077
    Rao, M.K. [57], India K001168078
    Rao, M.K. [56], India K001168079
    Zunguza, D. [597], Mozambique K001158361
    Zunguza, D. [113], Mozambique K001158362
    Ramosa Ventura, L.J. [1143], Mexico K001160016
    Nash, R.C. [R4] K001160021
    Bryant, M. [124], Dominica K001160987
    Prévost, M.-F. [3911], French Guiana K001161257
    Covalo, P. do [80], Brazil K001161259
    Herb. Sagot [453], French Guiana K001162674
    Jan 1, 1990 Andrieux, G. [183], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063832
    Hinton, G.B. [7566], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063829
    Balls, E.K. [B5067], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063828
    Balls, E.K. [B5646], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063830
    Galeotti, H.G. [s.n.] Solanum pterocaulum K001160675
    Coulter, T. [1231], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063827
    Wynd, F.L. [567], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063831
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum pterocaulum K001160676
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum pterocaulum K001160677
    Ruimveldt Managers yard [252], Guyana Solanum curtipes K001163792
    Cardenas, M. [2053], Bolivia Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum K001162700
    White, O.E. [1091], Bolivia Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum K001162701
    Taylor, T.W. [TT131] Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum K001162702
    Sastre, C. [284], French Guiana Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum K001161258
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169846
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169847
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/12], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169848
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/15], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169849
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169850
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169851
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/3], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169852
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169853
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/6], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169854
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/9], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169855
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C116] Solanum ptychanthum K001169856
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C122] Solanum ptychanthum K001169857
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C116] Solanum ptychanthum K001169858
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C116] Solanum ptychanthum K001169859
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C122] Solanum ptychanthum K001169860
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C122] Solanum ptychanthum K001169861
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C122] Solanum ptychanthum K001169862
    Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C116] Solanum ptychanthum K001169863
    Jan 1, 2006 Hildebrandt [3796], Madagascar Solanum imerinense K000212337
    Jan 1, 2006 Hildebrandt [3796], Madagascar Solanum imerinense K000212338
    Jan 1, 2006 Hildebrandt [3796], Madagascar Solanum imerinense K000212339
    Jan 1, 2006 Hildebrandt [3796], Madagascar Solanum imerinense K000212340
    Parker [s.n.], Brazil Solanum oleraceum K000532493
    Kerber, E. [177], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063811
    Bourgeau, E. [115], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063809
    Pringle, C.G. [4948], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063808
    Parry, C.C. [634], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063812
    Greene, B.D. [21], Cuba Solanum oleraceum K001160615
    Graeffe [1480], Samoa Solanum oleraceum K001155566
    Salvin, O. [s.n.], Guatemala Solanum oleraceum K001160614
    Cheeseman, T.F. [618], Cook Is. Solanum oleraceum K001155568
    Schaffner, J.G. [692], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063810
    Schaffner, J.G. [691], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063813
    Bateson, G. [121], Papua New Guinea Solanum oleraceum K001153777
    Whitmee, S.J. [185], Samoa Solanum oleraceum K001155567
    s.coll [s.n.], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K001160617
    Hutchison, P.C. [3853], Peru Solanum inconspicuum K001164180
    Sandwith, N.Y. [970], St. Kitts & Nevis Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160992
    Sandwith, N.Y. [972], St. Kitts & Nevis Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160993
    Broadway, W.E. [6307], Trinidad & Tobago Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161015
    Wright, C. [383], Cuba Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161006
    Ekman, E.L. [H12038], Dominican Republic Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161000
    Sintenis, P. [3513], Puerto Rico Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161002
    Curran, H.M. [64], Netherlands Antilles Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160994
    Northrop, J.I. [557], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161008
    Wilson, P. [7832], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161009
    Wilson, P. [8213], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161010
    Prior, A. [s.n.], Jamaica Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160989
    Fishlock, W.C. [8], British Virgin Is. Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160997
    Fishlock, W.C. [T8], British Virgin Is. Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160998
    Hahn, L. [325], Martinique Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160996
    Wight, A.E. [111], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161012
    Valeur, E.J. [1021], Dominican Republic Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161003
    Valeur, E.J. [1021], Dominican Republic Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161004
    Brace [251], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161001
    Small, J.K. [8805], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161011
    s.coll [s.n.], Jamaica Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160988
    s.coll [s.n.], Trinidad & Tobago Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161014
    Nicholson [s.n.], Antigua & Barbuda Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160995
    Beard, P. [1271], Grenada Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160991
    Beard, P. [1383], St. Vincent & the Grenadines Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160999
    Hermann, H.A. van [633], Cuba Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161005
    Hermann, H.A. van [527], Cuba Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161007
    Simmonds, U.W. [14404], Trinidad & Tobago Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161013
    Purseglove, I.W. [P6309], Trinidad & Tobago Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161016
    Murata, G. [20136], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152488
    Furuse, M. [26892], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152475
    Furuse, M. [46072], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152476
    Furuse, M. [46168], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152477
    Furuse, M. [46168], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152478
    Furuse, M. [26892], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152479
    Furuse, M. [26892], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152480
    Furuse, M. [42834], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152481
    Furuse, M. [42834], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152482
    Furuse, M. [42704], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152483
    Furuse, M. [42704], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152484
    Furuse, M. [44637], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152485
    Furuse, M. [40677], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152486
    Furuse, M. [4837], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152487
    Deighton, F.C. [5660], Sierra Leone Solanum nodiflorum 17715.000
    Lousley, J.E. [605], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001151540
    Sands, M.J.S. [333], Indonesia Solanum nodiflorum K001153536
    Trott, A.C. [29], Saudi Arabia Solanum nodiflorum K001151676
    Ball, J. [s.n.] Solanum nodiflorum K001160561
    Webster, M.M. [2208], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001151541
    Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001151539
    Symon, D.E. [10628], Papua New Guinea Solanum nodiflorum K001153774
    Kairo, A. [10641], Papua New Guinea Solanum nodiflorum K001153775
    Kairo, A. [10639], Papua New Guinea Solanum nodiflorum K001153776
    Linden, J. [250], Mexico Solanum nodiflorum K000063837
    Tucker, J.M. [776], El Salvador Solanum nodiflorum K001160562
    Chase, M.W. [2372K], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001169722
    Conn, B.J. [490] Solanum nodiflorum K001153772
    Conn, B.J. [491] Solanum nodiflorum K001153773
    Lange, J.M.C. [s.n.] Solanum nodiflorum K001151543
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001151542
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum nodiflorum K001151545
    Braun, A.K.H. [s.n.] Solanum nodiflorum K001151544
    Leyland, M. [C9], Saudi Arabia Solanum nodiflorum K001151675
    Blom, C.H. [s.n.], Sweden Solanum nodiflorum K001151321
    Dancer, T. [s.n.], Jamaica Solanum nodiflorum K001161234

    Bibliography

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: Solanum n.° 5 (1768)

    Accepted by

    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
    • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Edmonds & Chweya, Black Nightshades: 22, fig. 3 (1997).
    • J. Adel. Bot. Gard. 4: 37, fig. 1, 148/C, 159/C (1981).
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    • sensu a uctt. et collectt. afr. divers., ab illis saltem pro parte, non L. (1753).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • (2019). https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.123.31738 epublication.
    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
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    • Plant Syst. & Evolution 267: 1 (2007).
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    • Fl. Somalia 3: 207 (2006);
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    • Légum. Afr. Indig.: 377 (2004);
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    • Bothalia 25(1): 47 (1995)
    • D’Arcy & Rakotozafy, Fl. Madag.: 62 (1994)
    • Bothalia 18(1): 82 (1988)
    • Fl. Ceylon 6: 368 (1987)
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/