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  1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Silybum Adans.
      1. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Central Asia and Ethiopia.

    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Biennial herb 0.3–2 m high; stems ribbed, sparsely villous, emerging from a rosette of leaves.
    Leaves
    Leaves pale green, mottled along the veins; rosette leaves obovate in outline, deeply triangular-lobed, 10–50 cm long, 5–25 cm wide, base petiolate, withered at time of flowering; cauline leaves only slightly lobed, ovate-lanceolate in outline, 2–20 cm long, 0.7–8 cm wide, base auriculate and amplexicaul; margins of all leaves strongly spiny-dentate, sparsely pilose.
    Capitulum
    Capitula terminal and solitary; involucre 2.5–4 cm long; phyllaries with an appressed ovate base, widening abruptly to an ovate appendage which recurves in the outer phyllaries, 1–4.5 cm long, with acuminate pungent apex; inner phyllaries without appendage.
    Flowers
    Corolla blue-violet, tube filiform, 22–25 mm long, lobes 7–9 mm long, erect.
    Fruits
    Achenes brown with black streaks, obovoid, 6–7 mm long, slightly compressed; pappus 15–22 mm long, connate into a basal ring and falling as a unit.
    Figures
    Fig. 13.
    Habitat
    Not indicated; presumably a farm weed; ± 2350 m
    Distribution
    K3 adventive, a native of the Mediterranean and the Middle East
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 2500 - 4000 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Denmark, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Georgia, Great Britain, Hainan, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Ireland, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Korea, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Malaya, Manchuria, Mexico Southeast, Michigan, Mississippi, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Saskatchewan, South Australia, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Xinjiang

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2018 Cassini, A.G.H. [s.n.], France K000778277 holotype
    32345.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 378 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Edmondson, J.R. & Hind, D.J.N. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Iraq 6: 1-458. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ali, S.I. & Qaiser, M. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Pakistan 223: 1-363. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006). Asteraceae, Part 1 Flora of North America North of Mexico 19(1): 1-579. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Flora of China Editorial Committee (1988-2013). Checklist & Addendum Flora of China Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006). Asteraceae, Part 1 Flora of North America North of Mexico 19(1): 1-579. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 228 (1994).
    • C. Jeffrey in Kew Bulletin 22: 131 (1968).
    • Gaertn., Fruct. & Sem. 2: 378, t. 162/2 (1791).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/