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  1. Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Sonchus L.
      1. Sonchus oleraceus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Europe to Medit., Sahara to Arabian Peninsula. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 580 - 3900 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Annual or biennial herb, 0.1–1.4 m high; stems (glaucous) green with reddish or purplish tinge, slightly succulent, hollow, stout and erect, simple or branched, ridged, glabrous or sometimes glandular-setose near the inflorescence.
    Leaves
    Leaves dull green, often glaucous beneath, (ob-)lanceolate in outline, entire to pinnatilobed, 4–30 cm long, 1–9(–17) cm wide, base amplexicaul, auriculate with sagittate auricles, blade pinnatilobed to pinnatipartite, midrib narrowly winged and toothed, lobes few, reflexed, coarsely dentate, sometimes with spinulose teeth, the apical lobe ovate-hastate, apex rounded or acute, glabrous; distal leaves becoming smaller and less lobed to subentire.
    Capitulum
    Capitula few to many in lax leafy corymbs or panicles; involucre 10–13 mm long; phyllaries green with paler tips, lanceolate, 2.5–13 mm long, obtuse, glabrous but for the ciliate apex, or rarely glandular-setose on the midrib, the outer becoming swollen at base.
    Florets
    Florets many; corolla yellow, tube cylindric, 6–7.5 mm long, ligule 5.5–6 mm long.
    Fruits
    Achenes (reddish)brown, narrowly obovoid, slightly flattened, 2.5–4 mm long, ribbed, minutely muricate; pappus white, 7–8 mm long.
    Figures
    Fig. 25.
    Habitat
    Ruderal sites, roadsides, weed of cultivation, a pioneer at the edges of bare soil; 950–2650 m
    Distribution
    native to Eurasia and North Africa, now a cosmopolitan weed K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U2
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Habit
    Herb.
    Ecology
    Alt. 580 - 3900 m.
    Distribution
    Introduced in Colombia.
    [FWTA]

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A coarse erect annual herb 1-3 ft. high
    Exudate
    A milky sap
    Indumentum
    Occasionally with glular hairs on stems peduncles
    Florets
    Florets yellow
    Note
    A weed.
    [FZ]

    Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

    Habit
    A stout erect annual herb.
    Stem
    Stem up to c. 150 cm. tall, simple or sparsely branched in the upper half, leafy hollow usually reddish-tinged often glaucous, stem and branches glabrous or sometimes ± densely glandular-setose and somewhat viscid, setae up to c. 1 mm. long patent purplish; branches up to c. 45 cm. long ascending.
    Leaves
    All leaves ± spathulate at first, often deeply laciniate in depauperate specimens. Lower leaves crowded, up to c. 28 x 9 cm., ± oblanceolate in outline, usually pinnately-lobed to coarsely runcinate-pinnatipartite, each with a broadly ovate-hastate apical lobe rounded to acute at the apex; margins usually coarsely and somewhat irregularly dentate with spinulose-acicular teeth; midrib narrowly winged, ± auriculate and semi-amplexicaul below; auricles ± sagittate-spreading, entire to dentate. Upper leaves sessile, smaller, lanceolate, ± deeply lobed to subentire, coarsely and sharply dentate on the margins, basal auricles usually large with acute spreading lobes.
    Capitulum
    Capitula stalked, many in corymbiform cymes, stalks glabrous or glandular-setose; involucres up to c. 13 mm. long and 10 mm. in diam., very broadly cylindrical later spreading, densely white tomentose below soon glabrescent, involucre becoming swollen in fruiting capitula.
    Phyllaries
    Phyllaries many-seriate imbricate increasing in length from c. 3 mm. on the outside to c. 13 mm. inside, narrowly lanceolate, glaucous, glabrous except for ciliate apicies and occasionally 1-several large glandular-setae up to c. 2 mm. long along the midrib, the midribs below becoming swollen and corky.
    Florets
    Florets numerous; corollas yellow up to c. 13 mm. long, tube slender and pubescent above, ligule c. 5.5 mm. long and strap-shaped.
    Fruits
    Achenes light to reddish-brown, up to c. 3 x 1 mm., narrowly obovoid and somewhat flattened, ± uniformly many-ribbed; ribs minutely muricate with numerous retrorse projections.
    Pappus
    Pappus white copious c. 7 mm. long, composed of barbellate setae intermixed with down-like hairs.
    [FWTA]

    Compositae, C. D. Adams. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An erect herb 2-10 ft. high with glabrous striate hollow stems
    Inflorescences
    Campanulate flower-heads 3/4 in. long with pale yellow florets.
    [UPB]
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Used in liquid medicines (Lagos-López 2007).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Burkina, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Altay, Amur, Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Buryatiya, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Chatham Is., Chile Central, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Fiji, Free State, Galápagos, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Inner Mongolia, Irkutsk, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Line Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sakhalin, Society Is., South Australia, South China Sea, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tubuai Is., Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Wake I., West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Cerraja, serraja, ñilgüe, canayuyo, casha cerraja, cerrajo.

    Other Data

    Sonchus oleraceus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [203], Cape Verde K001134171
    Nov 1, 2012 Gardner, G. [521], Brazil K000895166
    Jan 1, 2009 Margwe, B. [19], Tanzania K000614954
    Jul 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [457], Cameroon K000746087
    Nov 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD4113], Bahia K000054018
    Jul 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3374], Bahia K000054017
    Jun 1, 1996 Hind, D.J.N. [PCD3173], Bahia K000054019
    Oct 1, 1993 Guedes, M.L. [8], Bahia K000054022
    Sep 1, 1993 Hind, D.J.N. [H50476], Bahia K000054020
    Apr 1, 1993 Noblick, L.R. [3914], Bahia K000054023
    Dec 1, 1991 Hind, D.J.N. [29], Bahia K000054021
    Aug 1, 1975 Letouzey, R. [14245], Cameroon K000027681
    Ratter, J.A. [3676], Brazil K001100163
    Ratter, J.A. [3677], Brazil K001100164
    Kotschy [163] K090251854
    Drege, South Africa K000251712 Unknown type material
    Vogel, T. [68], Cape Verde K001134172
    Vogel, T. [36], Cape Verde K001134173
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118927
    Sellow [423], Brazil K001100166
    Kirk, T. [1402], New Zealand K001325082
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 117], United Kingdom K000914419
    Strang, H.E. [517], Brazil K001100165
    Cardoso, D. [1348], Brazil K001031938
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118922
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118923
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252] K001118924
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118925
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3252], India K001118926
    Burchell [1732], Brazil K000955823
    Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9463], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000108711
    Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9173], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000108712
    May 1, 1997 Cheek, M. [8501], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000338029
    Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [2651], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027621
    Jan 1, 1952 Boughey, A.S. [6966], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027769
    Jan 1, 1949 Brenan, J.P.M. [9390], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027699
    Jan 1, 1949 Brenan, J.P.M. [9390A], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027700
    Keay, R.W.J. [28637], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027762
    Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.64], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027754
    Maitland, T.D. [682], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027756
    Maitland, T.D. [260], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027757
    Maitland, T.D. [991], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027758
    Maitland, T.D. [1750], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027755
    Hutchinson, J. [24], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027759
    Mann [s.n.], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000251852
    Breteler, F.J. [MC 23], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027768
    Mann G. [1919], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027771 Unknown type material
    Mann G. [1311], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027770 Unknown type material
    Dunlap [200], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027763
    Deistel, H. [616], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027760
    Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10843], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027761
    Hambler, D. J. [173], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027751
    Hambler, D. J. [173], Cameroon Sonchus angustissimus K000027752
    Philippi, R.A. [s.n.], Chile Sonchus oleraceus var. lacerus K000959924

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 794 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Edmondson, J.R. & Hind, D.J.N. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Iraq 6: 1-458. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
    • Koyama, H., Bunwong, S., Pornpongrungrueng, P. & Hind, D.J.N. (2016). Flora of Thailand 13(2): 143-428. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Asteraceae Flora of China 20-21: 1-992. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006). Asteraceae, part 1 Flora of North America North of Mexico 19: 1-579. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 171.
    • Chev. Bot. 379
    • F.T.A. 3: 457
    • Sp. Pl. 794 (1753)

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
    • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Koyama, H., Bunwong, S., Pornpongrungrueng, P. & Hind, D.J.N. (2016). Flora of Thailand 13(2): 143-428. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 230 (1994).
    • A.J. Scott in Fl. Masc. 109: 42, t. 12 (1993).
    • G.V. Pope in Flora Zambesiaca 6: 229 (1992).
    • Lawalrée, Dethier & Gilissen in Flore d'Afrique Centrale Compositae: Cichorioideae: 32 (1986).
    • Boulos in Bot. Notis. 127: 155 (1974).
    • C. Jeffrey in Kew Bulletin 18: 481 (1966).
    • C.D. Adams in Flora of West Tropical Africa ed. 2, 2: 296 (1963).
    • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 185 (1962).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 50 (1956).
    • R.E. Fr. in Acta Horti Berg. 8: 95 (1924).
    • Oliv. & Hiern in Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 457, pro parte (1877).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 794 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/