1. Taraxacum officinale aggr. Anon.

    1. Dandelions are well-known, robust weeds; vernacular names for the dandelion include 'wet-the-bed' and 'pissy-beds', which refer to the belief that just touching part of a dandelion can cause bed-wetting. Dandelion fruiting heads are familiar to children as dandelion clocks, which are used to 'tell the time' by the number of blows taken to remove the fruits (for this reason dandelions are often known as 'blowballs' in the USA).

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
Commonly known as dandelion, Taraxacum officinale has many culinary and medicinal uses, despite being generally regarded as a weed.

Dandelions are well-known, robust weeds; vernacular names for the dandelion include 'wet-the-bed' and 'pissy-beds', which refer to the belief that just touching part of a dandelion can cause bed-wetting. Dandelion fruiting heads are familiar to children as dandelion clocks, which are used to 'tell the time' by the number of blows taken to remove the fruits (for this reason dandelions are often known as 'blowballs' in the USA).

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Taraxacum officinale is native to Eurasia. The genus Taraxacum has a wide, cosmopolitan distribution, with species found as far afield as Mexico and South America.

Description

The common name derives from the French ' dent de lion ', meaning 'lion's tooth', which refers to the deeply toothed, deep green leaves, which are in rosettes.

The bright yellow flower heads are borne on hollow stalks and the fruiting heads have a distinctive downy appearance.

As most British dandelions produce fruit without being fertilised (they are apomictic), substantial problems arise with the taxonomy of these plants. This group is a complex consisting of around 200 microspecies, and is typically treated as a species aggregate, denoted as Taraxacum officinale agg. In reality, the specimen that was used to describe the species first of all has turned out to be a microspecies restricted to Lapland, and it is not the same as the plants seen in grassland, lawns and along path edges in Britain. Trying to identify the microspecies has turned into a science of its own, with the experts termed 'taraxacologists'!

The dandelion is a perennial plant, and flowers throughout the year. Dandelions have deep taproots, and the whole plant contains a milky fluid known as latex. The flowerheads close at night, and can produce around 2,000 wind-dispersed fruits. Plants can also regenerate from pieces of the taproot.

Uses

Although generally regarded as a weed, dandelions have many uses, both culinary and medicinal.

Taraxacum officinale has diuretic and laxative properties. It has been used as a tonic, to treat rheumatic problems, and as a blood purifier. Young leaves and inflorescences are used as ingredients in salads and stir-fries.

Blanched hearts (obtained by earthing up or tying the leaves together) are also eaten. The flowerheads are used to make dandelion wine, while the bitter root can be dried to make a substitute for coffee, a practice that was common during the rationing of the Second World War.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Search Kew's Seed Information Database for further information on Taraxacum officinale seeds

Cultivation

Taking the fruits from dandelion clocks can provide hundreds of plants if they are sown onto an all-purpose compost in deep pots, to accommodate the roots, or straight onto open soil. Plants are likely to start flowering in their second year. There are seed suppliers who stock a thick-leaved variety, more suitable for growing as a salad vegetable.

The dandelion is so successful at colonising abandoned areas of the garden that no help is really needed to grow it. The plentiful one-seeded fruits are carried on the wind and can travel relatively long distances so neglecting a garden will usually ensure that this plant appears. Removing it is more difficult, as the long, thick taproots will delve down deeply into a border or lawn and even in cracks in paving, making them hard to remove completely. Chopping off the top of the plant is not enough to kill it as it will sprout again from the remaining roots. Rabbits love the leaves so if you have one as a pet it may appreciate a patch of dandelions being allowed to grow in a corner of the garden. The flowers and fruiting heads are attractive but this plant can soon take over and, because it is so strongly associated with a poorly kept garden, deliberate cultivation is rare.

Distribution
United Kingdom
Ecology
Found in a very wide variety of habitats, but tends to thrive in disturbed sites such as lawns, paths, waste ground, pastures and road verges. Some species are found in natural or semi-natural habitats, including fens, sand dunes and chalk grassland.
Conservation
Extremely common and widespread.
Hazards

Not recorded

Images

Distribution

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Antipodean Is., Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Bolivia, British Columbia, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, East Himalaya, Falkland Is., Florida, Free State, Georgia, Greenland, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kerguelen, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lesotho, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Georgia, Swaziland, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zimbabwe

Common Names

English
Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale aggr. Anon. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
[Ballo]., E.K. [4105], Mexico K000222225 holotype
Cope, T.A. [RBG 336], United Kingdom K000914427
Cope, T.A. [RBG 320], United Kingdom K000914428
Cope, T.A. [RBG 320], United Kingdom K000914429
Cope, T.A. [RBG 316], United Kingdom K000914431
Cope, T.A. [RBG 46], United Kingdom K000914432
Cope, T.A. [RBG 317], United Kingdom K000914430
Day, C.D. [170], Turkey Taraxacum dens-leonis K000341628
Day, C.D. [77], Turkey Taraxacum dens-leonis K000341627

Accepted by

  • GCC in GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2006). Asteraceae, part 1 Flora of North America North of Mexico 19: 1-579. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Not accepted by

  • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2011). Compositae. Euro+Med Plantbase The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp. [Cited as Taraxacum campylodes.]

Literature

Kew Species Profiles
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book. A Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Preston, C. D., Pearman, D. A. & Dines, T. D. (2002). The New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Mabey, R. (1996). Flora Britannica. Sinclair-Stevenson, London.
  • Press, B. & Gibbons, B (1993). Photographic Field Guide to Wild Flowers of Britain and Europe. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd, London.
  • Clapham, A. R., Tutin, T. G. & Moore, D. M. (1987). Flora of the British Isles. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (Feb 2003)
  • New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Ltd. Taraxacum officinale. (Feb 2003).

Sources

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
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