Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, S. India. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

[FTEA]

Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

Type
Lectotype: Madagascar, Thouars (B–W, holo., K!, photo), presumably chosen by W.G. D’Arcy in Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 66: 269 (1979)
Morphology General Habit
Slender branched, procumbent or weakly ascending herb, up to 40 cm, rooting at the nodes and sometimes along internodes.
Morphology Stem
Stems quadrangular, glabrous to ± pilose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 10–35 mm long, 7–16 mm broad, rounded at base,  ± acute at apex, margins crenate-serrate, sparsely pubescent, at least on the veins; petioles 4–9 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, solitary or a few together on a short leafless peduncle; bracteoles at the base of the pedicels linear, 2–5 mm long; pedicels 1.5–3 cm long, usually reflexing in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx slightly winged, at least in fruit, 5–6 mm long in flower, up to 10 mm long in fruit, with 2 short acute teeth on the upper lip and 3 on the lower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 9–10 mm long, white, variably suffused mauve or deep blue, sometimes with red spots in throat
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong-ellipsoid, shorter than calyx, 7.5–9 mm long, ± 3 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pitted
Figures
Fig 22: 1–6, p 64
Ecology
Wet sandy soil, often shady, and by streams or pools; 0–1400 m
Conservation
Least Concern (LC); widespread
Distribution
Range: Throughout much of lowland tropical Africa, Madagascar, Asia and America Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K3 K7 T1 T3 T4 T6 T7 T 8ZP

[FWTA]

Scrophulariaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Slender branched procumbent or weakly ascending herb, rooting at nodes and sometimes along internodes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers mauve or white
Ecology
In moist places.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Alt. 200 - 1400 m.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 200 - 1400 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Orinoquia.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FZ]

Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

Morphology General Habit
Slender, straggling, procumbent or weakly ascending; stems simple or branched up to 40 cm. or more long, subpilose or often glabrous, quadrangular, sometimes rooting at nodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 12–20(30) x 8–15 mm., broadly lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, shortly patent hirsute, acute or obtuse at apex, rounded, subtruncate or shortly cuneate at base, serrate to serrate-crenate, margin occasionally thickened.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 0.5–3 mm. long, hirsute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or pink, through blue to purple or mauve, solitary axillary or more usually 2–6 together, fascicled or on very small leafless branches.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts 1.25–4 mm. long, narrowly linear.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 4–22 mm. long, hirsute, somewhat reflexed in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5–6 mm. long, up to 10 mm. long at fruiting, sparingly hirsute to subglabrous, narrowly winged, markedly so at fruiting.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 10–12 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 7–9.5 mm. long, 2.5–3.25 mm. in diam., narrowly oblong-ellipsoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds pale yellow.

[FTEA]
Use
None recorded on specimens from our area

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Assam, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Guyana, Mauritius, Myanmar, Panamá, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

Torenia thouarsii (Cham. & Schltdl.) Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
May 1, 2010 Festo, L. [2182], Tanzania K000450823
May 1, 2010 Festo, L. [2182], Tanzania K000630350
Jul 2, 2009 Wallnöfer, B. et al. [5892], Guatemala K000634284
Jul 2, 2009 Ritter [2989], Bolivia K000634285
Oct 1, 2008 Etuge, M. [5125], Cameroon K000199850
Dec 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9561], Cameroon K000198181
Jan 1, 1998 Watts, J. [1150], Cameroon K000011869
Jan 1, 1992 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1277], Cameroon K000518907
Jan 1, 1974 Hildebrandt, J.M. [986], Tanzania K000405142 syntype
Milne-Redhead, E. [7518], Tanzania 24526.000
Pennell, F.W. [1531], Colombia K000533505 isotype
Harris, T. [305], Mozambique K000613741
Welwitsch [5910], Angola K001008562
Kirk [s.n.], Tanzania K001008560
Welwitsch [5913], Angola K001008563
Welwitsch [5917], Angola K001008561
Gossweiler, J. [5900], Angola K001008564
Gossweiler, J. [5924], Angola K001008565

First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 468 (1891)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Harris, D.J. (2002). Vasc. Pl. Dzanga-Sangha: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Prasad, M.G. & Sunojkumar, P. (2015). Taxonomic identity of Torenia leucosiphon (Linderniaceae) and its resurrection from synonymy of Torenia travancorica Phytotaxa 219(1): 144-154.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2016). Flore du Gabon 48: 1-158. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Literature

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 468 (1891).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Prasad, M.G. & Sunojkumar, P. (2015). Taxonomic identity of Torenia leucosiphon (Linderniaceae) and its resurrection from synonymy of Torenia travancorica Phytotaxa 219(1): 144-154.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Z.Wu & P.H.Raven (eds.) (1998). Flora of China 18: 1-449. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 363 (1963)
  • F.Z.: 8(2): 57, t. 22/A1–6 (1990)
  • F1. Masc. 129: 17 (2000)
  • Fischer, F.A.C. Scrophulariaceae: 188, pl. 80 (1999)
  • Rev. Gen. P1. 2: 468 (1891)
  • U.K.W.F.: 256 (1994)

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0