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The nettle is well known for its toothed, hairy leaves and for its sting. The painful sensation of nettle stings occurs when toxins from specialised hairs are delivered into the skin. Each stinging hair has a bulbous tip which breaks off to leave a sharp, needle-like tube that pierces the skin and injects histamine and acetylcholine, causing itching and burning that may last up to 12 hours.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 2440 - 2600 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

The nettle is one of the most useful plants in Britain and even its sting can be beneficial. The painful sensation of nettle stings occurs when toxins from specialised hairs are delivered into the skin. Each stinging hair has a bulbous tip which breaks off to leave a sharp, needle-like tube that pierces the skin and injects histamine and acetylcholine, causing itching and burning that may last up to 12 hours.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Urtica dioica is widespread through Europe and North America, and also occurs in North Africa and parts of Asia. There are naturalised populations in several other parts of the world.

Description

This species is a herbaceous perennial, which grows as an upright plant to 2 m tall. The soft, serrated leaves are opposite each other in pairs on the stem. The leaves and the rest of the plant are coated in stinging and non-stinging hairs. The plant spreads by underground roots which are noticeably yellow. The tiny greenish-white flowers, each with four petals, are densely clustered on elongated inflorescences towards the top of the stem. Urtica dioica is divided into at least five subspecies, each of which is slightly different.

Threats and conservation

This plant is not threatened and is a common weed.

The stinging nettle is of great benefit to UK wildlife, and its growth is often actively encouraged by conservation groups. It supports over 40 species of insects, including small tortoiseshell and peacock butterflies.

Uses

Nettles have been used for centuries for a multitude of purposes, and continue to be harvested from the wild for food and medicine today.

Nettles are eaten as a vegetable; cooking will destroy the stings. The tender, young shoots and leaves - the most palatable parts - are the main ingredient in nettle soup, which has a reputation for 'cleansing the blood'. Historically, puddings and beer were made with nettles. Today, the mature leaves are used in the production of cheese (notably Cornish Yarg) and in pesto, cordials and herbal tea. Nettles have also been used to yield vegetable protein similar to tofu made from soya ( Glycine max ). In some parts of Britain (eg Orkney) the leaves are traditionally fed to pigs to fatten them.

Nettles have been used for a variety of medicinal purposes. A tonic prepared from the leaves is still among the most popular plant remedies used today. One traditional remedy for rheumatism involves deliberately stinging the afflicted area with nettle leaves! While this may seem strange, research has shown that nettle stings have anti-inflammatory properties that disrupt the NF-κB pathway and inhibit other inflammatory responses. Extracts of the root are used to treat benign prostate hyperplasia. Scientists have identified a variety of biochemical properties in extracts of nettles that support their uses in herbal medicine.

Nettle stems contain tough fibres and can be used in textiles; the fibre was widely used to this effect in Germany and Austria during the First World War. Nettles can also be used for dyeing fabric. Horticulturalists sometimes use nettles, which are rich in nutrients, to produce a type of liquid plant feed. The leaves are used in cosmetics.

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: Four

Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox - the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB

Germination testing: Successful

Composition values: Oil content 23.1 - 32.6%, Protein 15.5%

Cultivation

Although not cultivated at Kew, this perennial species is planted as a crop elsewhere. Until recently it was cultivated in Scotland, Denmark and Norway for use in food, textile and medical industries. This species can be propagated by seed or by rhizome (that is an underground stem that grows horizontally) division. Abundant seed is produced and can be collected in late autumn, before frost causes seed-fall. The seed does not pass through a dormant stage and can germinate just days after maturity. Open ground is preferred for germination. Rhizome division can be carried out from spring through to late summer.

As deep, rich soils are preferred by this species, a substrate rich in organic matter is recommended, with nutrition added. This species responds well to generous watering. Given the tendency to flop, it is recommended that nettles be grown with support, such as that provided by pea sticks if a neat appearance is required. Control of the spread of the rhizomes can be carried out by using a pot or polyurethane barrier in the soil.

If the purpose of cultivation is to provide for butterflies, large discrete clumps should be grown where eggs will usually be laid on leaves on the outside of the clumps. As young foliage is generally preferred, cutting can be carried out to produce fresh growth. Gloves are required for handling the plants.

Where to see this species at Kew

This species is not cultivated at Kew. However, a natural population is allowed to grow in the Natural Areas (Conservation Area) where it is of benefit to the native fauna. Nettles can usually be seen close to the Badger Sett. Nettles are a food source for many butterfly and moth larvae, and ladybirds benefit from the aphids that thrive there. The numerous seeds produced in late summer are an important food source for many native birds.

What would you use nettles for?

Nettles are one of the popular plant remedies used in the United Kingdom. Kew is collecting people's memories of nettles and other plant remedies for the Ethnomedica project. Many people remember using nettles in a tonic and to relieve rheumatism. What would you use nettles for?

If you would like to share your remembered remedies with us, please email ethnomedica@kew.org. 

Distribution
United Kingdom, USA
Ecology
Wasteland, hedgerows, fields and woods. Nettles do particularly well in soils with high levels of nitrogen and are often found growing around abandoned buildings.
Conservation
Classified as Least Concern by IUCN Red List criteria.
Hazards

Nettle stings are irritating and poisonous but are very rarely serious.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Alt. 2440 - 2600 m.
Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[KSP]
Use
Food, medicine, textiles, plant feed, cosmetics.

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Digestive System Disorders
Leaves - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Genitourinary System Disorders
Leaves - Used in liquid medicines as a diuretic (Lagos-López 2007).
Use Medicines Muscular-Skeletal System Disorders
Used in poultices; used in liquid medicines to treat rheumatism (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Respiratory System Disorders
Leaves - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
Used in the treatment of hair loss (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010). Leaves - Used in liquid medicines in the treatment of skin allergies (Lagos-López 2007).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Social
Social uses (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Assam, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, Chita, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Ecuador, Eritrea, Falkland Is., Florida, Georgia, Greenland, Guatemala, Libya, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward I., Québec, Svalbard, Tennessee, Tristan da Cunha, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia

English
Nettle
Spanish
Ortiga mayor, ortiga.

Urtica dioica L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2011 Day, C.D. [721], Turkey K000341581
Cope, T.A. [RBG 17], Great Britain K000914036

First published in Sp. Pl.: 984 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1937). Flora Turkmenii 2: 1-217. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chrtek, J. (1974). Flora Iranica 105: 1-16. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghafoor, A. (1981). Flora of Pakistan 137: 1-25. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Gubanov, I.A. & al. (2013). Illiustrirovannyi opredelitel rastenii Srednei Rossii, ed. 2, 2: 1-664. KMK Scientific Press, Moskva.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2000). Flora Nordica 1: 1-344. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Mao, A.A., Odyuo, N., Verma, D. & Singh, P. (2017). Checklist of Flora of Nagaland: 1-196. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Weigend, M. & Luebert, F. (2009). Weeding the nettles I: Clarifying species limits in perennial, rhizomatous Urtica (Urticaceae) from southern and central Chile and Argentina Phytotaxa 2: 1-12.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Davidson, A. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food. 2nd Ed.Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Dennis, L. (ed.) (1992). The Ecology of Butterflies in Britain. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Grieve, M. (1984). A Modern Herbal. Edited by Mrs C. F. Leyel. Savvas Publishing, Adelaide; Jonathan Cape Limited, London.
  • Jellin, J.M., Gregory, P.J., et al. (2008). Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 10th Ed. Therapeutic Research Faculty, Stockton.
  • Milliken, W. & Bridgewater, S. (2004). Flora Celtica – People and Plants in Scotland. Birlinn, Edinburgh.
  • Prendergast, H.D.V. & Sanderson, H. (2004). Britain's Wild Harvest: the Commercial Uses of Wild Plants and Fungi. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Riehemann, K. (1999). Plant extracts from stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica), an antirheumatic remedy, inhibit the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. FEBS Letters. 442: 89-94.
  • Stuart, M. (ed.) (1979). Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism. Orbis, London.
  • Thurston, E.L. (1974). Morphology, fine structure and ontogeny of the stinging emergence of Urtica dioica. American Journal of Botany. 67: 809-817.
  • USDA Forestry Service (2009). Index of Species Information: Urtica dioica (accessed online 29 September 2009).
  • Warren, P. (2006). 101 uses for stinging nettles. Wildeye, UK.
  • Williamson, E.M. (2003). Potter's Herbal Cyclopaedia. C.W. Daniel, Saffron Walden.

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Cuervo, S. (1999). Origen de las tecnologías agrícolas en el altiplano boyacense. Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas. Tunja. Colombia
  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Lagos-López, M. (2007). Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. Actualidades Biológicas, 29(86), 87-96.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1937). Flora Turkmenii 2: 1-217. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chrtek, J. (1974). Flora Iranica 105: 1-16. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 7: 1-947. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghafoor, A. (1981). Flora of Pakistan 137: 1-25. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2000). Flora Nordica 1: 1-344. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1953). Flora Uzbekistana 2: 1-547. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Mao, A.A., Odyuo, N., Verma, D. & Singh, P. (2017). Checklist of Flora of Nagaland: 1-196. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Weigend, M. & Luebert, F. (2009). Weeding the nettles I: Clarifying species limits in perennial, rhizomatous Urtica (Urticaceae) from southern and central Chile and Argentina Phytotaxa 2: 1-12.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/