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  1. Family: Convolvulaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cuscuta L.
      1. Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L.

        Cuscuta epithymum is a rootless, wholly parasitic plant that occurs most commonly on heather (Calluna vulgaris), gorse (Ulex europaeus) and clover (Trifolium) species. Clover dodder is native to Europe, but occurs almost worldwide. It is a member of the Convolvulaceae family, which includes Ipomoea and Convolvulus species, many of which are commonly known as bindweed and morning glory. Clover dodder is normally insect-pollinated, but can also self-pollinate. Studies have shown that flowers are visited by many different insects, including ants, bees and wasps.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Cuscuta epithymum is a rootless, wholly parasitic plant that occurs most commonly on heather (Calluna vulgaris), gorse (Ulex europaeus) and clover (Trifolium) species. Clover dodder is native to Europe, but occurs almost worldwide. It is a member of the Convolvulaceae family, which includes Ipomoea and Convolvulus species, many of which are commonly known as bindweed and morning glory. Clover dodder is normally insect-pollinated, but can also self-pollinate. Studies have shown that flowers are visited by many different insects, including ants, bees and wasps.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Although clover dodder is native to Europe, it has since spread across six continents, giving it an almost worldwide occurrence. However, the genus Cuscuta does not occur at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere or in desert areas of Africa and Asia. Small, remote islands such as the Galapagos Islands also lack species of this genus. Introduction of clover dodder to non-native areas can follow unintentional import of seeds of C. epithymum in forage crops.

    Description

    Overview: Clover dodder is a rootless, parasitic plant in which leaves are reduced to minute scales. Its stems are hairless, thread-like (0.25-0.40 mm in thickness) and can be yellow, red or purplish in colour.

    Flowers: Clusters of 7-25 stalkless, purplish flowers are arranged in a compact, sphere. Flowers are 2.5-3.0 mm long and have five sepals and petals. The sepals come together to form a cup shape, each individual sepal being longer than it is wide. The corolla tube (a tubular structure formed when all petals in a flower are united) is longer than the cup-shaped sepal assemblage. Stamens (male parts) protrude from the flowers and have oval shaped anthers (pollen-bearing parts). Within flowers, the style (female structure) extends from the top of the ovary and is usually as long as the ovary.

    Fruits: The fruit is a spherical capsule, which opens along its circumference and is topped by the withered petals. Each capsule contains four small seeds about 1 mm in diameter.

    There are six varieties of Cuscuta epithymum , which are distinguished by differences in their flower structure as well as the number of flowers and how they are grouped.

    Invasion of the host plant

    Clover dodder seeds germinate April-July in response to seasonal temperature changes. A swollen, root-like organ emerges from the seed but can only survive for a few days and hence must find a host plant quickly. When a host is found, clover dodder grows a sucker that attaches to it. The root-like organ then withers and clover dodder continues to grow using nutrients stolen from the host plant through the sucker.

    Cells of the sucker produce an adhesive substance that works as an effective glue. Within the tissue of the sucker, an intrusive organ (haustorium) develops and directly penetrates the host tissue to create a bridge between host and parasite. This direct contact enables rapid growth and is one of the reasons why Cuscuta species are the most rapidly growing parasitic plants.

    Parasitic life

    Clover dodder stems wind counter-clockwise around the host plant as it grows. New haustoria (organs that penetrate the host tissue) develop close together wherever the dodder stem produces tight coils as it climbs up the host plant. These tight coils alternate with looser coils that search for new host branches or new hosts to parasitize. Extent of growth depends on the clover dodder's compatibility with the host and vigour of the host plant.

    When growing on perennial hosts, Cuscuta epithymum induces the formation of galls (growths of host tissue) where parasitic tissue is able to overwinter. The following spring, new clover dodder plants develop from these galls. 

    Threats and conservation

    In north west Europe, Cuscuta epithymum flourishes on heathland that are 0-3 years old. Disturbance resulting from turf-cutting, burning or mowing of heathland aids the germination of clover dodder seeds. European dry heath is usually managed on a rotational basis, which maintains a high level of biodiversity. Clover dodder seeds may lie dormant, which extends germination potential over several years, and this is crucial for the persistence of this species. In this way it can build up a 'seed bank' within the soil to cope with the dynamic nature of managed heathland. However, if a heathland remains unmanaged for a long period of time or if the seed banks are too small or not viable for long enough for successful reestablishment, local extinction of clover dodder may occur.

    Uses

    Clover dodder is used in traditional medicine as a purgative and to treat disorders of the liver, spleen and urinary tract. However, there has been little scientific investigation into the actual effectiveness of its use.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Two collections of Cuscuta epithymum seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

    See Kew's Seed Information Database for further information on C. epithymum seeds

    This species at Kew

    Clover dodder is not currently recorded at Kew, but the related species Cuscuta europaea (greater dodder) can be seen growing on Scutellaria altissima (tall skullcap) in the Plant Family Beds at Kew.

    Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of C. epithymum are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these specimens, including images, can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

    Specimens of the flowers and seeds of C. epithymum , as well specimens of it growing on heather, are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

    UK Virtual Herbarium Project

    Cuscuta epithymum is one of 50 species on the Botanical Society of the British Isles (BSBI) Threatened Plants Project list. The herbarium specimens of these species are being digitised as part of the UK Virtual Herbarium Project.

    Find out how you can help in this project by visiting the herbaria@home website

    Ecology
    Common in disturbed areas, especially disturbed heathland; also in grassland.
    Conservation
    Vulnerable (VU) in Great Britain according to IUCN Red List criteria, but globally common.
    Hazards

    A worldwide weed of agricultural crops, particularly legumes.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, New Mexico, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Selvagens, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, British Columbia, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Rhode I., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tasmania, Tennessee, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

    Accepted Infraspecifics

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Clover dodder

    Other Data

    Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 8, 1976 J.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790119
    Dec 9, 1950 Burtt, B.L. [73], United Kingdom K000790222
    Jan 1, 1949 s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790143
    Jun 1, 1857 Willkomm, H.M. [455], Spain K000852521
    Jun 1, 1857 Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852524
    16379.000
    Summerhayes, V.S. [2640.], United Kingdom K000790296
    Sandwith, N.Y. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790118
    Drummond, R.B., United Kingdom 16678.000
    Bullock, A.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790273
    Bullock, A.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790216
    Hubbard, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790157
    Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790267
    Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790213
    Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790214
    Airy Shaw, H.K. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790279
    Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790121
    Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790151
    Lousley, J.E. [F.15], United Kingdom K000790205
    Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790206
    Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790207
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790261
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790262
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790263
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790264
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790265
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790227
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790228
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790229
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790230
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790231
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790232
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790233
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790260
    Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790289
    Jackson, A.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790278
    Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790147
    Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790148
    Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790149
    Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790202
    Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790192
    Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790247
    Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790293
    Lowne, B.T. [1132], United Kingdom K000790295
    Whiting, M.M. [46], United Kingdom K000790141
    Hunt, P.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790124
    Ridley, H.N. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790204
    Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790288
    Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790178
    Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790179
    Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790217
    Souster, J.E.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790242
    Melville, R. [113], Great Britain K000790185
    Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790275
    Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790280
    Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790281
    Davies, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790294
    Rico, L. [1860], Tunisia K000296005
    Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790160
    Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790162
    Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790163
    Worsdell, W.C. [515/3.], United Kingdom K000790164
    Dennis, R.W.G. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790122
    Rowley, G.D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790209
    Meikle, D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790127
    Brenan, J.P.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790125
    Cotton, A.D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790137
    Sandwith, C.I. [2890], United Kingdom K000790123
    70000.263
    Bolland, B.G.C. [51], United Kingdom K000790268
    Bolland, B.G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790274
    Guicciardi, J. [443], Greece K000852532
    Baldacci, A. [28], Greece K000852530
    Welwitsch, F.M.J. [s.n.], Portugal K000852527
    Welwitsch, F.M.J. [s.n.], Spain K000852528
    Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790234
    Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790235
    Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790237
    Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790134
    Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790200
    Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790257
    Gamble, J.S. [30313], United Kingdom K000790258
    Gamble, J.S. [18842], United Kingdom K000790259
    Wright, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790252
    Riddelsdell, H.J. [1207], United Kingdom K000790173
    Brewer, J.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790158
    Mill, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790182
    Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790243
    Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790253
    Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790254
    Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790255
    Heldreich, T.H.H. von [32], Greece K000852533
    Edmonds, M.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790269
    Edmonds, M.E. [28], United Kingdom K000790245
    Hubbard [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790223
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790272
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [768], United Kingdom K000790220
    Babington, C.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790167
    Clarke, C.B. [43088], United Kingdom K000790133
    Clarke, C.B. [43088 K], United Kingdom K000790221
    Clarke, C.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790283
    Palmer, E. [735], United Kingdom K000790276
    Thurston, E. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790219
    Thurston, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790224
    Marsden-Jones, E.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790215
    Baker, J.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790183
    Mann, R.J. [734], United Kingdom K000790211
    Mann, R.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790212
    Makins, F.K. [1421], United Kingdom K000790120
    Dovaston, H.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790161
    Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790186
    Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790240
    Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790241
    Medlin, L.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790218
    Williams, L.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790128
    Wallace, E.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790140
    Libbey, R.P. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790166
    Bromfield, W.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790292
    Faucconnet [s.n.], Switzerland K000790298
    Gibson, G.S. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790297 holotype
    Luddington, J.L. [1206], Great Britain K000790136
    Little, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790282
    Little, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790251
    Hosking, A. [1132], Great Britain K000790150
    Hosking, A. [1133], United Kingdom K000790187
    Carpenter, A. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790156
    Tineo, V. [s.n.], Italy K000852531
    Devis, H.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790144
    Lester-Garland, L.V. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790152
    Lester-Garland, L.V. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790203
    Blanco, A. [140], Spain K000852522
    Barton, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790174
    Barton, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790285
    s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000852529
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790138
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790155
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790171
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790172
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790184
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790189
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790196
    s.coll. [0120], United Kingdom K000790287
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790291
    s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790299
    White, J.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790191
    Baker, E.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790266
    Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852523
    Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852525
    Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852526
    Day, C.D. [575], Turkey K000341702
    Hosking, G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790188
    Rawlings, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790248
    Southey Hill, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790208
    Southey Hill, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790256
    Boswell, H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790181
    Harvey, H.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790176
    Reader, H.P. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790286
    Cubitt, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790270
    Jones, D.O. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790126
    Power, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790130
    Power, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790131
    Downes, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790132
    Cabot, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790135
    White, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790145
    Bailey, C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790153
    Grubbe, J. [747], United Kingdom K000790154
    Russell, F. [734], United Kingdom K000790159
    More, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790170
    Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790175
    Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790197
    Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790198
    Tressider, W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790177
    Curnow, W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790180
    Drummond, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790277
    Varenne, E.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790190
    Bromfield, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790194
    Bennett, E.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790195
    Eastham, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790199
    J.W.C.K. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790201
    Lynch, R.I. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790210
    Dewar, D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790236
    Loydell, G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790238
    Archer, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790239
    Thacker, J.L. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790244
    Basset, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790246
    Naylor, G.T. [361], United Kingdom K000790249
    Welfitt-Nicholls, E.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790250
    Harrison, K.M. [H.1590/30], United Kingdom K000790284

    Bibliography

    First published in Amoen. Acad. 4: 478 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
    • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
    • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
    • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae, Cuscutaceae A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland 1: 217-221-& 227-228. Timber Press.
    • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
    • Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist in Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist (1991). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Pacific Northwest: 363-366. Univ. Washington Press.
    • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
    • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
    • Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins in Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins (1981). Convolvulaceae A flora of New Mexico 2: 1546-1569.
    • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
    • Plitmann, U. in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Cuscutaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 222-237. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Butkov, A.Y. (1974). Cuscuta in Fl. USSR Flora of the USSR 19: 30-57. Science Publishers, Inc.
    • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
    • Yuncker, T.G. & Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Cuscutaceae for Flora Iranica Flora Iranica 8: 1-16. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Kitamura, S. in Kitamura, S. (1960). Fl. Afghanistan Convolvulaceae Flora of Afghanistan 2: 309-313. Kyoto University.
    • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 113-331. New York Botanical Garden.
    • Trabut, L. (1907). Les Cuscutes du nord de l'Afrique Bulletin de la Société de la France 53(sess. extr.): 34-43.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles

    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2012). Identifying seeds and assessing quality. (accessed 20 March 2012).
    • Costea, M., Er, E. & Staples, G. (eds) (2011). Cuscuta epithymum.
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2011). Sowing the seeds of UK biodiversity - Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank launches UK Native Seed Hub.  (accessed 20 March 2012).
    • Whitman, K. (2011). Cuscuta epithymum Murray.
    • Baskin, C., Hermy, M., Meulebrouck, K. & Verheyen, K. (2010). Will the sleeping beauties wake up? Seasonal dormancy cycles in seeds of the holoparasite Cuscuta epithymum. Seed Science Research 20: 23-30.
    • Klinkenberg, B. (ed.) (2010). Cuscuta epithymum. In: E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
    • Heide-Jørgensen, H. S. (2008). Parasitic Flowering Plants. Brill, Leiden.
    • Costea, M. & Tardia, F. J. (2006). The biology of Canadian weeds. 133. Cuscuta campestris Yuncker, C. gronovii Willd. ex Schult., C. umbrosa Beyr. ex Hook., C. epithymum (L.) L. and C. epilinum Weihe. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 86: 293-316.
    • Cheffings, C. & Farrell, L. (eds) (2005). The Vascular Plant Red Data List for Great Britain. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2002). A Field Manual for Seed Collectors (pdf) (accessed 20 March 2012).
    • Medical Economics Company (2000). Cuscuta epithymum. In: PDR for herbal medicines. p.506. Medical Economics Company, Montvale, New Jersey.
    • Feinbrun, N. (1970) A taxonomic review of European Cuscutae. Israel Journal of Botany 19: 16-29.
    • Kuijt, J. (1969). The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants. University of California Press, California.
    • Yuncker, T. G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 109-331.

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
    • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
    • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
    • Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist in Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist (1991). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Pacific Northwest: 363-366. Univ. Washington Press.
    • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
    • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
    • Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins in Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins (1981). Convolvulaceae A flora of New Mexico 2: 1546-1569.
    • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
    • Plitmann, U. in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Cuscutaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 222-237. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Butkov, A.Y. (1974). Cuscuta in Fl. USSR Flora of the USSR 19: 30-57. Science Publishers, Inc.
    • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
    • Yuncker, T.G. & Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Cuscutaceae for Flora Iranica Flora Iranica 8: 1-16. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Kitamura, S. in Kitamura, S. (1960). Fl. Afghanistan Convolvulaceae Flora of Afghanistan 2: 309-313. Kyoto University.
    • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 113-331. New York Botanical Garden.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0