Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & E. Medit. to Iran and Arabian Peninsula, NE. Tropical Africa. It is used to treat infection, blood system disorders and genitourinary system disorders, as a vegetable and for food.
Brassica rapa

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 4200 m.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 4200 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FZ]

Cruciferae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Annual or biennial herb with stout or tuberous tap-root.
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves stalked, bristly, lyrate-pinnatifid, upper ones sessile, amplexicaul, ± glaucous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bright yellow, in terminal racemes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals spreading.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4, 6–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Silique curved, erect, slightly flattened with a long, tapering beak.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1–5–2 mm. in diam., blackish or reddish-brown.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
alpiste, alpiste de canarios, alpistillo, colinabo, mostacilla, mostacilla silvestre, mostaza, mostaza de canarios, nabo, nabo amarillo, nabo de canarios, rábano de canarios, rebancá

[FTEA]

Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Morphology General Habit
Annual or biennial herb with thin or stout, often fusiform to tuberous taproot.
Morphology Stem
Stem erect, branched, glabrous or slightly hispid below (rarely higher up), up to 150 cm. high.
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves ± indistinctly petioled, bright green, hispidulous, lyrate-pinnatipartite, dentate, crenate or sinuate; terminal lobe large, orbicular to ovate, obtuse, cordate; lateral lobes in up to 5 pairs, rather small, ovate to triangular; lower cauline leaves sessile, clasping, pinnatifid; upper cauline leaves ± glaucous, sessile, distinctly clasping, undivided (fiddle-shaped, narrowly triangular or lanceolate), entire to repand-dentate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes loosely corymbiform with open flowers overtopping the buds; in fruit very elongate; pedicels 10–30 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals yellow-green, spreading, 5–8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals yellow, clawed, with obovate slightly emarginate blade, 6–11 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers ± 2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary with 20–30 ovules.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Siliquae linear, rarely on a gynophore, 40–100 mm. long, 2.5–4 mm. broad; beak 5–30 mm. long with 0–1 seed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dark brown, globose, 1.0–1.5 mm. in diameter, with a fine distinct reticulum.
Habitat
Cultivated land, abandoned fields; 1500–2600 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 T2 T6 U2 worldwide as an escape from cultivationpure weed form mainly European

[UPB]
Use Food
'Roots' - edible (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Food Vegetables
Flowers - Eaten as vegetables (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Blood System Disorders
Used in the treatment of anemia (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Genitourinary System Disorders
Used in the treatment of kidney stones (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Infections & Infestations
Used as an antimicrobial agent (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, North Caucasus, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Yugoslavia

Extinct in:

Juan Fernández Is.

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Irkutsk, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, Labrador, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Marianas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Tuamotu, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yukon, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Nabos.

Brassica rapa L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Dec 1, 2000 Cable, S. [3046], Cameroon K000337523
Briggs, T.R. [s.n.], Great Britain K000653814
Savatier [s.n.], France K000653816
Briggs, T.R. [78c], Great Britain K000653813
Briggs, T.R. [78c], Great Britain K000653815
Savatier [s.n.], France K000653817
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039907
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039904
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039905
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4791], India Sinapis dichotoma K001039911
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039908
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039909
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039906
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791], India Sinapis dichotoma K001039910
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039912
Prain, D. [s.n], India Brassica campestris var. sarson K000247162 Unknown type material

First published in Sp. Pl.: 666 (1753)

Accepted by

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2017). Suppressions and additions to the flora of the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile) Botany Letters 164: 351-360.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. (1973). Flora of West Pakistan 55: 1-308.
  • Jalas, J., Suominen, J. & Lampinen, R. (eds.) (1996). Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(2): 628-1199. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Watson, M.F. & al. (eds.) (2011). Flora of Nepal 3: 1-425. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2017). Suppressions and additions to the flora of the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile) Botany Letters 164: 351-360.
  • Doty, M.S. & al. (1954). Floristics and plant ecology of Raroia Atoll, Tuamotus Atoll Research Bulletin 33: 1-58.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Ebel, A. (2005). Review of Brassicaceae family in the flora of Khakassia Turczaninowia 8(1): 11-38.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. (1973). Flora of West Pakistan 55: 1-308.
  • Jalas, J., Suominen, J. & Lampinen, R. (eds.) (1996). Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1955). Flora Uzbekistana 3: 1-824. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2004). Flora of Siberia 7: 1-318. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • St. John, H. & Fosberg, F.R. (1937). Vegetation of Flint island, Central Pacific Occasional Papers of Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History 12(24): 1-4.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Watson, M.F. & al. (eds.) (2011). Flora of Nepal 3: 1-425. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Chev., Fl. Viv. 1: 208 (1939).
  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3 (1): 261 (1915).
  • Agnew & Stewart in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 94 (1974).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 150 (1954).
  • Dammer in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B: 139 (1895).
  • Exell & Gonçalves in Fl. Moçamb. 11: 5 (1973).
  • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 188 (1960).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 97 (1954).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 666 (1753).
  • Marais in Flora of Southern Africa 13: 6 (1970).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/