1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Panicum L.
      1. Panicum ligulare Nees ex Trin.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Venezuela to Brazil.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Cataphylls evident. Butt sheaths woolly. Culms erect; 130-200 cm long. Culm-internodes thick-walled, or solid; 8-24 cm long; distally glabrous, or pilose. Culm-nodes glabrous, or pubescent. Leaf-sheaths 8-23 cm long; hispid; outer margin hairy. Ligule a ciliate membrane; 1.8-3.2 mm long. Collar pilose. Leaf-blade base broadly rounded. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 30-55 cm long; 9-19 mm wide. Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; densely hairy; hairy on both sides. Leaf-blade margins scabrous; ciliate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; 47-65 cm long; 15-30 cm wide. Primary panicle branches spreading. Panicle branches scabrous; pubescent in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels clavate; 2-20 mm long; scabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4.4-5.7 mm long; 1.2-1.6 mm wide; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes. Floret callus evident; 0.8-1.1 mm long; winged; with lateral wings.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4.4-5.7 mm long; 1.2-1.6 mm wide; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes. Floret callus evident; 0.8-1.1 mm long; winged; with lateral wings.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 2.9-3.8 mm long; 0.5-0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume inner surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; acuminate. Palea of lower sterile floret 3-3.3 mm long. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; 2.5-3.2 mm long; indurate; pallid; shiny; without keel. Lemma margins involute. Palea involute; indurate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2.4 mm long.
    Distribution
    South America: northern South America and Brazil.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Zuloaga 1995.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Venezuela

    Panicum ligulare Nees ex Trin. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [16122], Brazil K001078528
    Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [13700], Brazil K001078537
    Hunt, D.R. [6075], Brazil K001078529
    Hunt, D.R. [5606], Brazil K001078530
    Ratter, J.A. [2090], Brazil K001078531
    Ratter, J.A. [941], Brazil K001078532
    Gardner, G. [4054], Brazil K001078535
    Gardner, G. [4056], Brazil K001078536
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [22525], Brazil K001078534
    Hatschbach, G.G. [64668], Brazil K001078527
    Smith, G.S. [202], Brazil K001078533

    First published in Gram. Panic.: 206 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0