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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum mammosum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical America.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 150 - 2400 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: “Habitat in Virginia, Barbados” Solanum Barbadense spinosum, foliis villosis, fructu aureo rotundiore, Pyri parvi inversiforma et magnitude in Plukenet, Phytographia, pars tertia. t. 226, fig 1 (1692), (lecto., designated by Knapp & Jarvis in J.L.S. 104: 344, 365 (1990) based on observations by Jaeger (1985)
    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial bushy herb or shrub to 2 m high, loosely branched; stems to 3 cm diameter, densely hirsute with simple spreading predominantly long and eglandular hairs to 2.5 mm, mixed with shorter glandular- and multi-headed hairs, occasionally mixed with shortly stalked stellate hairs and short-stalked club glands; stems and branches with scattered robust slightly recurved pyramidal yellow prickles to 1.5 × 6 mm, occasionally absent
    Leaves
    Leaves usually alternate, darkish green, velvety, broadly ovate, 6–25 × 9–26 cm, bases cordate, margins deeply sinuate-dentate with 2–7 main broadly triangular antrorse acute lobes to 4.5 cm deep some of which biserrate, apices acute; straight acicular prickles to 2 cm long on midribs and main veins; both surfaces densely lanate-hirsute with appressed eglandular and erect glandular hairs as stems, denser below and on midribs and veins; petioles 3–16 cm long with scattered straight prickles to 2.5 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences lateral, simple, 1–5(–7)-flowered lax cymes
    Flowers
    Flowers 5-merous; axes densely viscid/hirsute; peduncles erect, 0–1.5 cm long, becoming woody in fruit; pedicels erect to recurved and 5–11 mm long in flower, recurved and up to 2.2 cm in fruit when stout, glabrescent, with or without small yellow prickles to 2 mm long × 0.3 mm basally
    Calyx
    Calyx dark green, campanulate, 6–8 mm long, densely hirsute externally, mixed with small prickles, glabrous internally; lobes usually equal, narrowly triangular becoming ligulate, (3.5–)5–8 × 0.5–2 mm, acute/acuminate, with scattered small prickles; adherent becoming reflexed in fruit, 6–11 × 2–5 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla blue to purple, often with a yellowish internal star, stellate, 1.2–2 cm radius; tube ± 0.5 mm long, glabrous; lobes narrowly lanceolate, 12–16(–20) × 2.3–5 mm, acute, hirsute with long hairs externally becoming denser towards the apices, glabrescent internally, strongly reflexed after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens usually equal; filaments free for 1.2–1.6 mm, glabrous; anthers poricidal, yellow to orange, 8.5–11 × 1.2–1.6 mm, connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary brownish, 1.1–3.6 × 1–3.1 mm, ± glabrous, bilocular; style straight, 1–12 × 0.4–0.8 mm, glabrous, included within the staminal column; stigma capitate, sometimes bilobed, 0.6–0.8 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries pendulous on recurved pedicels; only one or two developing on each inflorescence; smooth, yellow to orange, obovoid, 4.5–8.5 × 3.5–6.5 cm, dull with glabrous leathery pericarp and a characteristic nipple-like apex with up to 5 basal mammillae or protuberances when cultivated
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, smooth, greyish- to dark brown, obovoid to reniform, 2.5–3.8 × 2–3 mm, not winged or flattened, minutely punctuate to reticulate; sclerotic granules absent.
    Ecology
    Rare as a cultivar or on unclaimed land; 1050–1700 m
    Note
    Native to the Caribbean where it is found on most of the West Indian islands, S. mammosum is now widely cultivated as an ornamental in many parts of tropical America where it is known as the Nipple Fruit. The fruits of S. mammosum are among the largest found in Solanum, and are unique through their characteristic protuberances. According to Nee (1979, 1991) only the lower flower in each infloresence is fertile with its pedicel becoming reflexed. Certainly the stylar length varied from very short to long on the specimens examined though all were included within the stylar column. The illustration of S. platanifolium leaves little doubt that this species is a synonym of S. mammosum; the fruits are immature and mottled green and white though the text described them as ripening yellow. Referring to its characteristic leaf shape, Hooker named his new species the Plane-tree Nightshade. Andre included differences in anther and corolla morphology, together with the lack of fruit protuberances on Linnaeus’ species S. mammosum as justification for describing his new species S. cornigerum. However, the illustration and description of the latter leave little doubt that these two species are synonymous. The history and biogeography of this species together with its unique fruit shape development was fully discussed by Nee (1979). Though typically invested with sharp acicular spines, some plants without spines have been reported (cf. Nee 1979, 1991). The widespread use of S. mammosum as a cockroach poison is well-documented and according to Nee (1979) could account for its spread by tribes through tropical America. It is only rarely found in Africa where it has failed to become naturalised; the fruits are said to be poisonous in Ghana (Bukenya & Hall in Bothalia 18: 83, 1988). Mansfeld (2001) reported that the plant was a potential source of solasodine for medicinal use, and of glycoalkaloids for schistosomiasis control.
    Distribution
    Range: Native to the West Indies Flora districts: U3 U4 K4 Range: Also cultivated in the US, India, Hong Kong, and Australia Range: Panama, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil and Peru Range: Cultivated as an ornamental and found in Ghana, Burundi, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Burundi, China South-Central, China Southeast, Fiji, Ghana, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Malawi, Malaya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Taiwan, Uganda, Vietnam, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum mammosum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 s.coll. [s.n.] K001058367
    Jul 12, 1976 Fróes, R.L. [21068], Brazil K001058369
    Jul 12, 1976 Glaziou [5954], Brazil K001058368
    22113.000
    29380.000
    Harrison, S.G. [1423], Guyana K001161756
    Harrison, S.G. [1423], Guyana K001161762
    Phipps, J.B. [10147], Zimbabwe K001169288
    Schodde, R. [2330A], Papua New Guinea K001153753
    Cazalet, P.C.D. [5022], Ecuador K001164509
    Schultes, R.E. [s.n.], Colombia K001164491
    Chapman, J.D. [6129], Malawi 54376.000
    Chapman, J.D. [s.n.], Malawi K001169287
    Plowman, T. [4236], Colombia K001164506
    Smith, H.H. [329] K001164516
    Lister [669], Venezuela K001164497
    Lister [521], Venezuela K001164498
    Lister [521], Venezuela K001164499
    Spruce, R. [3887], Peru K000201810
    Spruce, R. [3887], Peru K000201811
    Schipp, W.A. [S-664], Belize K001160535
    Nee, M. [s.n.], USA K001169297
    Heyde [3820], Guatemala K001160534
    Jenman [6483A], Guyana K001161755
    Jenman [6473], Guyana K001161759
    Jenman [6473], Guyana K001161760
    Holton, I.F. [564] K001164503
    Jenman, G.S. [6479], Guyana K001161758
    Katik, P. [LAE62167], Papua New Guinea K001153751
    Wiakabu, J. [LAE73484], Papua New Guinea K001153750
    Vinas, A.N. [321], Papua New Guinea K001153752
    Meebold, A.E. [7661], Burma K001153172
    Tate, R. [263], Nicaragua K001160533
    Gaumer, G.F. [998] K001160532
    Gentle, P.H. [1260], Belize K001160536
    Dewol, S. [134963], Malaysia K001153493
    Creagh, C.M.G. [s.n.], Malaysia K001153492
    Lemann [s.n.], Panama K001164512
    Hu, S.Y. [11594], Hong Kong K001169290
    Hu, S.Y. [11262], Hong Kong K001169291
    Cuadra, A. [A1257], Malaysia K001153495
    Langlasse, E. [45], Colombia K001164507
    Combs, R. [209], Cuba K001161232
    Lehmannianae, F.C. [4729], Colombia K001164508
    Holguer Lugo, S. [2224], Ecuador K001164492
    Holguer Lugo, S. [3146], Ecuador K001164493
    Pennington, T.D. [5022], Ecuador K001164496
    Plowman, T.C. [1048], USA K001169295
    Lister, J.R.A. [669], Venezuela K001164500
    Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [1814], Guyana K001161757
    Williams, R.S. [422], Bolivia K001164504
    Jawa, R. [S67362], Malaysia K001153494
    Kerr, A.F.G. [5115], Thailand K001153325
    Kerr, A.F.G. [5115], Thailand K001153326
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2320], Thailand K001153327
    s.coll [203] K001169285
    s.coll [H64/58], Kenya K001169292
    s.coll [s.n.] K001161754
    s.coll [s.n.], French Guiana K001161761
    s.coll [s.n.], Colombia K001164502
    s.coll [977] K001164510
    s.coll [205], Panama K001164511
    s.coll [165] K001164513
    s.coll [164] K001164514
    s.coll [164], Panama K001164515
    s.coll [s.n.] K001164517
    s.coll [s.n.], Jamaica K001164519
    s.coll [612], Jamaica K001164527
    Frodin [2365] K001153749
    Thomas, S.M. [48], Colombia K001164501
    Codd, L.E.W. [6569], South Africa K001169289
    Vélez, I. [3130], British Virgin Is. K001161233
    Gorinsky, C. [15], Guyana K001161763
    Herb Forsyth [s.n.], Jamaica K001164518
    Herb R.E.P. [22503] K001153171
    Abdulkadin [18058], Malaysia K001153259
    Akip, M. [S37664], Malaysia K001153491
    Abullah, M.H. [Ha65], Brunei K001153496
    Hansell, J. [9505], Solomon Is. K001155326
    Herb. v. Royen [s.n.] K001161753
    Imbert, A.E.T. [H64/58], Kenya K001169293
    Imbert, A.E.T. [H64/58], Kenya K001169294
    Warington, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001169296
    Herb Tonduz, A. [12786], Costa Rica K001160537
    Herb Tonduz, A. [12786], Costa Rica K001160538
    Tafur, V. [231], Ecuador K001164494
    Baker, M.A. [6035], Ecuador K001164495
    Fenoler, A. [610] K001164505
    South Africa Solanum platanifolium 11199.000
    Nepal Solanum platanifolium 28272.000
    Solanum platanifolium 29028.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 187 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.Z. 8, 4: 70 (2005).
    • Mansfeld, Encycl. Ag. & Hort. Crops 4: 1832 (2001)
    • RHS Gard. Dict. 4: 319 (1997)
    • Bothalia 25: 51 (1995)
    • Solanaceae III: 260, 264 (1991)
    • Bothalia 18: 83 (1988)
    • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 479 (1985, ined.)
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 253 (1984)
    • J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 103 (1981)
    • Biol. & Tax. Solanaceae: 576 (1979)
    • Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 60: 712 (1973)
    • E.J. 81: 301, 321 (1962)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 250 (1852)
    • Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl. 4: 435 (1837)
    • Dunal, Synopsis: 41 (1816)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 187 (1753)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0