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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum villosum Mill.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, N. Africa to Eritrea and Mozambique, Europe to China and Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated in Chelsea Physic Garden, origin Barbados, Miller s.n. (BM!, lecto., designated by Edmonds, in J.L.S. 78: 214 (1979))
    Habit
    Annual herb, erect to sprawling, decumbent or prostrate, 0.3–0.5(–1) m high, sometimes woody basally, spreading up to 1(–2) m, with woody tap root or fibrous roots;
    Stem
    Stems much-branched, green to purple, with smooth or dentate ridges, densely pilose to glabrescent with simple glandular- or eglandular-headed hairs mixed with glands in the Floral area, moderately to densely pilose to villous with glandular- and eglandular-headed hairs elsewhere
    Leaves
    Leaves coarse to membranaceous, light to dark green or purplish, rhomboidal to ovate-lanceolate, occasionally lanceolate, (2–)3–7(–11) × 1.5–4(–7) cm, bases broadly cuneate to truncate and decurrent, occasionally cordate, margins usually sinuate-dentate with obtuse to acute lobes though sometimes entire to sinuate, apices acute; surfaces pubescent as stems; petioles 0.4–3.2(–5) cm
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences simple, leafopposed to extra-axillary umbellate to lax cymes often appearing racemose, 3–6(–9)-flowered; peduncles erect, 3–14 mm long in flower, 7–12(–26) mm long in fruit; pedicels erect and 3–9 mm long in flower, reflexed and 4.5–12 mm long in fruit; axes pubescent as stems
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 1.5–2.5(–3.5) mm long, pilose to villous externally; lobes broadly triangular, rarely ovate, 0.4–1.5 × 0.3–1 mm, acute; persistent and enlarging to 1–2.5 × 1.5–3 mm in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla white to greenish-white, rarely purple, with translucent, yellow or yellowish-green basal star, sometimes with a purple median vein, stellate, 1–1.6 cm diameter, tube 0.5–1.3 mm long; lobes usually triangular, 3.5–6 × 3.5–5.5 mm, spreading to reflexed after anthesis
    Filaments
    Filaments free for 1.2–2.5 mm, slender, densely pilose/villous internally; anthers yellow to orange, 1.5–2(–2.2) × 0.6–0.8 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary brownish, 0.7–1.5 × 0.5–1.3 mm, glabrous; style 2.4–4.2 mm long, densely pilose for lower three- to one-quarter of length, exserted up to 1 mm but finally included; stigma capitate, 0.3–0.4(–0.5) mm diameter
    Fruits
    Berries smooth, red, orange or yellow, cuticles shiny often becoming dull, typically longitudinally ovoid sometimes globose, 4.5–11 × 6–9 mm, with basal calyx lobes adherent becoming fully reflexed; eventually falling from calyces leaving dried pedicels and calyces
    Seeds
    Seeds (18–)30–56(–70) per berry, yellow to brown, obovoid, discoidal to orbicular, 1.8–2.2 × 1.3–1.8 mm, often visible through translucent mature cuticle, reticulate; sclerotic granules absent
    Figures
    Fig. 17/17–19, p 126
    Note
    This is a tetraploid (2 n=2 x=48) species which might have originated in southern Europe but which is now widespread throughout central and southern Europe, the Middle East and Asia. It is also common in northern and tropical Africa whence it might have been introduced as it was to North America, New Zealand and Australia (where it is occasionally naturalised) and probably also to the UK and northern Europe. Two subspecies have been recognised in this taxon, which are distinguishable on minor morphological differences and ecogeographical preferences. The subsp. villosum, characterised by a dense villous indumentum of spreading multicellular hairs with both glandular and eglandular heads and terete stems is predominantly found in hot, dry habitats from Europe to the Middle East and Asia but is rare or absent from our area. The second subspecies S. villosum subsp. miniatum (Willd.) Edmonds also occurs throughout Europe, the Middle East and India but is a dominant and frequent taxon throughout eastern and southern Africa. These subspecies, their variability and their complete compatibility, are discussed in Edmonds (1977, 1979). Both are analogously morphologically variable, particularly in their leaf margin shape, berry colours and inflorescence structure. Both subspecies are characterised by yellow, orange or red berries, though they are green and opaque when immature. This contrasts with the subspecies of S. nigrum where though the ripe berries are typically purplish-black and opaque, some variants have yellowish-green mature berries with tranluscent cuticles. This has led to much confusion in the description of infraspecific taxa of both species (see S. humile below, for example).
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated Berlin Botanic Garden (B-W 4366!, sheet 3!, lecto., designated by Edmonds in J.L.S. 89: 166; 1984)
    Stem
    Stems angled with dentate ridges
    Indumentum
    Plants subglabrous to moderately pilose with appressed, eglandular-headed multicellular uniseriate hairs
    Ecology
    Forest including riverine Acacia forest, flooded woodland, bushland and bushed grassland, grassy river banks, cultivated land, abandoned fields and settlements, pasture-land, disturbed and stony ground, a weed of cultivation and gardens; 50–2250 m
    Note
    The species S. hildebrandtii was described from seeds collected in Somalia by Hildebrandt and presumably cultivated in the Berlin Botanic Garden. Bitter (1913) later redescribed the species, citing Hildebrandt 865 (B†) as the holotype, whilst also mentioning some other specimens. There are duplicates of Hildebrandt 865 at the BM and L, while a plant from Berlin, now at HBG and annotated as S. hildebrandtii is probably part of the original live collection from the Berlin Botanical Garden. These specimens are all conspecific with S. villosum subsp. miniatum, with which S. hildebrandtii has therefore been synonymised. A full list of synonyms and citations for the two subspecies of the tetraploid S. villosum are given in Edmonds (1979 & 1984), together with a lengthy discussion; many of these are taxa described from Europe. Of these two subspecies the eglandular-haired subsp. miniatum predominates throughout the whole of Africa, with the glandular-haired subspecies villosum occurring predominantly northwards from Sinai. Typical S. villosum has condensed fewflowered (3–5) umbellate racemose inflorescences in which the fruiting pedicels often exceed the fruiting peduncles in length. Across the Flora area, and throughout much of Europe, lax cymose inflorescences with 3–8 flowers sometimes occur, and indeed two Tanzanian specimens had up to 11-flowered inflorescences on extended rachides. However, the latter on Greenway 6997 (T 2) varied from 0–1.6 cm, with the berries being described as orange-yellow, while the inflorescences on the orange-berried Hepper & Field 5500 (T 7) varied from 4–11-flowered though the fruiting rachides only varied from 0–5 mm.  This plant is widely used as a vegetable in East Africa; the leaves and sometimes the whole plants are used as a spinach in K 1–4, 6 & 7, in T 1, 2 & 7 and in U 2, while the berries are eaten raw as a fruit (with varying reports of induced-illness) in K 2 & 4 and in T 1 & 7. It is said to be less bitter than other section Solanum species. Cattle, game and goats reportedly graze the plants in Kenya, with medicinal uses including the use of berry juice for sore eyes and poultices made from ground soaked leaves for swellings in T 1. Occasional specimens have been encountered which might belong to the glandular-haired subsp. villosum or to one of the other African glandular-haired species of the section Solanum. A specimen collected from K 1 ( Hepper & Jaeger 6694) is densely villous but with eglandular hairs and unusually small flowers for this species (anthers 1–1.3 mm); the berry colour was described as orange. The leaf morphology is typical of another tetraploid species – the blackish-fruited S. memphiticum (see below) raising the possibility that it may be a hybrid between these two tetraploid species. The correct placement of S. humile is difficult; many European authors have treated it as a synonym of, or described it as, an infra-specific taxon of either S. nigrum or of S. villosum. Willdenow described the berries of his species as greenish but smaller than those in S. nigrum; this size reference is suggestive of S. villosum, and the berries may have been immature when he described them since those on the type specimens look blackish and could have been reddish when fresh. Morphologically his specimens suggest conspecificity with S. villosum subsp. miniatum. Dunal (1852) in his later treatment of this species cited a number of specimens (all seen by the author), some of which are synonymous with the latter and some with S. nigrum subsp. nigrum. Similarly, the infraspecific taxa described by various authors and based on Willdenow’s species are synonymous with either S. nigrum or S. villosum. The very brief description of S. luteo -virescens described the berry colour as yellowish-green and ”not yellow”, and the habitat as Karlsruhe in Germany. These are suggestive of it being synonymous with S. nigrum subsp. nigrum. However, Gmelin mentioned the possibility of his taxon being a hybrid between S. nigrum and S. luteum (=S. villosum). Since it was based on S. humile Bernh., the type of which is clearly conspecific with S. villosum subsp. miniatum this taxon has been tentatively synonymised with the latter here. Though it has been suggested that the species described as S. incertum Dunal (Hist. Solanum:155 (1813)) might be the correct name for S. sinaicum, a species occurring from Sinai through Saudi Arabia and Yemen to Ethiopia, it is now thought to be conspecific with S. villosum subsp. miniatum. The Malabaricus plate (t. 73) is somewhat stylised, while a Yemeni specimen ( Dunal 30, MPU!) cited later by Dunal (1852) has much smaller flowers than those typical for S. sinaicum. Similarly an Indian specimen from Calcutta ( Dunal 400) in P, which has S. incertum written on the label in Dunal’s hand and which has long been labelled as a type specimen, also has small flowers. The berries of the Dunalian species were described as pale orange and they look longitudinally ovoid in the Malabaricus plate; this species is therefore considered to be a synonym of S. villosum subsp. miniatum, a taxon common in India. The similarity of S. plebejum A. Rich. to both S. villosum subsp. miniatum and S. sinaicum is mentioned below. The small flowers seen on the type material, however, suggest that this species is synonymous with the former. When Bitter (1913) redescribed this species, he cited Schimper 509 (W); and a duplicate of this specimen at K is identical to var. miniatum. Though the holotypes of Bitter’s two varieties of “ S. plebejum” were destroyed, there is little doubt from the protologues that both var. subtile Bitter and var. brachysepalum Bitter are conspecific with S. plebejum, and that they are also synonymous with S. villosum subsp. miniatum. Lowe did not give any specimen details or numbers for the types of his new Madeiran taxa. There are two sheets labelled Lowe 547 at the BM; one is composed of two specimens both labelled as having been collected from the type locality Rib. de Sta Luzia. Both specimens are mophologically identical to S. villosum subsp. miniatum, and this sheet has been selected as the lectotype of S. patens. The second sheet is composed of three specimens. All have differing collection details which roughly correspond to those given in Lowe’s description of habitats in which this species was found. Lowe described the lobes as having distinct purple veins, a feature which can occur in several Section Solanum species, but which particularly characterises two other tetraploid African species – the northern S. sinaicum Dunal and the southern S. retroflexum Dunal. The latter always has dull purple berries whereas S. sinaicum is characterised by yellowish berries which turn black on drying, and are not translucent; Lowe described the berries of his new species as being dull reddish and showing the seeds inside which is characteristic of S. villosum. He also described the habit of S. patens as suffrutescent with stiffly stout almost woody branches – features which could also be applicable to S. sinacium – but the berry colour of the latter does not match Lowe’s description. The overall morphology of all three specimens is again indicative of synonymy with S. villosum subsp. miniatum, and the morphological variation exhibited by the different sheets is that expected in this taxon. Lowe’s type specimens of his two varieties of S. villosum are mounted on the same sheet. The lower of these is labelled var. laevigata; it has S. miniatum and Lisbon on the label, and is conspecific with S. villosum subsp. miniatum. Indeed in his protologue, Lowe gave S. miniatum as a synonym of his new variety. The upper specimen, Lowe 722, is labelled var. velutina and is conspecific with the var. villosum.
    Distribution
    Range: Also found in Nigeria, Angola and Madeira Range: Probably introduced from Eurasia, but now occurring from Israel and Egypt, through Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Burundi to tropical East Africa Flora districts: U1 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T4 T7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Belarus, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Baltic States, Belgium, California, Cape Provinces, Denmark, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Ireland, Korea, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Netherlands, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Northern Provinces, Pennsylvania, Queensland, Socotra, South Australia, St.Helena, Taiwan, Washington, Western Australia

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum villosum Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2017 Collenette, I.S. [2696], Saudi Arabia K001151927
    Jan 1, 2017 Boulos, L. [19200], Egypt K001151936
    Jan 1, 2017 Meyers, F.S. [3151], Jordan K001151892
    Jan 1, 2017 Bornmüller, J.F.N. [1798] K001151863
    Jan 1, 2017 Duvdevani, S. [284], Israel K001151898
    Jan 1, 2011 Gremmen, N.J.M. [T070024], St. Helena K000299319
    Jun 1, 2003 Friis, I. [8350], Ethiopia K000658426
    Greenway, P.J. [10635], Tanzania K001158279
    Sandwith, N.Y. [2395], Libya K001152244
    Bally, P.R.O. [1022], Kenya K001158319
    Wilson [s.n.], Uganda K001158307
    Meikle, R.D. [2735], Cyprus K001151875
    Polhill, R. [1686], Tanzania K001158282
    Polhill, R. [1686], Tanzania K001158283
    Polhill, R. [974], Kenya K001158312
    Hepper, F.N. [6694], Kenya K000658425
    Hepper, F.N. [5500], Kenya K001158277
    Hepper, F.N. [4837], Kenya K001158291
    Hepper, F.N. [5500], Tanzania K001158296
    Hepper, F.N. [6600], Kenya K001158318
    Hepper, F.N. [7052], Kenya K001158323
    Tanner, R.E.S. [4532], United Kingdom K001158286
    Tanner, R.E.S. [924], Tanzania K001158289
    Tanner, R. [4932], Tanzania K001158284
    Tanner, R. [829], Tanzania K001158287
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10186], Tanzania K001158281
    Greenway [6997], Tanzania K001158295
    Greenway [6882], Tanzania K001158301
    Gilbert, M.G. [6305], Kenya K001158313
    Maitland, T.D. [414], Lebanon K001151886
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001151887
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Lebanon K001151888
    Maitland, T.D. [522], Lebanon K001151889
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Jordan K001151891
    Trott, A.C. [90], Saudi Arabia K001151924
    Robertson, S.A. [643], Tanzania K001158292
    Syngrassides, A. [244], Cyprus K001151866
    Syngrassides, A. [244], Cyprus K001151867
    Syngrassides, A. [244], Cyprus K001151869
    Glover [2252], Kenya K001158311
    Bax, R.D. [253], Tanzania K001158303
    Townsend, C.C. [85/4], Israel K001151899
    Lind, E. [82], Uganda K001158306
    Hooker [s.n.], Morocco K001152258
    Harwood, A. [3], Kenya K001158278
    Richards, M. [18304], Tanzania K001158302
    Wilson, J. [633], Uganda K001158308
    Polhill, E. [139], Kenya K001158328
    Collenette, S. [72-146], Saudi Arabia K001151925
    Cooke [46], Kenya K001158321
    Faden, R.B. [74/676], Kenya K001158315
    Munton, P.N. [17], Oman K001151919
    Simpson, N.D. [3021], Egypt K001151909
    Simpson, N.D. [4795], Egypt K001151911
    Simpson, N.D. [1390], Egypt K001151913
    Simpson, N.D. [4494], Egypt K001151914
    Simpson, N.D. [5456], Egypt K001151915
    Simpson, N.D. [112], Egypt K001151916
    Verdcourt, B. [564], Kenya K001158320
    Collenette, I.S. [3332], Saudi Arabia K001151920
    Collenette, I.S. [3133], Saudi Arabia K001151921
    Collenette, I.S. [1542], Saudi Arabia K001151923
    Collenette, I.S. [1269], Saudi Arabia K001151926
    Archibald, J.C. [2661], Iran K001151905
    Hooper, S.S. [2014], Tanzania K001158288
    Tanner [4532], United Kingdom K001158285
    Meikle [5048], Cyprus K001151865
    Thomson, T. [s.n.], Tanzania K001158300
    White, C.T. [13009], Australia K001153973
    Richards, H.M. [12233], Tanzania K001158294
    Batty, M. [274], Tanzania K001158299
    Warren, R.C. [18], Iran K001151904
    Nee, M. [18239], USA K001170975
    Polhill, R.M. [828], Kenya K001158326
    Stapf, O. [2731] K001151902
    Grimshaw, J.M. [93728], Tanzania K001158298
    Haussknecht, C. [s.n.] K001151903
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001158305
    Ibrahim [s.n.], Morocco K001152257
    Chevallier, L. [s.n.], Algeria K001152252
    Chevallier, L. [s.n.], Algeria K001152254
    Maconochie, J.R. [2990], Oman K001151918
    Miller, A.G. [374], Yemen K001151929
    Miller, A.G. [147], Yemen K001151930
    Haarer, A.E. [566], Tanzania K001158297
    Watson, H.C. [146], Portugal K001152310
    Watson, H.C. [146], Portugal K001152311
    Battiscombe, E. [453] K001158322
    Cosson, M.M.E. [s.n.], Tunisia K001152247
    Lindberg, H. [s.n.], Cyprus K001151878
    Boulos, L. [14102], Saudi Arabia K001151922
    Boulos, L. [17234], Yemen K001151931
    Schweinfurth, G.A. [1410], Egypt K001151908
    Munby [s.n.], Algeria K001152249
    Cosson [s.n.], Morocco K001152259
    Hart, H.C. [s.n.] K001151884
    Kerfoot, O. [3547], Kenya K001158329
    Meyerhoff, E. [22], Kenya K001158309
    Dinsmore, J.E. [10810], Jordan K001151890
    Hale, M. [44], Kenya K001158310
    Gibbons, R.B. [294], Afghanistan K001151907
    NMK [18], Kenya K001158316
    Trethewy, A.W. [83], Morocco K001152260
    Trethewy, A.W. [183], Morocco K001152264
    Trethewy, A.W. [262], Morocco K001152265
    Trethewy, A.W. [193], Morocco K001152266
    Edmonds, M.E. [s.n.] K001151336
    Meyers, F.S. [9151] K001151896
    Meyers, F.S. [4810] K001151897
    Gilliat-Smith, B. [2123/a], Iran K001151901
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 18], Great Britain K000914299
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 515], Great Britain K000914300
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 577], Great Britain K000914630
    Hukui, K. [26], Tanzania K001158280
    Hammond, M.M. [172], Tanzania K001158290
    Gillespie, L. [25], Yemen K001151928
    Samuelsson, G. [1086], Syria K001151885
    s.coll [129], Egypt K001151894
    s.coll [s.n.] K001151910
    s.coll [s.n.], Algeria K001152253
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170971
    s.coll [s.n.] K001029774
    s.coll [135], Kenya K001158324
    s.coll [134], Kenya K001158325
    Gabrielith, R. [s.n.] K001151882
    Gabrielith, R. [24] K001151883
    Meinertzhagen [152], Algeria K001152251
    Lascelles, A.G. [s.n.], Cyprus K001151873
    Keith [1032], Libya K001152245
    Keith [1036], Libya K001152246
    Muasya, J. [GBK-045058], Kenya K001158317
    Codd, L.E.W. [7521], Angola K001029776
    Abu-Laila, K. [70-2], Jordan K001151893
    Atherton, G.E. [669], Cyprus K001151871
    Atherton, G.E. [387], Greece K001151876
    Atherton, G.E. [301] K001151880
    Atherton, G.E. [861], Cyprus K001151881
    Hornby, H.H. [350], Tanzania K001158293
    Austin, M. [M133], Spain K001152313
    Austin, M. [M73], Spain K001152314
    Andrews, R.J. [R141], Spain K001152315
    Carter, H. [717], Afghanistan K001151906
    Mashaly, I. [20189], Egypt K001151912
    Spellenberg, R.W. [7328], Yemen K001151932
    Ecoyomirles, S. [980], Cyprus K001151864
    Holus, J. [s.n.], Cyprus K001151868
    Lowper, S.G. [s.n.], Cyprus K001151870
    Roseikle [5026], Cyprus K001151872
    Oswald, P.H. [22], Cyprus K001151874
    Langerton [s.n.], Cyprus K001151877
    Clasey, E. [24], Cyprus K001151879
    Al-Kaise, K.A. [47215] K001151900
    El Assi, A. [523], Tunisia K001152248
    Cosson, E.S.-.C. [s.n.], Algeria K001152250
    Herb. Cosson, E.S.-.C. [s.n.], Morocco K001152255
    Pitard, C.-.J.M. [1755], Morocco K001152256
    Heath, I.B. [340A], Morocco K001152261
    Heath, I.B. [394], Morocco K001152262
    Herb. Lowe, R.T. [16] K001152263
    Herb. Gay, J.É. [s.n.] K001152267
    Carew Hunt, T. [s.n.], Portugal K001152312
    Herb. Moniz [s.n.], Portugal K001152316
    Jarrel, T. [454], Uganda K001158304
    Dalton, M.G. [8], Kenya K001158314
    Polhill, P. [828], Kenya K001158327
    Jan 1, 2017 Rechinger, K.H. [16293], Afghanistan Solanum olgae K001152174
    Jan 1, 2017 Rechinger, K.H. [16549], Afghanistan Solanum olgae K001152175
    Walton, H.J. [s.n.] Solanum olgae K001153181
    Wheeler Haines, R. [W1359], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151779
    Rawi, A. [26567], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151771
    Rawi [29033], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151772
    Rawi [29051], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151773
    Rawi [19809], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151775
    Hamid, H. [42695], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151770
    Alizzi, H. [19683], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151776
    Botany staff [43788], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151769
    s.coll [1608], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151778
    Agha, A.S. [5370], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151774
    Alizzis [19706], Iraq Solanum nigrum var. villosum K001151777
    Jan 1, 2017 s.coll [210] Solanum luteum K001152166
    Jan 1, 2017 Khatib, A. [19457], Syria Solanum luteum K001152167
    Hepper, F.N. [8696], Greece Solanum luteum K001151386
    Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151444
    Rechinger, K.H. [30866], Pakistan Solanum luteum K001153169
    Thomas [s.n.], Italy Solanum luteum K001151410
    Gandoger, M. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151393
    Rechinger [s.n.], Austria Solanum luteum K001151416
    Beguin [s.n.], France Solanum luteum K001151452
    Wolley-Dod, A.H. [1606] Solanum luteum K000650948
    Prior, A. [s.n.], Italy Solanum luteum K001151457
    Bonnet, E. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151458
    Heldreich, T.H.H. von [3206], Greece Solanum luteum K001151389
    Heldreich, T.H.H. von [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151390
    Favrat, L. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151406
    Favrat, L. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151407
    Favrat, L. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151409
    Cambridge University Expedition [H91], Greece Solanum luteum K001151388
    Groves, H. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151363
    Pons, A. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151459
    s.coll [50505], Iraq Solanum luteum K001152165
    s.coll [22] Solanum luteum K001151399
    s.coll [s.n.], Switzerland Solanum luteum K001151411
    s.coll [s.n.], Italy Solanum luteum K001151415
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151422
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151423
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151450
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151451
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151453
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151456
    s.coll [42], France Solanum luteum K001151460
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151461
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151462
    s.coll [s.n.], Belgium Solanum luteum K001151465
    Wiesbaur, J.B. [746/4], Austria Solanum luteum K001151414
    Baker, J.G. [874], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151439
    Milne-Redhead, G. [6382], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151441
    Milne-Redhead, G. [6382], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151442
    Milne-Redhead, G. [6182], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151443
    Braun, A.K.H. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151412
    Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. Jr. [6552], Netherlands Solanum luteum K001151405
    Butler, T. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151466
    Ahlberg, N.F. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151397
    Ahlberg, N.F. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151398
    Ecole, H.P. [s.n.], France Solanum luteum K001151472
    Gill, A.J. [s.n.], Greece Solanum luteum K001151387
    Davis [1514], Greece Solanum luteum K001151392
    Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151421
    Thedenius, C.G.H. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151395
    Thedenius, C.G.H. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151396
    Herb Cuatrecasas, J. [s.n.], Spain Solanum luteum K001151337
    Filipi, L. [1167], Slovenia Solanum luteum K001151413
    Herb Forbes Young [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151418
    Herb Forbes Young [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151419
    Herb Forbes Young [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151420
    Hort Inst Innes, J. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151424
    Webb, P.B. [? [722] Solanum luteum K001151440
    Pannister, C.W. [W983], United Kingdom Solanum luteum K001151445
    Herb Mill, J.S. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151446
    Herb Mill, J.S. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151447
    Herb Mill, J.S. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151464
    Pryce Jones, W.H. [s.n.] Solanum luteum K001151448
    Hb. Turner, D. [s.n.], France Solanum luteum K001151449
    Blanche, H. [3659] Solanum luteum K001151454
    Tuczkiewicz, D. [3659] Solanum luteum K001151455
    Tuezkiewicz, D. [3439] Solanum luteum K001151463
    Vicherek, J. [1554] Solanum luteum K001151484
    Pichler, T. [s.n.], Greece Solanum humile K001151534
    Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151499
    Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151500
    Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151501
    Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151502
    Nelmes, E. [169], United Kingdom Solanum ochroleucum K001151503
    Braun, A. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151301
    Fiori, A. [2517], Italy Solanum ochroleucum K001151469
    Béguinot, A. [2518], Italy Solanum ochroleucum K001151468
    Adamovic, L. [s.n.], Macedonia Solanum ochroleucum K001151385
    Ellman, E. [169], Spain Solanum ochroleucum K001151498
    Favrat, L. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151408
    Bastard, T. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151189
    Bastard, T. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151190
    Jungner, J.R. [s.n.], Sweden Solanum ochroleucum K001151403
    Gabriel, P. [s.n.] Solanum ochroleucum K001151467
    Ozanon, H.C. [1483], France Solanum ochroleucum K001151537
    Martindale, G.E. [67], Spain Solanum miniatum K001151520
    Martindale, G.E. [67], Spain Solanum miniatum K001151521
    s.coll [406] Solanum miniatum K001151478
    Jan 1, 2017 Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Israel Solanum villosum K001151810
    Jan 1, 2017 Singer, A. [Soni0201140708], Israel Solanum villosum K001151809
    Lange, J.M.C. [s.n.] Solanum villosum K001151404
    Alston, A.H.G. [1289], Albania Solanum suffruticosum K001151371
    Jan 1, 2017 Letchworth [s.n.], Israel Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K001151937
    Jun 1, 2011 Luke, Q. [14210], Kenya Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K000823776
    Jan 1, 2005 Welwitsch [6035], Angola Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K000196167
    Feb 1, 2004 Olet, E.A. [040], Uganda Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K000823773
    Hepper, F.N. [5628], Yemen Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K001151938
    O'Neill, E. [s.n.], Australia Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum K001153972
    Jan 1, 2017 Gillett, J.B. [15973], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151960
    Jan 1, 2017 Hepper, F.N. [5614], Yemen Solanum sinaicum K001151933
    Jan 1, 2017 Hepper, F.N. [3109], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151940
    Jan 1, 2017 Boulos, L. [19384], Egypt Solanum sinaicum K001151968
    Jan 1, 2017 Dinsmore, J.E. [11151], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151941
    Jan 1, 2017 s.coll [8987], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151939
    Jan 1, 2017 Karschon, R. [s.n.] Solanum sinaicum K001151961
    Jan 1, 2011 Karschon, R. [s.n.], Israel Solanum sinaicum K001151962
    Jun 27, 1905 Glover, P.E. [615], Somalia Solanum sinaicum K000658430
    Jun 27, 1905 Friis, I. [6640], Ethiopia Solanum sinaicum K000658429
    Hepper, F.N. [8742], Egypt Solanum sinaicum K001151966
    Wood, J.R.I. [2193], Yemen Solanum sinaicum K001151959
    Collenette, I.S. [2675], Saudi Arabia Solanum sinaicum K001151963
    Collenette, I.S. [3313], Saudi Arabia Solanum sinaicum K001151964
    Collenette, I.S. [4349], Saudi Arabia Solanum sinaicum K001151965
    Speke [s.n.], Egypt Solanum sinaicum K001151969
    Boulos, L. [7563], Jordan Solanum sinaicum K001151970
    Boissier, E. [s.n.], Egypt Solanum sinaicum K000759386 isotype
    s.coll [32], Saudi Arabia Solanum sinaicum K001151958

    Bibliography

    First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 2 (1768)

    Accepted by

    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.

    Not accepted by

    • Nasir, E. (1975). Flora of Pakistan 83: 1-31. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi. [Cited as Solanum nigrum var. villosum.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • (2019). https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.123.31738 epublication.
    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Manoko, Syst. Study African Solanum sect. Solanum: chapters 1, 3, 6–8 (2007).
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 118 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 207 (2006);
    • Légum. Afr. Indig.: 382 (2004);
    • Uganda: papers i-vi (2004);
    • Fl. Egypt 3: 39 (2002);
    • Mansfeld, Encycl. Ag. & Hort. Crops 4: 1809 (2001);
    • Afr. Indig. Veget.: 188 (2000)
    • Fl. Egypt. 159, Solanaceae: 14 (1998);
    • Edmonds & Chweya, Black Nightshades: 42 (1997);
    • Bothalia 25(1): 48 (1995);
    • Pak. Journ. Bot. 23(2): 271 (1991) pro parte;
    • Phytoparasitica, 13(1): 63 (1985);
    • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 296 (1985, ined.)
    • J.L.S. 89: 165 (1984);
    • Purdie et al., Fl. Austral. 29: 100 (1982);
    • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 55–56 (1981);
    • Biol. & Tax. Solanaceae: 529–548 (1979));
    • J.L.S. 78: 214 (1979)
    • Austrobaileya 1(1): 18–19 (1977);
    • J.L.S. 75: 141–178 (1977)
    • Contrib. Queensland Herb. 16: 54–58 (1974)
    • F.P.N.A.: 211 (1947), as S. villosum Lam;
    • Post, Fl. Syria, Palestine & Sinai: 257 (1930), as S. villosum Lam.;
    • Lam.; E. & P. Pf.: 22 (1895), as S. villosum Lam;
    • Lowe, Man. Fl. Madeira 2: 76 (1872), as S. villosum
    • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 100 (1838–43), as S. villosum Lam.;
    • G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl. 4: 413 (1837), as S. villosum Lam
    • Gard. Dict. ed. 8: Solanum No. 2 (1768)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/