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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula.
Bonatea speciosa

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial herbs with elongated fleshy root tubers
Morphology Leaves
Leaves arranged all along the stem
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, erect, few–many-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers green or yellow and white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals entire, the laterals partly united to the base of the lip, the dorsal often forming a hood over the column
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Lateral petals 2-lobed, the upper lobe usually adherent to the dorsal sepal, the lower partly united to the base of the lip and the stigmatic arm Lip 3-lobed, spurred at base; spur 2.5–21 cm long, cylindrical
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column with 2 sectile pollinia; stigmatic processes club-shaped, very long, partly united to perianth parts; rostellum standing out in front of the anther, convex and usually hooded.
Distribution
About 15 species in tropical and subtropical Africa with one species extending to Arabia

[FTEA]

Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial herbs with elongated fleshy and tuberous roots
Morphology Stem
Stems unbranched, usually very leafy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves arranged all along the stem, but sometimes withered by the time the flowers are open
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, 1-many-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers resupinate, green or yellow and white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Dorsal sepal free, but usually forming a helm with the upper petal-lobes, the laterals united for some distance to the base of the lip, the anterior petal-lobes and the stigmatic arms
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 2-lobed, the upper lobe usually adherent to the dorsal sepal, the lower (anterior) adnate at the base to the stigmatic arm and the lip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Labellum
Lip adnate in the basal part to the stigmatic arms and lateral sepals, the free part 3-lobed, spurred at the base; disk usually with a distinct tooth in front of the spur-opening; spur long or short, cylindrical
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Anther upright, the loculi adjacent and parallel, canals usually ± elongated, adnate to the side lobes of the rostellum, auricles undivided, rugulose; pollinaria 2, each with sectile pollinium, rather long slender caudicle and small naked viscidium; stigmatic processes elongated, the lower part adnate to the lip, the free part club-shaped; rostellum standing out in front of the anther, convex and usually hooded, 3-lobed, with a relatively short middle lobe and often long slender side lobes.

[FZ]

Orchidaceae, I. la Croix & P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:1. 1995

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial herb with elongated fleshy and tuberous roots.
Morphology Stem
Stem unbranched, leafy, leaves sometimes withered by flowering time.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, one- to many-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers resupinate, green or yellow and white.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Dorsal sepal free, usually forming hood with upper petal lobes; lateral sepals united for some distance to base of lip, the lower petal lobes and the stigmatic arms.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 2-lobed, the upper lobe generally adnate to dorsal sepal, lower lobe adnate to stigmatic arms and lip. Free part of lip 3-lobed, usually with a tooth in the mouth of the spur; spur cylindrical, long or short.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anther erect, loculi adjacent and parallel; canals usually ± elongated, adnate to side lobes of rostellum; auricles entire, rugulose; pollinaria 2, each with a sectile pollinium, a long slender caudicle and a small naked viscidium.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmatic processes elongated, the lower part adnate to lip, free part club-shaped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Rostellum standing out in front of anther, convex, 3-lobed, with relatively short mid-lobe and often long, slender side lobes.

[O-EM]
General Description

Terrestrial herbs with elongated fleshy and tuberous roots. Stem unbranched, leafy. Leaf cauline, sometimes withered by flowering time, entire, green. Inflorescence terminal, one- to many-flowered. Flowers resupinate, green or yellow and white. Dorsal sepal free, usually forming hood with upper petal lobes. Lateral sepals united for some distance to base of lip, the lower petal lobes, and the stigmatic arms. Petals two-lobed, the upper lobe generally adnate to dorsal sepal, lower lobe adnate to stigmatic arms and lip. Labellum adnate to the column at the base, three-lobed above, usually with a tooth in the mouth of the spur; spur cylindrical, long or short. Column short; anther erect, loculi adjacent and parallel; canals usually ± elongated, adnate to side lobes of rostellum; auricles entire, rugulose; pollinaria two, each with a sectile pollinium, a long slender caudicle and a small naked viscidium; stigmatic processes elongated, the lower part adnate to lip, free part club-shaped; rostellum standing out in front of anther, convex, three-lobed, with relatively short mid-lobe and often long, slender side lobes. (PC).

Ecology

Bonatea species grow in a range of dry habitats including dry grasslands, open deciduous woodl and and scrub, hot, dry river valleys and coastal sand dunes (Schelpe 1966) . Bonatea antennifera, for example, is often found in the drier areas of the Transvaal, such as around Johannesburg and Pretoria, and in the Waterberg district growing in the shade of thorn trees or bushes (Letty 1962). Members of the genus frequent y occur at relatively high elevations of between 800 and 1500 m. In this respect, B. pulchella is unusual in that it grows at lower elevations of between 0 and 600 m. It grows in coarse, damp basic soil among rocks. Similarly, B. cassidea also occurs in shade among boulders (la Croix and Cribb 1995). Bonatea speciosa always grows in sandy soil and occurs on or near the beach in the eastern parts of South Africa (Pridgeon 1992).
Bonatea flower in spring, summer, or early autumn at which time the leaves may have withered. The leafy aerial stem had previously developed from the tuber at the end of the dry season. Levels of fruit-set are not reported, but at least one flowering and fruiting specimen of B. antennifera was collected from near Kayne in Botswana in April 1978, where it grew at 1300 m with Euclea undulata Thunb. (Ebenaceae) (La Croix and Cribb 1995). (RN).

Distribution

A genus of about 20 species in mainland Africa, with one species in Yemen. (PC).

[O-EM]
Use

Bonatea are among the easiest African terrestrial orchids to grow. Several species are in cultivation, the most frequently seen being the South African B. speciosa.
Kokwaro (1976) listed the use of the crushed tubers of Bonatea steudneri Th. Dur. & Schinz (as Habenaria steudneri Rchb.f.) as a treatment for myiasis, stomach disorders, and influenza. Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk (1962) reported the use by Zulus in Natal of an infusion of the tubers of B. foliosa Lindl. (as Habenaria foliosa Rchb.f.) as an emetic. (PC).

Native to:

Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Bonatea Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 43 (1805)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Ponsie, M.E., Edwards, T.J. & Johnson, S.D. (2007). A taxonomic revision of Bonatea Willd. (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae: Habenariinae South African Journal of Botany 73: 1-21.
  • Ponsie, M.E., Johnson, S.D. & Edwards, T.J. (2009). A morphometric analysis of the Bonatea speciosa complex (Orchidaceae) and its implications for species boundaries Nordic Journal of Botany 27: 166-177.
  • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2001). Orchidoideae (Part 1) Genera Orchidacearum 2: 1-416. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Sp. Pl. 4: 43 (1805).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by B. Pettersson [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Sp. Pl. 4: 43(1805)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Orchideae: e-monocot.org
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