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Watermelon is a member of the cucurbit family (Cucurbitaceae), which includes cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), melons (Cucumis melo, for example), loofahs (Luffa species), and pumpkins and squashes (Cucurbita species). The generic name Citrullus is the diminutive of Citrus, perhaps referring to the spherical fruit. The specific epithet lanatus (meaning woolly) refers to dense woolly hairs on young parts of the plants, particularly stems.

Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)

[FZ]

Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb.
Morphology Stem
Stems prostrate or scandent to 10 m., ± villous, glabrescent.
Morphology General Tendrils
Tendrils 2–3-fid.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 5–20 × 3·5–19 cm., ovate or narrowly ovate in outline, cordate, ± hairy (especially on the veins beneath), becoming scabrid-punctate, usually deeply palmately 3–5-lobed, the lobes elliptic in outline, shallowly to usually deeply ± pinnately lobulate, subentire or obscurely sinuate-denticulate, rounded to subacute, apiculate, the central much the largest.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petioles 2–18·5 cm. long, ± hairy or villous, sometimes scabrescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Probract
Probracts 4–18 mm. long, obovate-spathulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
male flowers on ± villous 12–45 mm. long pedicels; receptacle-tube 2.5–5 mm. long, pale green, lobes 2·5–5 mm. long, lanceolate. Petals 0·7–1·9 × 0·4–1·4 cm., obovate, rounded, apiculate. Female flowers on 3–45 mm. long pedicels; ovary 6–15 × 4–8 mm., ellipsoid or subglobose, villous; receptacle-tube 1·5–2 mm. long, lobes 2·5–5·5 mm. long; corolla as in male flowers.
sex Male
male flowers on ± villous 12–45 mm. long pedicels; receptacle-tube 2.5–5 mm. long, pale green, lobes 2·5–5 mm. long, lanceolate. Petals 0·7–1·9 × 0·4–1·4 cm., obovate, rounded, apiculate.
sex Female
Female flowers on 3–45 mm. long pedicels; ovary 6–15 × 4–8 mm., ellipsoid or subglobose, villous; receptacle-tube 1·5–2 mm. long, lobes 2·5–5·5 mm. long; corolla as in male flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit of wild plants 1·5–20 cm. in diameter, subglobose, greenish mottled with darker green, of cultivated plants up to 60 × 30 cm., subglobose or ellipsoid, green or yellowish, concolorous or variously mottled or striped; fruit-stalk 2–5 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 9–11 × 5–6 × 2·5–2·7 mm., ovate-elliptic in outline, smooth or slightly verrucose, dark or pale coloured, often mottled, sometimes bordered.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 1500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Watermelon is a member of the cucurbit family (Cucurbitaceae), which includes cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), melons (Cucumis melo, for example), loofahs (Luffa species), and pumpkins and squashes (Cucurbita species). The generic name Citrullus is the diminutive of Citrus, perhaps referring to the spherical fruit. The specific epithet lanatus (meaning woolly) refers to dense woolly hairs on young parts of the plants, particularly stems.

Citrullus lanatus is widely cultivated for its edible fruits, which are also an important source of water in arid regions of Africa. It is thought that watermelon was first domesticated in central and southern Africa. Watermelon seeds and leaves have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs, suggesting it was cultivated there more than 5,000 years ago. Having been cultivated for so long, its origins are unknown, but it is thought that it may have been selected from Citrullus colocynthis (known as 'bitter colocynth'; a bitter, poisonous perennial) in early African agriculture.

Wild, unselected forms tend to bear bitter fruit, due to the presence of cucurbitacin (a biochemical compound used for defence against herbivores) and hence are normally only fed to cattle.

 

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Citrullus lanatus is thought to be native to Africa. It is found in grassland and bushland, mostly on sandy soils, and often along watercourses or near water, up to 1,785 m above sea level. It flourishes in dry climates and requires only limited rainfall.

Some propose the Kalahari region (Botswana, Namibia and South Africa) as the area of origin, whereas others suggest it is native to northeastern Africa. Citrullus colocynthis , thought by some to be the wild parent, is found in dry areas of North Africa and Asia (eastwards to Afghanistan and Pakistan).

Another closely related Namibian species, C. ecirrhosus , is thought more likely to be the progenitor based on studies of plastid DNA. In the wild in Africa, both sweet and bitter forms exist, and they quickly escape from sites of cultivation everywhere into neglected or abandoned farmlands, where they continue to be harvested.

Watermelon is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical countries, as well as in temperate countries with a continental climate. It is widely naturalised.

Description

Overview: An annual climbing or trailing herb, with hairy stem up to 10 m long. Tendrils divided at the tip into two or three parts. Separate male and female flowers are borne on the same plant.

Leaves: Leaf blades up to about 20 × 20 cm, more or less hairy, usually deeply 3-5-lobed, the central lobe being the largest. The lobes themselves are further divided. Leaf stalks (petioles) up to about 19 cm long, more or less hairy.

Flowers: Solitary, borne in leaf axils. Both male and female flowers are yellow, up to 3 cm in diameter, and borne on pedicels (flower stalks) up to 45 mm long. Flowers are usually pollinated by honey bees.

Fruits: Fruits of wild plants up to about 20 cm in diameter, greenish mottled with darker green. Fruits of cultivated plants up to about 70 × 30 cm, rounded, oval or oblong, with a golden-yellow to dark green skin, the skin being uniform, mottled or striped. Flesh usually red or yellow, sometimes orange, pink or white.

Seeds: Flat, smooth, variable in size and colour (white, tan, brown, black, red, green or mottled).

Uses Fruits - food and drink

Watermelons are cultivated commercially for their refreshing, sweet fruits. Dry conditions are considered to produce the sweetest fruit (high humidity is thought to suppress formation of sugars).

They are mostly consumed as fresh fruit, alone or as part of fruit salads or other desserts. In some African cuisines the fruit and leaves are cooked as a vegetable.

Small, white-fleshed cultivars are used in the production of preserves. Watermelon fruits are made into syrup in Eastern Europe. The rind may be consumed in pickled or candied form. In parts of the former Soviet Union, and elsewhere, watermelon juice is fermented to produce an alcoholic beverage.

Watermelons are collected from the wild for local use, notably as a source of water in the Kalahari region of southern Africa. The flesh comprises about 65% of the whole fruit and contains over 90% water. Watermelon contains carotenes and vitamin C.

Seeds - food, oil, masticatory

Watermelon seeds are used in some traditional African cuisines. They are eaten dry or roasted as a snack food or as an ingredient in soups, in the Middle East, China and other Asian countries. Watermelon seeds are rich in edible oils and protein. They are ground into flour and baked as bread in some parts of India.

Watermelon seeds are sold in West African markets as egusi (a name also used for Cucumeropsis mannii , another member of the cucurbit family). They are chiefly used as a masticatory, but also for medicine, food and oil. They are roasted and ground to a pulp, which is added to soup or made into sauce or porridge. Seed oil is extracted for use in cooking.

Seeds can be roasted and used as a coffee-substitute.

Traditional medicine

Watermelon fruit pulp, juice and seeds have been used as a diuretic. Fruit pulp has been used as a purgative, particularly that from bitter-forms.

A preparation of watermelon seed has been used to lower blood pressure. Watermelon seeds have been used to expel intestinal worms in Senegal.

Other uses

Bitter forms of watermelon and the cake left over after expressing the seed oil are used as cattle-feed. The leaves and fruit provide grazing for stock.

Watermelon has been used as an ingredient in sun-lotions and other cosmetics.

Role of watermelons in American popular culture

Although watermelon is native to Africa and did not reach the Americas until the 16th century, it rapidly gained favour and assumed an important role in American popular culture.

Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, was an enthusiastic grower of watermelons. American author and humorist Mark Twain wrote in Puddn'head Wilson :

The true southern watermelon is a boon apart and not to be mentioned with commoner things. It is chief of this world's luxuries, king by the grace of God over all the fruits of the earth. When one has tasted it, he knows what the angels eat.

Mark Twain

The true southern watermelon is a boon apart and not to be mentioned with commoner things. It is chief of this world's luxuries, king by the grace of God over all the fruits of the earth. When one has tasted it, he knows what the angels eat .

Watermelons feature prominently in art, literature, advertising and merchandising, and summer watermelon festivals are held throughout the USA.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

TheMillennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Thirteen collections of Citrullus lanatus seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

This species at Kew

Watermelon is grown in Kew's behind-the-scenes Tropical Nursery.

Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of Citrullus lanatus are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these specimens can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of watermelon fruits, seeds and oil are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Kew's Useful Plants Project in Botswana

Kew's Useful Plants Project in Botswana aims to help conserve plant species that are most beneficial to the wellbeing of local people.

One particularly useful species is watermelon, Citrullus lanatus . An important source of water in the Kalahari region over the dry season, it also provides food and medicines.

Working with inhabitants of Tsetseng and Lerala, the project team has agreed which plants are to be propagated in the community gardens. In both communities, facilities have been put in place for training growers and for propagating the useful species. In addition, a school programme has been developed to involve local children in the project.

Distribution
Botswana, Namibia, South Africa
Ecology
Grassland and bushland, often along watercourses.
Conservation
Least Concern in South Africa according to IUCN Red List criteria; widespread in cultivation.
Hazards

Some people experience an allergic reaction on ingestion of watermelon, including swelling of the mouth and throat.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual usually trailing herb
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade ovate or narrowly ovate in outline, rather villous especially on veins beneath, scabrid-punctate when old, 5–20 x 3.5–19 cm, usually deeply palmately 3–5-lobed, the lobes usually deeply pinnately lobulate; petioles 2–18.5 cm long, ± villous
Morphology General Tendrils
Tendrils usually bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers solitary Female flowers solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel 14–45 mm long Pedicel 2–5 cm long Pedicel 3–45 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Hypanthium
Hypanthium broadly obconic, 2.5–5 mm long Hypanthium 1.5–2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals lanceolate, 2.5–5.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals yellow, obovate, 7–19 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ellipsoid to subglobose, villous, 6–15 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth as in male flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Flesh white or red, watery, usually not bitter Fruit subglobose to ellipsoid, green or yellowish, often mottled or striped, up to 60 x 30 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovate in outline, variously coloured, sometimes mottled, smooth or slightly rough, 9–11 x 5–6 x 2.5–2.7 mm.
Distribution
C1; S1–3, cultivated. Native of the Kalahari region, often naturalized.
Ecology
Altitude below 500 m.
Vernacular
Qare (Somali); water melon (English).

[KSP]
Use
Food and drink.

[FSOM]
Use
Widely cultivated for its edible fruits

Native to:

Egypt, Ethiopia, Libya, Sudan

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Florida, Free State, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Marianas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Bitter apple, Bittermelon, Citron, Citron melon, Edible seed melon, Keme, Monkey apple, Tsama melon, Tsamma, Watermelon, Wild watermelon

Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2014 Renner, S.S. [2816], Missouri K000543558 isotype
May 1, 2007 Kgendwe, T. [926], Botswana K000731885
Jan 1, 1983 Fay, J.M [5252], Central African Republic K000731870
Jan 1, 1983 Fay, J.M [5253], Central African Republic K000731871
Jan 1, 1983 Fay, J.M [5251], Central African Republic K000731869
Jun 1, 1982 Reekmans, M. [11134], Burundi K000731872
Nov 7, 1979 Hakki, M. [506], Togo K000731866
Jan 1, 1967 s.coll [5854], Sudan K000731875
Jan 1, 1952 Hagerup, O. [133], Mali K000386755
Niger 29047.635
Polhill, R. [1298], Tanzania 40727.000
Richards, H.M. [14806], Botswana 6584.000
Traill, J.W.H. [364], Brazil K001139699
Harris, D.J. [2077], Central African Republic K000731868
Skarpe, C. [S247], Botswana K000731891
Skarpe, C. [S271], Botswana K000731888
Silva, L.A.M. [731], Brazil K001139707
Maas, P.J.M. [322/B], Brazil K001139700
Hepper, F.N. [3788], Mali K000211804
Glaziou [10853], Brazil K001139706
Traill, J.W.H. [364], Brazil K001139702
Pickersgill, B. [162], Brazil K001139697
Kummrow, R. [1254], Brazil K001139696
Gillett, J.B. [22480], Somalia K000731883
Garui, A.V. [3], Niger K000731865
Taddesse, E. [819], Ethiopia K000731884
Terry, J. [128], Botswana K000731886
Glaziou [10852], Brazil K001139705
Terry, J. [91], Botswana K000731887
Balée, W.L. [803], Brazil K001139703
Hatschbach, G. [65075], Brazil K001139704
Maas, P.J.M. [481], Brazil K001139701
Philcox, D. [3280], Brazil K001139698
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6717] Cucurbita citrullus K001124655
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6717] Cucurbita citrullus K001124657
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6717], India Cucurbita citrullus K001124658
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6717] Cucurbita citrullus K001124656

First published in Index Seminum (TI, Tokyo) 1915-1916: 30 (1916)

Accepted by

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  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Stöhr, O. & al. (2012). Beiträge zur Flora von Österreich, IV Stapfia 97: 53-136.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Vladimirov, V. Aybeke, M. & Kit Tan (2018). New floristic records in the Balkans: 37 Phytologia Balcanica 24: 397-461.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
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  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
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  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
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  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Stöhr, O. & al. (2012). Beiträge zur Flora von Österreich, IV Stapfia 97: 53-136.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Vladimirov, V. Aybeke, M. & Kit Tan (2018). New floristic records in the Balkans: 37 Phytologia Balcanica 24: 397-461.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by C. Jeffrey & M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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Plants and People Africa
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