Skip to main content

This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa, SW. Syria to Arabian Peninsula and Indian Subcontinent, N. & Central Australia.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 990 m.; Amazonia, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Habit
Trepadora
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Note
The above description is based on wild plants of Somalia, sometimes referred to as subsp. agrestis (Naud.) Grebensc., distinguished by shortly puberulous ovaries. Plants of what would be referred to as subsp. melo, with densely long-villous ovaries, are widely cultivated for their edible fruits and may be met with in cultivation in Somalia. They are usually also much larger in all parts, especially flowers, fruits and seeds, and the fruits vary greatly in size, shape, colour and surface ornamentation.
Habit
Trailing or sometimes scandent annual herbs to 1.5 m; stems hispid
Leaves
Leaf-blade ovate or broadly ovate, cordate, ± sinuate-dentate, scabrid-setulose or scabrid-punctate, 1.5–6.5 x 1.5–8 cm, unlobed or usually palmately 3–5-lobed, lobes broadly triangular to obovate, obtuse or rounded; petiole hispid-setose, 1–9 cm long
Inflorescences
Monoecious
Hypanthium
Hypanthium 3–4 mm long, hispid or villous
Calyx
Sepals linear, 3–7 mm long
Corolla
Petals yellow, 3–7 mm long
Flowers
Female flowers solitary Male flowers solitary or in small fascicles
Pedicel
Pedicels 4–10 mm long Pedicels 2.5–7 mm long
Ovary
Ovary ellipsoid, 4–10 mm long, densely finely puberulous and usually also with some longer forward-pointing hairs
Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid or oblong-ellipsoid, 4–6 x 2–4 cm, smooth, green to white with darker green longitudinal stripes, yellow when ripe, shortly pubescent; flesh bitter or non-bitter
Seeds
Seeds elliptic in outline, c. 4.2 mm long.
Distribution
C2; S2, 3 palaeotropics.
Ecology
Altitude range 30–120 m.
Vernacular
Saar-saar (Somali); melon, musk-melon (English).

[FTEA]

Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

Habit
Annual climber or trailer to 1.5 m.; stems ± spreading-hairy, hispid or lanate.
Leaves
Leaf-blade membranous, broadly ovate- or reniform-cordate in outline, ± scabrid-hairy (especially on nerves beneath) or scabrid-punctate, shallowly sinuate-toothed, 26–160 mm. long, 33–200 mm. broad, unlobed or variously palmately 3–5-lobed; lobes usually broad, shallow and rounded, with the central largest, semicircular, broadly ovate or ovate-oblong, rarely elliptic, usually not or but little narrowed towards the base; petiole spreading hispid-hairy, 27–105 mm. long.
Flowers
Male flowers in 2–4-flowered fascicles; pedicels slender, 3–25 mm. long; receptacle-tube pale green, 3–6 mm. long; lobes linear-lanceolate or filiform, 1–6 mm. long; petals yellow, 5–22 mm. long, 2.5–14 mm. broad, united in lower third. Female flowers on stalks 3–50 mm. or more long; ovary elliptic to elongate-cylindrical, densely adpressed-pubescent to long-lanate, 5–60 mm. long, 2–6 mm. across; receptacle-tube 2.5–5 mm. long; lobes lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 1–6 mm. long; petals 4–19 mm. long, 2–12 mm. broad.
Male
Male flowers in 2–4-flowered fascicles; pedicels slender, 3–25 mm. long; receptacle-tube pale green, 3–6 mm. long; lobes linear-lanceolate or filiform, 1–6 mm. long; petals yellow, 5–22 mm. long, 2.5–14 mm. broad, united in lower third.
Female
Female flowers on stalks 3–50 mm. or more long; ovary elliptic to elongate-cylindrical, densely adpressed-pubescent to long-lanate, 5–60 mm. long, 2–6 mm. across; receptacle-tube 2.5–5 mm. long; lobes lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 1–6 mm. long; petals 4–19 mm. long, 2–12 mm. broad.
Fruits
Fruit on a 6–40 mm. or more long stalk, ovoid, bluntly ellipsoid or oblong-ellipsoid, 35–100 mm. long, 20–75 mm. across, in cultivated forms often much larger and sometimes very elongated, variable in colour, sometimes netted, commonly green or striped dark and light green, citron-yellow or orange and with the surface smooth.
Seeds
Seeds compressed, elliptic in outline, 5–8 × 2.5–4 × 1–1.5 mm.
Figures
Fig. 16/8–9, p. 101.
Habitat
A weed of cultivated land and waste places; 0–1220 m.
Distribution
widely cultivated and spread by cultivation in most parts of the globewild forms found only in eastern and north-eastern tropical Africa and in the Indian subcontinent T1 T3 T4 T6 T8 U1

[FZ]

Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Female
Female flowers solitary; pedicel stout, 3–50(80) mm. long; ovary (5)11–16(60) × 2–6 mm., various, often oblong, velutinous; perianth similar to that ofmale flowers.
Fruits
Fruit 2·5–10 × 2–7·5 cm., various, pyriform, ellipsoid, oblong, globose or obpyriform, green with lighter green or yellow stripes becoming yellow when ripe, in cultivated forms often much larger and very variable in size, shape, ornamentation and colour; fruit-stalk 1–8 cm. long.
Seeds
Seeds 5–8 × 2·5–4 · 1–1·5 mm., elliptic in outline, in cultivated forms often larger.
Habit
Annual; stems prostrate or scandent, to 2 m., patent-setulose or hirsute.
Leaves
Leaf-lamina 2·5–8·5(16) × 3–11(20) cm., broadly ovate to reniform in outline, shallowly cordate, sinuate-denticulate, more or less setulose becoming punctate above and beneath, unlobed and broadly rounded or variously usually faintly palmately (3)5—lobed, lobes usually broad, shallow and rounded.
Petiole
Petiole 1·5–8(10·5) cm. long, patent-setulose.
Flowers
male flowers solitary or 2–5 in small sessile or shortly pedunculate fascicles; pedicels 3·5–4·5(25) mm. long, often densely setulose. Receptacle-tube 3–8 mm. long; lobes 1–3·5(6) mm. long. Petals 3–10(22) mm. long, yellow or pale apricot yellow. Female flowers solitary; pedicel stout, 3–50(80) mm. long; ovary (5)11–16(60) × 2–6 mm., various, often oblong, velutinous; perianth similar to that ofmale flowers.
Male
male flowers solitary or 2–5 in small sessile or shortly pedunculate fascicles; pedicels 3·5–4·5(25) mm. long, often densely setulose. Receptacle-tube 3–8 mm. long; lobes 1–3·5(6) mm. long. Petals 3–10(22) mm. long, yellow or pale apricot yellow.

[FZ]

Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Habit
Stems prostrate or scandent, to 15 m., finely hairy.
Leaves
Leaf-lamina 6–18 × 6–23 cm., broadly ovate in outline, cordate, dark green, asperulous or scabrid, palmately 5–7-lobed, the lobes triangular to elliptic or narrowly oblong-lanceolate, obscurely sinuate-denticulate to coarsely and deeply sinuate-serrate or rarely lobulate, obtuse to acute, often acuminate, apiculate, the central largest.
Petiole
Petiole 1–15 cm. long, finely ascending-pilose, becoming scabrid-strigose.
Tendrils
Tendrils usually 2–4-fid.
Probract
Probracts 3–7 mm. long, oblong-ovate or obovate.
Flowers
male flowers racemose; peduncles 7–32 cm. long, finely hairy; pedicels 3–12 mm. long, finely hairy; bracts adnate to the pedicels, spathulate, glandular, 2–6 mm. long. Receptacle finely hairy; receptacle-tube 3–7 mm. long, obconic below, expanded above, lobes 9–14 mm. long, triangular, acuminate, sometimes glandular. Petals 2–4·5 × 1–3·5 cm., rich yellow. Stamens 5 or rarely 3. Female flowers on 2·5–14·5 cm. peduncles; ovary 20–40 × 2–7 mm., cylindrical, densely puberulous; receptacle-tube 2·5–6 mm. long, lobes 8–16 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, glandular; corolla as in male flowers.
Male
male flowers racemose; peduncles 7–32 cm. long, finely hairy; pedicels 3–12 mm. long, finely hairy; bracts adnate to the pedicels, spathulate, glandular, 2–6 mm. long. Receptacle finely hairy; receptacle-tube 3–7 mm. long, obconic below, expanded above, lobes 9–14 mm. long, triangular, acuminate, sometimes glandular. Petals 2–4·5 × 1–3·5 cm., rich yellow. Stamens 5 or rarely 3.
Female
Female flowers on 2·5–14·5 cm. peduncles; ovary 20–40 × 2–7 mm., cylindrical, densely puberulous; receptacle-tube 2·5–6 mm. long, lobes 8–16 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, glandular; corolla as in male flowers.
Fruits
Fruit 6–25 × 2·5–6 cm. or larger, ellipsoid to cylindrical, ± terete; fruit-stalk stout, 1·5–15 cm. long, expanded upwards.
Seeds
Seeds 10–15 × 6–11 × 2–3 mm., broadly elliptic in outline, rounded at the ends, black, smooth, compressed, with a narrow, thin, wing-like margin.

[FTEA]

Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

Habit
Herbaceous climber or trailer to 15 m.; stems finely hairy.
Leaves
Leaf-blade ovate-cordate in outline, 60–180 mm. long, 60–210 mm. broad, palmately 3–5-lobed; lobes triangular or ovate and broadest at the base, or broadest about the middle, narrowed below and slightly lobulate laterally, acute or subacute and apiculate, entire, sinuate-toothed or strongly sublobulate-dentate; central lobe the most prominent; petiole 22–150 mm. long, finely and somewhat densely adpressed-hairy.
Tendrils
Tendrils 3–6-fid, rarely bifid, branches often unequal in stoutness.
Bracts
Probracts small, Ungulate, glandular, ± 3 mm. long.
Flowers
Male flowers ± 5–16 in 120–350 mm. long racemes; pedicels 3–7 mm. long, each bearing a small glandular bract near the base; receptacle-tube shortly campanulate, 4–8 mm. long, 5–7 mm. across, hairy inside; lobes triangular, acute, often acuminate, 8–12 mm. long; petals yellow or golden yellow, broadly rounded, apiculate, 25–45 mm. long, 18–35 mm. broad; stamens 3 or 5. Female flowers on 15–30 mm. long stalks; ovary cylindrical, densely and shortly adpressed-hairy, obscurely 10-ribbed, 20–36 mm. long, 4–7 mm. across; receptacle-tube shortly cylindrical, 4–6 mm. long; lobes ovate, 10–11 mm. long; petals 30–37 mm. long, 20–30 mm. broad.
Male
Male flowers ± 5–16 in 120–350 mm. long racemes; pedicels 3–7 mm. long, each bearing a small glandular bract near the base; receptacle-tube shortly campanulate, 4–8 mm. long, 5–7 mm. across, hairy inside; lobes triangular, acute, often acuminate, 8–12 mm. long; petals yellow or golden yellow, broadly rounded, apiculate, 25–45 mm. long, 18–35 mm. broad; stamens 3 or 5.
Female
Female flowers on 15–30 mm. long stalks; ovary cylindrical, densely and shortly adpressed-hairy, obscurely 10-ribbed, 20–36 mm. long, 4–7 mm. across; receptacle-tube shortly cylindrical, 4–6 mm. long; lobes ovate, 10–11 mm. long; petals 30–37 mm. long, 20–30 mm. broad.
Fruits
Fruit on a stout 20–60 mm. long stalk, ellipsoid or cylindrical, 60–190 mm. long, 25–60 mm. across or much larger, glabrous.
Seeds
Seeds lenticular, broadly elliptic in outline, 10–12 × 6–8 × 2–3 mm., ± smooth, dull, blackish, with a narrow membranous wing-like border most prominent distally.
Figures
Fig. 10.
Habitat
Persisting in old cultivations and near habitations, frequently becoming naturalized in forest, woodland, bushland, thicket and grassland; 0–1530 m.
Distribution
K4 K7 T1 T3 T4 T6 T8 U2 U3 U4 widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics as an escape from cultivationdoubtfully a native of tropical East Africa

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 10 - 2350 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Habit
Trepadora

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Habit
Vigorous climber or trailer to 15 m
Leaves
Leaf-blade broadly ovate, cordate, sinuate-dentate, asperulous or scabrid, 6–18 x 6–22 cm, palmately 5–7-lobed, lobes triangular to narrowly oblong-lanceolate, the central largest; petiole 1–15 cm long
Tendrils
Tendrils usually 2–4-fid
Inflorescences
Male flowers racemose Monoecious
Peduncles
Peduncle 7–32 cm long, finely pubescent
Pedicel
Pedicels 3–13 mm long, bracteate Pedicel 1.5–15 cm long, stout Pedicel 1.5–14.5 cm long
Bracts
Bracts glandular, 2–6 mm long
Flowers
Female flowers solitary
Ovary
Ovary cylindrical, 20–40 mm long
Hypanthium
Hypanthium 2.5–6 mm long Hypanthium obconic below, expanded above, finely pubescent, 3–8 mm long
Calyx
Sepals ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 8–16 mm long Sepals ovate, acuminate, 8–14 mm long
Corolla
Corolla as in male flowers Petals deep yellow, broadly obovate, rounded, 2–4.5 cm long
Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid to cylindrical, subterete, slightly sulcate, 6–25 x 2.5–6 cm
Seeds
Seeds broadly elliptic in outline, 10–15 x 6–11 x 2–3 mm, smooth, dull, with a narrow thin wing-like margin.
Distribution
S3; also cultivated palaeotropics, also widely cultivated and naturalized in both hemispheres.
Ecology
Altitude c. 30 m.
Vernacular
Loofah (English).

>

[FSOM]
Use
Fruits edible, used as food.

[FSOM]
Use
Skeletons of mature fruits used as sponges. Young fruits used as a vegetable

Native to:

Afghanistan, Angola, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Lebanon-Syria, Malawi, Mozambique, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Burkina, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Illinois, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kirgizstan, Korea, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Marianas, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Portugal, Rhode I., Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Zaïre

Cucumis melo L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1990 Lazarides, M. [4426], Australia K000731896
Jan 1, 1990 Geerling, C. [1346], Sudan K000731900
Jan 1, 1990 Johnson, R.W. [1305], Australia K000731895
Jan 1, 1979 Scholz, U. [511], Togo K000731898
Sep 8, 1972 Byrnes, N. [2614], Australia K000731894
Mar 11, 1971 Daramola, B.O. [63705], Nigeria K000731901
Jan 1, 1967 s.coll [5853], Sudan K000731911
Sudan 1718.000
20737.003
29047.032
Afghanistan 32451.000
32647.000
32649.000
United Kingdom 5144.000
Drummond, R.B. [1790], Tanzania 800.000
Melville, R., India 40087.000
Myers, J.G. [8027], Sudan K000731913
Hemming, C.F. [JESS86101], Somalia K000731923
Renvoize, S.A. [1267], USA 29047.133
Lock, J.M. [81208], Sudan K000731912
Sudan K000312893
Ern, H. [1090], Togo K000731899
Boulos, L. [19609], Egypt K000037285
Kuchar, P. [17503], Somalia K000731921
Kuchar, P. [17503], Somalia K000731922
Moggi, G. [1156], Somalia K000731920
s.coll. [s.n.] K000742807
de Wilde, J.J.F.E [4674], Ethiopia K000731919
Leach, G.J. [2409], Australia K000731892
Lykke, A.M. [596], Senegal K000731897
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124697
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124698
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124699
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124700
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124701
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124702
Friss, I. [12230], Ethiopia K000731916
Friss, I. [12230], Ethiopia K000731917
Ash Jonquil, Mrs. [2502], Ethiopia K000731914
Gilbert, M.SB. [1264], Ethiopia K000731915
Sue, E. [3914], Ethiopia K000731918
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6755], Myanmar Luffa hederacea K001124737
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6755], Myanmar Luffa hederacea K001124738
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6758], India Luffa parvala K001124742
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6729], India Cucumis pubescens K001124678
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6757], India Luffa satpatia K001124741
Milne-Redhead, E. [5074], Ghana Cucumis melo var. agrestis 5148.000
Borgen? [748], Niger Cucumis melo var. agrestis K000312901
Luffa cylindrica 22213.000
Hepper, F.N. [4208], Chad Luffa cylindrica 33337.000
Hunt, D.R. [5498], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139574
Hunt, D.R. [5498], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139575
Philcox, D. [4048], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139576
Philcox, D. [3681], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139581
Plowman, T. [8937], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139591
Plowman, T. [8937], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139593
Hatschbach, G. [29556], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139571
Hatschbach, G. [49468], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139588
Ash [141], Ethiopia Luffa cylindrica 900.008
Equatorial Guinea Luffa cylindrica K000310296
Equatorial Guinea Luffa cylindrica K000310298
Equatorial Guinea Luffa cylindrica K000310297
Maas, P.J.M. [483], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139577
Maas, P.J.M. [483], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139579
Maas, P.J.M. [309], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139580
Silva, L.A.M. [416], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139589
Walter, B.M.T. [2869], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139587
Oldenburger, F.H.F. [1693], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139586
Santos, J.U. [83], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139595
Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139583
Balée, W.L. [965], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139590
Scardino [282], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139594
Prance, G.T. [20973], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139572
Prance, G.T. [20747], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139573
Davidson, C. [10703], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139570
s.coll. [s.n.] Luffa cylindrica K000742649
Albuquerque, B.W. [1322], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139592
Pires, M.J.P. [808], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139578
Gardner [s.n.], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139582
Gardner [2616], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139584
Glaziou [6548], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139585
Jan 1, 1990 Rottler [s.n.], Tamil Nadu Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis K000634447 holotype
Jan 1, 1990 Röttler, J.P. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis K000794987
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6731] Cucumis utilissimus K001124680
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6710] Bryonia collosa K001124641

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1011 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
  • Kar, S.K. & al. (2016 publ. 2017). Additions to the flora of Chilika lake and its immediate neighbourhood Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 40: 134-150.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Memon, R.A. & al. (2014). Illustrated weed flora of Cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 5-12.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
  • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.B.E. (2010). Flora Malesiana 19: 1-342. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • De Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.E.E. (2008). The edible Cucurbitaceae of Thailand and Malesia and the wild forms of the cultivated ones Sandakania 17: 43-91.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Andersen, J.S. (1977). Flora Iranica 123: 1-14. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Keraudren-Aymonin, M. (1975). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Cucurbitaceae: 1-152. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Jeffrey, C. (1967). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cucurbitaceae: 1-156.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
  • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.B.E. (2010). Flora Malesiana 19: 1-342. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1988). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 9: 1-568. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Andersen, J.S. (1977). Flora Iranica 123: 1-14. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Keraudren-Aymonin, M. (1975). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Cucurbitaceae: 1-152. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Jeffrey, C. (1967). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cucurbitaceae: 1-156.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by C. Jeffrey & M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Keraudren, Fl. Madag. Cucurbitac: 147 (1966).
  • A. Meeuse in Bothalia 8: 61 (1962).
  • R. & A. Fernandes in Mem. Junta Invest. Ultram., sér. 2, 34: 84 (1962).
  • Chakrav., Monogr. Indian Cucurbitac.: 102 (1959).
  • Grebenščikov in Kulturplf. 1: 121–138 (1953).
  • Pangalo in Bot. Zhur. 35: 571–580 (1950).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 220 (1949).
  • Hassib, Cucurbitac. in Egypt: 78, figs. 30–64.
  • Hook. f. in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 546 (1871).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1011 (1753).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/