1. Family: Betulaceae Gray
    1. Genus: Betula L.
      1. Betula pendula Roth

        One of the most familiar trees of the British countryside, the graceful silver birch is a genuine native, growing here since the end of the Ice Age. Its papery-white bark – almost pink in young trees – distinguishes it from the downy birch ( Betula pubescens) which has reddish bark that turns grey with age and is usually found in wetter habitats in the uplands.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    The silver birch is a temperate tree, grown as an ornamental plant, also for its timber. It is used for a range of purposes, from broom-making and steeple-chase fencing to medicines.

    One of the most familiar trees of the British countryside, the graceful silver birch is a genuine native, growing here since the end of the Ice Age. Its papery-white bark – almost pink in young trees – distinguishes it from the downy birch ( Betula pubescens) which has reddish bark that turns grey with age and is usually found in wetter habitats in the uplands.

    Birches produce an abundance of sap in spring and a cut stump will ‘bleed' for weeks. In North America, a species of woodpecker called the sapsucker taps birch trees in spring by cutting small wells in the bark and drinking the sap, which oozes out.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    The silver birch is native to many parts of Europe, including the UK, and to North Asia.

    Description

    A tree growing to about 30 metres high, with silvery-white bark becoming black and fissured with age.The young twigs often droop; leaves are small and simple with a toothed margin. The flowers are wind-pollinated, grouped into catkins; the males long, loose and hanging down, the females shorter, stiff and erect. Female catkins disintegrate at fruiting stage to release plentiful, tiny winged seeds which are dispersed by the wind.

    The catkins appear early in spring and release their pollen in clouds during April. The leaves emerge shortly after, a bright emerald green at first, turning golden in autumn.

    The leaves of silver birch are small and roughly diamond-shaped. They are toothed on both sides and borne on slender warty twigs that shiver in the slightest breeze. 

    Birch saplings also share this tendency to sway in the wind, and traditionally, foresters would remove young birches from plantations to prevent them from flaying more valuable trees.

    As a tree ages, its bark darkens, and becoming rougher, more fissured and prone to attack by the birch polypore fungus Piptoporus betulinus. Ideal as kindling, the bark, like the tree itself, is remarkably hardy and renews from beneath.

    Is it a bird's nest? Not necessarily.

    Silver birches often appear to have large bird's nests in them but these are in fact a tangle of twigs known as galls, which are growth deformities caused by fungus or mites. These so-called witch's brooms form naturally, but birch twigs are also cut and bundled to make the sort of brooms witches are famous for.

    Threats and conservation

    There are currently no threats to the tree in the UK.

    Due to its invasive nature, silver birch forms scrub which is often the reason why conservation work is carried out on some nature reserve sites. Birch colonises open areas quickly and, when left unchecked, can reduce the conservation value of habitats such as heathland.

    Silver birch: a 'pioneer' species

    One of the reasons why the birch so successfully colonised the newly emerging lands following the retreat of Ice Age glaciers lies in its abundantly-produced seed. This is very light and efficiently dispersed by the wind. Even today, it remains what botanists call a ‘pioneer' species; one of the first trees to occupy suitable ground. This said, it is not a long-lived tree; most trees die or succumb to fungal attack by the age of 70. However, they do offer protection to slower-growing, longer-lived trees such as oaks, and where left to regenerate can play an important role in helping to nurture developing woodland.

    Despite suffering attacks from some fungi, birch trees have a symbiotic relationship with the fly agaric fungus ( Amanita muscaria), which produces its bright red toadstools in autumn. The fungus helps soil nutrients to be absorbed by the tree's roots, and it takes sugars from the tree in return.

    Uses

    Silver birch is cultivated as an ornamental tree and for its timber. It is also used for medicine.

    Wine made from the sap was once taken as a medicine in Britain, whilst the bark was used in Ireland to treat skin complaints. Today, the leaves and bark are mostly used for their diuretic properties. Birch tar oil prepared from the bark of Betula pendulais used to treat skin conditions. One of the major constituents of the bark, betulinic acid, has shown activity against cancerous cells and HIV.

    The twigs and galls of birches are widely used on horse race courses, to fill out steeple-chase fences.

    In Finland, the cultural and economic value of the species is recognised in its status as the national tree

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: FourSeed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)Germination testing: Successful

    Ecology
    Found as major component of woodlands on light soil, especially acid heaths.
    Conservation
    Common and not threatened in the UK.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, timber, medicinal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, Chita, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Magadan, Manchuria, Manitoba, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Ontario, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Tuva, Ukraine, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Introduced Into:

    Argentina Northeast, Connecticut, Illinois, Masachusettes, New Hampshire, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Washington

    Common Names

    English
    Silver birch

    Betula pendula Roth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Fay, M.F. [MFF207], United Kingdom K000696481

    First published in Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 405 (1788)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] (2013) Rastitel'nyj mir Aziatskoj Rossii 2(11): 47-57
    • [3] Ashburner, K. & McAllister, H.A. (2013) The genus Betula: a taxonomic revision of birches . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [5] (2011) Norrlinia 24: 1-166
    • [6] (2010) Iranian Journal of Botany 16: 237-241
    • [8] Govaerts, R. (2003) World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS . The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [12] Govaerts, R. (1996) World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • [13] (1988) Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.

    Literature

    • [1] Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014) Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide , ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • [4] Ashburner, K. & McAllister, H.A. (2013) The genus Betula: a taxonomic revision of birches . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [7] Allen, D. A., Hatfield, G. (2004). Medicinal Plants in Folk Tradition: An Ethnobotany of Britain and Ireland. Timber Press, Cambridge.
    • [9] Williamson, E. M. (2003). Potter’s Herbal Cyclopaedia. C. W. Daniel, Saffron Walden.
    • [10] Bruneton, J. (1999). Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants 2nd edn. Lavoisier, Paris.
    • [11] Evers, M., Poujade, C., Soler, F., et al. (1996). Betulinic Acid Derivatives: A New Class of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Specific Inhibitors with a New Mode of Action. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 39: 1056-1068.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
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    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
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    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0