1. Family: Fagaceae Dumort.
    1. Genus: Quercus L.
      1. Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey.

        An extremely rare sight in Britain, the chestnut-leaved oak is native to the mountains of the Caucasus and Iran. The tree was introduced to Britain as seed in 1843 and it was from this first batch that Kew’s trees were grown. The oldest chestnut-leaved oak specimen at Kew was planted in 1846 and is now one of the finest known, standing a magnificent 35 metres tall (July 2016). Individual specimens can live for 400-500 years, and sometimes as long as 1,000 years.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    An extremely rare sight in Britain, the chestnut-leaved oak is native to the mountains of the Caucasus and Iran.

    An extremely rare sight in Britain, the chestnut-leaved oak is native to the mountains of the Caucasus and Iran. The tree was introduced to Britain as seed in 1843 and it was from this first batch that Kew’s trees were grown. The oldest chestnut-leaved oak specimen at Kew was planted in 1846 and is now one of the finest known, standing a magnificent 35 metres tall (July 2016). Individual specimens can live for 400-500 years, and sometimes as long as 1,000 years.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Chestnut-leaved oak is native to the mountains of the Caucasus and northern Iran.

    Description

    Overview: Chestnut-leaved oak is deciduous and for most of the year has shiny dark green leaves, which turn a deep bronze and then brown before falling. Specimens can grow up to 50m tall. Its horizontal branches grow from remarkably low on the trunk, giving it a good width to go with its considerable height. The young twigs are soft and hairy.

    Leaves: Its leaves do not have the lobes that typify many oaks and are shaped more like the tip of a spear. They are in fact, more like that of the sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa). The leaves are thin-textured, narrowly elliptic, with a margin with 7-14 teeth. The young leaves have a grey-green lower surface with covering of stellate hairs.

    Fruits:The acorns of the chestnut-leaved oak are flushed with orange at the base and although bitter, they are eaten by jays, squirrels and other wildlife. However, this tends to be a last resort, the acorns being eaten only when other food supplies have run dry. The acorn cups have a diameter of 1.5-2.5 cm, and the acorns are 2.0-3.5 cm long. These closely resemble the acorns of the Turkey oak, which have similarly ‘mossy’ cups.

    Bark: Like that of many trees, the bark of Quercus castaneifolia changes with age. At first it is black and smooth and later turns a dark grey and gains a ridged appearance. The bark can split or fissure as the tree’s girth increases with age.

    As long as conditions are favourable, oaks tend to grow quickly, perhaps more so than is commonly assumed for such large trees. The trunk of the oldest chestnut-leaved oak at Kew grew 3 m in girth in 60 years, and younger trees grow at an even faster rate, around 30 cm every four years.

    Uses

    Quercus castaneifolia is a forestry and ornamental species. The acorns are sometimes eaten by wildlife.

    The chestnut-leaved oak at Kew

    The chestnut-leaved oak was introduced to Britain in 1843 as seed from the Caucasus and Iran. The specimen on the lawn behind the Waterlily House at Kew Gardens was the first introduction; it is thought to have been planted out by William Hooker in 1846, during the planting of the new 45 acres. 

    At approximately 35 metres tall (as of July 2016) and 30 metres spread, it is the biggest, finest and unrivalled specimen of its type in the world. It is the largest and fastest-growing tree in the arboretum and continues to grow at an alarming rate; it is also a TROBI (Tree Register of the British Isles) champion. This species is not widely planted in this country and is therefore particularly valuable.

    In 1987, the year of the great hurricane, when many trees surrounding it on this lawn were blown over, the chestnut-leaved oak withstood the forces of nature without the loss of a single limb and now stands dominating the location.

    Cultivation

    The acorns of chestnut-leaved oak are flattened at the top and half enclosed in a cup coated with reflexed, downy scales. The acorns ripen in the second year, putting chestnut-leaved oak into the ‘black/red oak group’. Acorns in this group usually show embryo dormancy and need either cold stratification or planting in the autumn to germinate.

    To check for viability the acorns can be placed in water; those that float should be thrown away. Air pots are the best containers to grow the seedlings in, as these encourage lateral root growth and reduce spiralling roots in the pot, which are common as a result of the strong taproots. The taproot should be pruned after the first year. Grafting can also be carried out, with a rootstock chosen from the ‘black/red oak group’. Young trees should be planted out during the dormant season after the second year. The oldest chestnut-leaved oak tree at Kew is crown-thinned every five years.

    Quercus castaneifolia leaves are eaten by caterpillars of the oak processionary moth ( Thaumetopoea processionea); contact with, or inhalation of the hairs from these caterpillars can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions, and so they should not be disturbed by gardeners.

    Using technology to protect our trees

    The Quercus castaneifolia behind the Waterlily House at Kew is the pride and joy of the arboretum collection – Kew’s largest tree. The chestnut-leaved oak is also one of Kew’s fastest-growing trees, and in order to keep it in such peak condition the arboretum team chose it as one of the first to receive a pioneering health boost.

    First, the team dealt with compaction of the soil around the tree’s roots. The soil at the base of many of Kew’s trees has solidified during many years of admiring visitors walking on it, but the arboretum team brought in a German power tool specially designed to tackle the problem. The device, looking a bit like a pneumatic drill, sends a blast of harmless nitrogen gas down into the compacted earth to give everything a good shakeup. This creates new routes for water, enabling rainfall to trickle down to the tiny microfilaments at the roots that absorb moisture.

    In a second prong of attack, the team went on to treat the roots with mycorrhizae; microscopic friendly fungi. These fungi can help the tree form cooperative relationships, exchanging soil nutrients gathered by the mycorrhizae for those produced in the tree’s leaves by photosynthesis. Nowadays you can buy such mycorrhizae in your local garden centre, to give your garden trees the professional treatment. Kew’s Quercus castaneifolia has certainly never looked better.

    Ecology
    Mountain slopes up to 2,000 metres, especially south-facing and on fertile sandy soil. At lower altitudes the trees form woodland; at higher altitude they appear as scattered specimens.
    Conservation
    Not threatened.
    Hazards

    Not recorded

    [KSP]
    Use
    A forestry and ornamental species.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Iran, North Caucasus, Transcaucasus

    Common Names

    English
    Chestnut-leaved oak

    Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Mey. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Verz. Pfl. Casp. Meer.: 44 (1831)

    Accepted in:

    • [3] Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (1998) World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales . The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    • [1] Rix, M. & Kirkham, T. (2009). Quercus castaneifolia. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 26: 54-63.
    • [2] Hartmann, H., Kester, D., Davies, F. & Geneve, R. (2002). Hartmann and Kester’s Plant Propagation. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
    • [4] Bean, W. (1987). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. John Murray, London.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0