1. Styracaceae DC. & Spreng.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FWTA]

Styracaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Habit
Trees and shrubs, often with stellate or lepidote indumentum
Leaves
Leaves alternate, stipules absent
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, racemose, axillary or terminal
Calyx
Calyx tubular, more or less adnate to the ovary; lobes or teeth valvate or open
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous or rarely of free petals, lobes 4-7, valvate or imbricate
Androecium
Stamens equal and alternate with or double the number of the corolla-lobes, adnate to the corolla-tube or rarely free; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Gynoecium
Ovary superior to inferior, 1-5-celled; style slender, 3-5-lobed; ovules 1 to many in each cell, axile, anatropous
Fruits
Fruit drupaceous or capsular, calyx persistent
Seeds
Seed with copious endosperm and straight or slightly curved embryo
[NTK]

Fritsch, P.W. (2009). Neotropical Styracaceae.

Morphology
Description

Trees or shrubs, usually evergreen . Indument of stellate hairs or radiate or peltate scales. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate , simple , entire or rarely glandular - serrate or lobed , venation pinnate . Inflorescences axillary or terminal , usually racemose or paniculate, rarely cymose, bracteoles present. Flowers actinomorphic or rarely slightly zygomorphic , bisexual or occasionally unisexual (then plants gynodioecious), hypanthium present, inconspicuous, adnate basally to ovary ; calyx synsepalous, generally campanulate or cupuliform, usually with 5 small teeth; corolla sympetalous, campanulate , usually white, less often pink or flushed with pink, or rarely yellow, becoming lobed at same level at which corolla becomes free from androecium , lobes usually 5 (rarely more), nearly always longer than tube, frequently recurved to strongly reflexed , valvate or rarely imbricate in bud , pubescent ; androecium usually with twice as many stamens as corolla lobes, rarely more or equal in number, stamens in 1 series, adnate to corolla proximally, free and often forming tube for some distance distally, inner face of filaments typically pubescent , the pubescence evenly distributed along surface or aggregated into dense mass sometimes covering pair of longitudinally oriented auricles, anthers basifixed, oblong to linear , longitudinally dehiscent ; staminodes present in pistillate flowers; gynoecium syncarpous, ovary subinferior, 3-carpellate, with 3 septa at base but 1-locular through distal attenuation of septa, style 1, simple , filiform , hollow; placentation essentially axile , rarely basal , ovules 1-c. 8 per carpel , bitegmic; placental obturators usually present. Fruits usually drupes, rarely capsules or nutlike, calyx and hypanthium persistent , drupes dark purple, capsules dehiscing by 3 valves. Seeds nearly always 1, completely filling fruit cavity, surrounded by usually purplish-flecked endocarp (in species with drupes), seed coat brown, usually minutely reticulate , thick and hard; endosperm copious, cotyledons usually flattened or rarely nearly terete (this modified from Smith et al., 2004, Flowering Plants of the Neotropics, Princeton Univ Press--my treatment)

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • Placed solidly in the order Ericales sensu APG II. Evidence indicates that the Styracaceae are sister to the Diapensiaceae.
Number of genera
  • Styrax L.
Status
  • Native.
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • One genus: Styrax. Distributed throughout the Neotropics.
Diagnostic
Other important characters
  • Fruit usually a drupe (rarely capsule or nut -like), usually 1-seeded (rarely to 3-seeded).
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Trees or shrubs, stellate or scale-like hairs present, leaves alternate, simple, without stipules, corolla sympetalous, campanulate; anthers adnate to corolla, stamens technically biseriate or uniseriate but always appearing uniseriate; 3-carpellate.
Key differences from similar families
  • Often mistaken for Solanaceae but anthers of Styracaceae are longitudinally dehiscent by slits, and fruit is a drupe.  Symplocaceae, a close relative, has a completely inferior ovary and an obvious nectary disk, and hairs are simple.
Literature
Important literature

Fritsch, P.W. 1997. A revision of Styrax (Styracaceae) from western Texas, Mexico, and Mesoamerica. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 84: 705-761.

Fritsch, P.W. 1999. Phylogeny of Styrax based on morphological characters, with implications for biogeography and infrageneric classification. Systematic Botany 24: 355-378.

Fritsch, P.W. 1999. Styracaceae. In: P. M. Jørgensen & S. León-Yánez (eds), Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, p. 922. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Fritsch, P.W. Styracaceae. 2000. Flora Mesoamericana Volume 4. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D. F. Available on-line athttp://mobot.mobot.org/Pick/Search/meso.html.

Fritsch, P.W. 2001. Phylogeny and biogeography of the flowering plant genus Styrax (Styracaceae) based on chloroplast DNA restriction sites and DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19: 387-408.

Fritsch, P.W. 2003. Multiple geographic origins of Antillean Styrax. Systematic Botany 28: 421-430.

Fritsch, P.W. 2003. Styracaceae.  In: N. Smith, S. A. Mori, A. Henderson, D. Wm. Stevenson, & S. V. Heald (eds), Flowering Plants of the Neotropics, pp. 362-363. The New York Botanical Garden and Princeton University Press, Bronx and Princeton.

Fritsch, P.W. 2003. Revision of 11 taxa of Styracaceae. In: Gamarra Rojas, C.F.L. Mesquita, A.C. de Sothers, C. Mayo, S.J. & Barbosa, M.R.V. (eds), Checklist das plantas do Nordeste, Centro Nordestino de informações sobre plantas. CNIP, Recife. Internet publication on website: http://www.cnip.org.br.

Fritsch, P. W. 2004. Styracaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, pp. 434-442. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Fritsch, P. W. 2004. New species and taxonomic changes in Styrax (Styracaceae) from South America. Novon 14: 43-57.

Fritsch, P. W. 2005. A new species of Styrax (Styracaceae) from southern Mexico. Novon 15: 421-424.

Fritsch, P. W. 2005. Styracaceae. In: T. F. Daniel (ed.), Flora of Chiapas, Part 6, pp. 24-32. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.

Fritsch, P. W., C. M. Morton, C. T. Chen, and C. Meldrum. 2001. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Styracaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162(S6): S95-S116.

Fritsch, P. W., S. A. Mori, and J. L. Brown. 2002. Styracaceae. In: S. A. Mori, G. Cremers, C. A. Gracie, J.-J. de Granville, S. V. Heald, M. Hoff, & J. D. Mitchell (eds), Guide to the Vascular Plants of Central French Guiana. Part 2. Dicotyledons. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 76(2): 706-708.

Fritsch, P. W. and J. A. Steyermark. 2005. Styracaceae. In: P. E. Berry, K. Yatskievych, & B. K. Holst (eds), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Volume 9, pp. 283-289. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Fritsch, P. W. 2008. Styracaceae. In Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (eds), Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Southern Cone (Argentina, Southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay), Vol. 3, pp. 3064-3067. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Fritsch, P. W. In press. Styracaceae. In P. M. Jørgensen (ed.), Catalogue of Vascular Plants of Bolivia. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

Fritsch, P. W. In Press. Styracaceae. In R. Callejas and M. Montiel (eds.), Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Fritsch, P. W. In press. Styracaceae. In: R. Bernal (ed.), Catalogue of the plants of Colombia. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

Loeulle, B., P. W. Fritsch, and J. R. Pirani. 2008. Flora da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais: Styracaceae. Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de Sâo Paulo 26: 175-182.

Maas, P.J.M. and L. Y. Th. Westra. 1998. Familias de plantas Neotropicales. Koeltz.

Mai, D. H. 2003. Styracaceae. In Flora de la República de Cuba, Fasc. 7. A. R. Gantner Verlag KG, Ruggell, Liechtenstein.

Perkins, J. 1907. Styracaceae. In Das Pflanzenreich, ed. A. Engler, ser. 4, 241 (heft 30): 1-111. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. Fritsch, P. W. 2004. Styracaceae. In: Smith et al., Flowering plants of the Neotropics.

Wallnöfer, B. 1997. A revision of Styrax L. section Pamphilia (Mart. ex A. DC.) B. Walln. (Styracaceae). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 99B: 681-720.

Images

Styracaceae DC. & Spreng. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Elem. Philos. Bot. 140. 1821 [Jul 1821] (as "Styraceae") [trans. Jameson] (1821)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0