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  • Ochnaceae DC.

This family is accepted.


Ochnaceae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or shrublets, or more rarely perennial or annual herbs, glabrous or rarely shortly pubescent; bark rough or smooth, sometimes flaking, occasionally pigmented beneath; stem with cortical vascular bundles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple or very rarely pinnately compound, entire or more often with undulate to serrate or ciliate margins, penninerved (often densely so), membranous to coriaceous, with stipules entire to fringed or ± dissected, free or ± united intrapetiolarly, caducous or ± persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or rarely d: zygomorphic, sometimes fragrant, in terminal or axillary paniculate to umbellate or fascicled cymes or in racemes or solitary; pedicels usually articulated
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (3–4) 5 (6–10), imbricate (usually quincuncial) in bud, free or rarely shortly united at the base, persistent or deciduous, sometimes enlarging in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals (4) 5 (6–12), free, contorted in bud, deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens (1) 5-?, apparently whorled or diplos-temonous or antisepalous, more rarely excentrically grouped, free, inserted on the receptacle; staminodes sometimes present outside the stamens, subulate or petaloid, sometimes connate into a tube; anthers usually ± elongated, extrorse, basifixed, often deciduous, dehiscing by longitudinal slits or apical pores; connective occasionally with a slender prolongation; filaments persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary free, sessile, syncarpous, either entire to shallowly lobed with apical style and 2–5 parietal (more rarely axile or basal) placentas each bearing 1-? ovules in two rows, or with (3) 5 (6–15) 1-ovulate lobes and gynobasic style; styles as many as the placentas or ovary-lobes, free towards the apex or completely united
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit either a septicidal 2–5-valved l-?-seeded capsule, or of (3) 4–12 1-seeded drupelets with fleshy or coriaceous mesocarp borne on a ± swollen receptacle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds exarillate, with or without endosperm; embryo straight or curved, incumbent or accumbent, isocotylous or heterocotylous


Ochnaceae, B. Verdcourt, B.Sc., Ph.D.. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or geophytic shrublets, less often annual or perennial herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple (pinnate and opposite in Rhytidanthera, a small S American genus) often with numerous lateral veins and densely reticulate tertiary venation, entire to serrate or setulose; stipules entire to deeply divided, deciduous or persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, almost always regular, solitary or in fascicles or raceme-like, paniculate or cymose inflorescences; pedicels often articulated
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (3–4–)5(–6–10), free, usually quincuncially imbricate, persistent or deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals (4–)5(–6–12), free, contorted in bud, often clawed, deciduous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens few to many, with persistent filaments; anthers linear, basifixed, dehiscing lengthwise or by apical pores; staminodes present outside stamens in a few genera (>i>Sauvagesia and allies)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, sessile, syncarpous, entire to lobed with style and 2–5 parietal placentas each with 1–many ovules, or with (3–)5(–6–15) lobes each with 1 ovule and style gynobasic; styles as many as placentas or ovary-lobes but completely united or free only at the apex with one globose or lobed stigma or separate stigmas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a collection of 3–12 one-seeded drupelets borne on a fleshy enlarged receptacle, a nut surrounded by unequal enlarged sepals or a septicidal 2–5-valved, 1–many-seeded capsule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with or without endosperm


Fiaschi, P., Nicoletti de Fraga, C. & Yamamoto, K. (2010). Neotropical Ochnaceae s.l. (incl. Quiinaceae).


Small to large trees, shrubs (rarely scandent), or herbs, glabrous , glabrescent or pilose . Leaves simple , alternate (subf. Ochnoideae), opposite or whorled (subf. Quiinoideae), sometimes pinnatifid or imparipinnately compound (Rhytidanthera and Touroulia), sessile or usually short- petiolate ; stipules intra- or interpetiolar , entire , awned or divided into setae, persistent or caducous ; margins usually crenate , serrate , denticulate , sometimes entire or ciliate (Luxemburgia); venation craspedodromous , brochidodromous or eucamptodromous (especially Ouratea s.l.); secondary veins usually running parallel, at least in the proximal half, a few well-spaced or numerous and closely arranged (Clusia-like); tertiary veins parallel or reticulate . Inflorescences terminal or axillary , generally compound , thyrsoid, botryoid or diplobotryoids, rarely reduced to a single flower (sometimes in Sauvagesia); bracts caducous or persistent . Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic due to the lateral position of the androecium and gynoecium (Cespedesia, Luxemburgia, Philacra and Wallacea); uni- or bisexual , the plants hermaphroditic, androdioecious, or dioecious (subf. Quiinoideae); pedicels articulated. Sepals (2-)4-5(-12), usually free , imbricate , sometimes ciliate or glandular - ciliate . Petals (3-)5(-8), free , usually yellow, sometimes whitish, reddish or pink. Androgynophore rarely present (Adenarake). Androecium of 5-25(->300) stamens, equally distributed in the receptacle or laterally grouped, sometimes surrounded by 1-2 cycles of filamentous or petaloid staminodes which may form a corona (Sauvagesia); anthers usually basifixed, sometimes dorsifixed (subf. Quiinoideae), dehiscing through longitudinal slits or 1-2 pores. Ovary superior , 2-10(-14)-carpellate, syncarpous or rarely apocarpous (Froesia), secondarily free in Ouratea; ovules 1-many per locule , placentation parietal , axilary or basal ; one or more styles (then each per carpel ), terminal , gynobasic in Ouratea; stigma punctate , slightly lobed or subpeltate. Fruits capsules or berries, sometimes schizocarps with 1-10 fleshy mericarps sitting on a reddish fleshy carpophore (Ouratea). Seeds one to many; endosperm present or absent; embryo straight or curved, cotyledons thick or small and delicate, equal to very unequal in size.

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • Recent classification systems have included Quiinaceae (and the Seychelles endemic Medusagynaceae) in the Ochnaceae (APG 2009). This view is here adopted. Whenever necessary the Ochnaceae s.s. is referred to as subf. Ochnoideae, and the Quiinaceae s.s. as subf. Quiinoideae [Stevens 2001 (onwards)].
  • Sauvagesiaceae has been earlier recognized as a family on its own, because of the flowers with 2-5 fused carpels, staminodes present, and seeds with endosperm. We agree that Sauvagesiaceae is better regarded as a subfamily of Ochnaceae (Amaral 1991).
Number of genera

19 native genera in the Neotropics:

  • Adenarake Maguire & Wurdack (2 spp.)
  • Blastemanthus Planch. (2 spp.)
  • Cespedesia Goudot [1 spp., C. spathulata (Ruiz. & Pav.) Planch.]
  • Elvasia DC. (14 spp.)
  • Froesia Pires (5 spp.)
  • Godoya Ruiz & Pav. (~ 5 spp.)
  • Krukoviella A.C.Sm. [1 spp., K. disticha (Tieghem) Dwyer]
  • Lacunaria Ducke (10 spp.)
  • Luxemburgia A. St.-Hil. (19 spp.)
  • Ouratea Aubl., including Gomphia Schreb., Kaieteurea Dwyer and Plicouratea Tiegh. (~ 300 spp.)
  • Perissocarpa Steyerm. & Maguire (3 spp.)
  • Philacra Dwyer (4 spp.)
  • Poecilandra Tul. (2 spp.)
  • Quiina Aubl. (~ 35 spp.)
  • Rhytidanthera (Planch.) Tieghem (5 spp.)
  • Sauvagesia L., including Lavradia Vell. (~ 40 spp.)
  • Tyleria Gleason, including Adenanthe Maguire, Steyerm. & Wurdack (15 spp.)
  • Touroulia Aubl. (2 spp.)
  • Wallacea Spruce ex Benth. & Hook.f. (3 spp.)
  • The abovementioned genera are mostly endemic to the Neotropics (Sauvagesia has a few Paleotropical species). A few species of Ochna L. are cultivated in the Neotropics.
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Adenarake, Blastemanthus, Philacra, Poecilandra, and Tyleria - endemic to the Guayana Shield in northern South America.
  • Elvasia - Mesoamerican and South American rainforests, especially in the Amazon Basin, the Guianas and the Brazilian Atlantic forests.
  • Froesia and Touroulia are restricted to northern South America, mostly in the Amazonian forests.
  • Godoya and Rhytidanthera are restricted to the Andean forests, from Colombia to Bolivia.
  • Krukoviella is endemic to the western Amazon, in Brazil (Amazonas), Peru and Ecuador (Zamora-Chinchipe).
  • Lacunaria - most species in the Amazonian lowland forests. Lacunariacrenata (Tul.) A.C. Sm. also in the Brazilian Atlantic forests, and L.panamensis (Standl.) Standl. endemic to the South central American rainforests.
  • Luxemburgia - Brazil. Most species endemic to the Espinhaço Range in Minas Gerais; a few species in Goiás, Bahia, and in granitic outcrops in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states.
  • Quiina - most species in the Amazon Basin. Distribution ranging from Belize and Jamaica to Bolivia and southern Brazil.
  • Perissocarpa - northern South America, at high-elevation areas (600-1900m) in the Andes, Coastal Cordillera of Venezuela, and the western portion of the Guayana Shield.
  • Sauvagesia - most species either endemic to white-sand forests and remnant areas of the Guayana Shield in Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil and Guyana, or to campos along the Espinhaço Range in Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil; yet, S. erecta has worldwide distribution.
  • Wallacea - white-sand forests in southeastern Colombia, southern Venezuela and northern Brazil.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Stipules present, often large and conspicuous, persistent or leaving a prominent scar.
Other important characters
  • The petioles are usually short, resembling a pulvinus.
  • Leaf margin is often crenate or serrate, sometimes shallowly denticulate, ciliate or smooth.
  • Inflorescences are usually paniculate, with showy flowers often with yellow petals (subf. Ochnoideae).
  • 2-15 fused carpels with a common style (subf. Ochnoideae s.s.) or with as many styles as the number of carpels (subf. Quiinoideae). Free carpels only in Froesia (subf. Quiinoideae).
Useful tips for generic identification
  • Adenarake have glandular bracts, flowers with an androgynophore, and 15 staminodes, the 5 inner ones enclosing the ovary and the fertile stamens.
  • Blastemanthus has leaves with numerous close-parallel secondary veins, flowers with 8-12 sepals, 3-carpellate and 3-locular ovary with numerous ovules per locule.
  • Cespedesia , Godoya and Rhytidanthera have fimbriate appendages at the proximal and adaxial surface of bracts and sepals, 5-carpelate pistils with intrusive T-shaped placentae and sessile stigma s, and winged seeds (Dwyer 1944a). These genera also do not have staminodes. Godoya and Rhytidanthera have 5 unequal sepals, and the latter is the only genus of Ochnaceae s.s . having imparipinnate leaves.
  • Elvasia and Perissocarpa have leaves with numerous close-parallel secondary veins, and undulate margins with minute teeth, uniovulate carpels and indehiscent fruits.
  • Froesia has bisexual flowers with an apocarpous gynoecium, glabrous seeds, pinnately-compound leaves and deeply divided stipules.
  • Krukoviella comprises scandent shrubs with reticulate tertiary venation, and stamens dehiscing by a single terminal pore.
  • Lacunaria has verticillate (rarely opposite) simple leaves with well-developed stipules and parallel tertiary veins, unisexual flowers without remnants of the other floral type (dioecious plants), and 4-14-locular ovaries.
  • Luxemburgia and Philacra have zygomorphic flowers at the androecium and gynoecium levels, with the stamens grouped around one side of the pistil.
  • Poecilandra , Tyleria and Wallacea have leaves with numerous close-parallel secondary veins, and flowers with (2)3-carpellate and unilocular ovary with numerous ovules per locule.
  • Ouratea has very frequently a unique venation (eucamptodromous), with the secondary veins curving strongly near the margin and continuing almost as submarginal veins, and short intersecondary veins paralleling the basal portion of secondaries (Gentry 1996); but sometimes, the intersecondary veins are obliquely reticulate (see Maguire & Steyermark, 1989); stipules are usually early caducous; when persistent, it may be an important species diagnostic feature.
  • Quiina has opposite leaves with intersecondary veins and plumose-reticulate tertiary veins, and unisexual flowers (androdioecious plants), predominantly with a 2-locular ovary.
  • Sauvagesia are usually herbs or subshrubs with awned stipules, and white, reddish or pink flowers; staminodes are common, in 1-2 series, sometimes forming a corona.
  • Touroulia - are trees with pinnate leaves, the leaflets with numerous closely spaced and more or less parallel running tertiary veins, unisexual flowers (androdioecious plants), syncarpous gynoecium, and villous seeds.
Notable genera and distinguishing features
  • Ouratea - the fruits have a fleshy and usually reddish 'carpophore' (derived from the enlargement of the basal portion of the carpels) that carries 1-10 one-seeded and usually erect blackish mericarps; a small group of Amazonian species (e.g., O. decagyna and O. discophora) has a 'carpophore' with mericarps horizontally arranged.
  • Sauvagesia, Tyleria, Wallacea and Elvasia kollmannii Fraga & Saavedra have white or reddish petals, contrasting with the majority of the Ochnaceae s.s., which have yellow petals.
Important literature

Amaral, M.C.E. 1991. Phylogenetische Systematik der Ochnaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 113: 105-196.

APG. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 105-121.

Cardoso, D.B.O.S. & Conceição, A.A. 2008. A new acicular -leaved species of Sauvagesia (Ochnaceae) from Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Brittonia 60(4): 305-309.

Chacon, R.G.; Yamamoto, K. & Cavalcanti, T.B. 2003. Ochnaceae. In: Cavalcanti, T.B. & Ramos, A.E. (orgs.) Flora do Distrito Federal, Brasil. v.3. Distrito Federal, Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia. Pp. 207-225.

Dwyer, J.D. 1943. The taxonomy of the monogeneric Tribe Elvasieae (Ochnaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 70(1): 42-49.

Dwyer, J.D. 1944a. A discussion of the Ochnaceous genus Fleurydora A. Chev. and the allied genera of the Luxemburgieae. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 71(2): 175-178.

Dwyer, J.D. 1944b. Philacra, a new genus of the Ochnaceae. Brittonia 5: 124-127.

Dwyer, J.D. 1945. The taxonomy of the genus Sauvagesia (Ochnaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 72(6): 521-540.

Dwyer, J.D. 1946. The taxonomy of Godoya R. and P., Rhytidanthera van Tieghem, and Cespedezia Goudot (Ochnaceae). Lloydia 9: 45-61.

Dwyer, J.D. 1951. The genus Luxemburgia (Ochnaceae). Lloydia 14: 82-97.

Dwyer, J.D. 1964. The taxonomy of Lavradia Vell. (Ochnaceae). Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 34(4): 507-518.

Dwyer, J.D. 1965. The Amazonian genus Wallacea Spruce ex Hook. f. (Ochnaceae). Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 35(1): 85-90.

Eichler, A. 1871. Sauvagesiaceae. In: Martius, C.F.P. & Eichler, A.G. (eds). Flora brasiliensis. Monachii, Frid. Fleischer 13(1): 398-419, tab. 81-85.

Engler, A. 1876. Ochnaceae. In: Martius, C.F.P., Eichler, A.G. & Urban, I. (eds). Flora brasiliensis. Monachii, Frid. Fleischer 12(2): 297-366, tab. 62-77.

Engler, A. 1888. Guttiferae et Quiinaceae. In: Martius, C.F.P., Eichler, A.G. & Urban, I. (eds) Flora brasiliensis. Monachii, Frid. Fleischer pp. 12(1): 381-486, tab. 109-110.

Farron, C. 1963. Contribuition à la taxonomie des Ourateae Engl. Bulletin Societe Botanique de Suisse 73: 196-217.

Feres, F. 2001. O gênero Luxemburgia A. St.-Hil. (Ochnaceae) - Revisão taxonômica e estudo cladístico. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade de Campinas.

Fraga, C.N. & Feres, F. 2007. Luxemburgiamysteriosa (Ochnaceae), a new species From the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Harvard Papers in Botany 12(2): 405-408.

Fraga, C.N. & Saavedra, M.M. 2006. Three new species of Elvasia (Ochnaceae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, with an emended key for Subgenus Hostmannia. Novon 16: 483-489.

Gentry, A.H. 1996. A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of North west South America: (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Gleason. 1931. Botanical results of the Tyler-Duida Expedicion. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 58: 277-506.

Guimarães, E.F. & Pereira, J.M.C. 1966. Ochnaceae no Estado da Guanabara. Rodriguésia 25(37): 59-65.

Harley, R.M., A.M. Giulietti & K.R.B. Leite. 2005. Two new species and a new record of Sauvagesia (Ochnaceae) in the Chapada Diamantina of Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 60: 571-580.

Maguire, B. & Steyermark, J. 1989. Ouratea (Ochnaceae) in Guayana and adjacent Amazonian hylea. Botany of Guayana Highland. XIII. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 51: 56-102.

Macbride, J.F. 1956. Flora of Peru: Ochnaceae. Field Museum of Natural History-Botany 13(3a/2): 686-697.

Rocha, A.E.S. & Secco, R.S. 2004. Uma sinopse de Lacunaria Ducke. Acta Amazonica 34: 425-433.

Sastre, C. 1981. Ochnacées nouvelles du Brésil. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de la Bélgique 51 (3/4): 347-413.

Sastre, C. 1988. Studies on the Flora of the Guianas 34. Synopsis generis Ouratea Aublet (Ochnaceae). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4e. sér., 10, section B, Adansonia 1: 47-67.

Sastre, C. 1995a. Novelties in the neotropical genus Ouratea Aublet (Ochnaceae). Novon 5: 193-200.

Sastre, C. 1995b. Ochnaceae. In: Stannard, B.L.; Harvey, Y.B. & Harley, R.M. (eds.) Flora of the Pico das Almas: Chapada Diamantina-Bahia, Brazil. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.  Pp. 519-522.

Sastre, C. 1997. Uma espécie nova de Sauvagesia L.(Ochnaceae) do campo rupestre do Estado de Goiás. Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 16: 71-73.

Sastre, C. 2001. New Ouratea species (Ochnaceae) from Venezuela and adjacent countries. Novon 11: 105-118.

Sastre, C. 2003. Ochnaceae. In: Steyermark J.A., Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol. 7. Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis.  Pp. 124-161

Sastre, C. 2004. Une nouvelle espèce d'Ouratea (Ochnaceae) du Venezuela. Adansonia ser. 3, 29(1): 77-91.

Sastre, C. 2005. Une nouvelle espèce d'Ouratea (Ochnaceae) de l'Amazonie Brésilienne. Adansonia ser. 3, 27(1): 85-88.

Sastre, C. 2006. Deux nouvelles espèces d'Ouratea (Ochnaceae) des Guyanes. Adansonia sér. 3, 28(1) : 119-127.

Sastre, C. 2007. Six nouvelles espèces d'Ouratea (Ochnaceae) des Guyanes. Adansonia ser. 3, 29(1): 77-91.

Sastre, C., Whitefoord, C. & Knapp, S. 1999. A new species of Elvasia (Ochnaceae) from Mesoamerica with discussion of subgeneric classification and phytogeography. Novon 9: 253-256.

Sastre, C. & Offroy, B. 2009. Description de trois nouveaux Ouratea L. (Ochnaceae) du Paraguay, de Bolivie et d'Équateur. Considérations taxonomiques, nomenclaturales et biogéographiques sur les espèces affi nes d'O. superba Engl. Adansonia ser. 3, 31(1): 89-101.

Schneider, J.V. 1998. El género Quiina (Quiinaceae), con especial referencia a las especies de Venezuela. Acta Botánica Venezuélica 21: 1-74.

Schneider, J.V. & Zizka, G. 2004. Quiinaceae. In: Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol. 8. Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis. Pp. 393-407.

Schneider, J.V., Swenson, U. & Zizka, G. 2002. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Neotropical family Quiinaceae (Malpighiales) based on morphology with remarks on the evolution of an androdioecious sex distribution. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 89: 64-76.

Schneider, J.V., Swenson, U., Samuel, R., Stuessy, T. & Zizka, G. 2006. Phylogenetics of Quiinaceae (Malpighiales): evidence from trnL-trnF sequence data and morphology. Plant Syst. Evol. 257: 189-203.

Steyermark, J.A. & Bunting, G.S. 1975. Revision of the genus Froesia (Quiinaceae). Brittonia 27(2): 172-178.

Steyermark. J. & Maguire, B. 1984. Ochnaceae. In: Steyermark, J.A. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana-I. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 71(1): 319-323.

Tieghem, P. Van. 1902. Sur les Ochnacées. Annales Sciences Naturelles Botanique, sér. 8e, 16: 161-416.

Wallnöffer, B. 1998. A revision of Perissocarpa Steyerm. & Maguire (Ochnaceae). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 100 B: 683-707.

Woodson, R.E., Schery, R.W. & Dwyer, J.D. 1967. Flora of Panama. Part VI. Family 119. Ochnaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 54(1): 25-40.

Yamamoto, K. 1989. Morfologia, anatomia e sistemática do genero Ouratea Aublet (Ochnaceae) : levantamento preliminar das características de importância taxonômica e avaliação das classificações vigentes. Dissertação de Mestrado, UNICAMP.

Yamamoto, K. 1995a. Estudos taxonômicos sobre Ouratea parviflora (DC.) Baill (Ochnaceae) e especies afins ocorrentes em floresta atlântica nas regiões sudeste e sul do Brasil. Tese de Doutorado, UNICAMP.

Yamamoto, K. 1995b. Ouratea hatschbachii (Ochnaceae): Uma nova espécie de Grão-Mogol, Estado de Minas Gerais. Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 14: 33-37.

Yamamoto, K. & Sastre, C. 2004. Flora de Grão Mogol, Minas Gerais: Ochnaceae. Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 22(2): 343-348.

Yamamoto, K., Chacon, R.G., Proença, C., Cavalcanti, T.B., and Graciano-Ribeiro, D.A. 2008. A distinctive new species of Ouratea (Ochnaceae) from the Jalapão Region, Tocantins, Brazil. Novon 18(3): 397-404.

Zappi, D.C. & Lucas, E. 2002. Sauvagesia nitida Zappi & E. Lucas (Ochnaceae): a new species from Catolés, Bahia, NE Brazil. Kew Bulletin 57(3): 711-717.

Zizka, G. & Schneider, J.V. 1999. The genus Touroulia Aubl. (Quiinaceae). Willdenowia 29: 227-234.


Ochnaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs with watery juice, rarely herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple, very rarely pinnate, often with numerous pinnate nerves; stipules present, sometimes laciniate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, mostly racemose or paniculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4–5, rarely 10, free, imbricate or rarely contorted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals free, 4–10, subsessile, contorted or imbricate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens few to many, free; staminodes sometimes present, subulate or petaloid, sometimes connate into a tube; filaments persistent; anthers linear, basifixed, opening lengthwise or by terminal pores
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary entire to deeply lobed, 1–10-celled; ovules 1 to many, axile or parietal or attached to the intrusive placentas; style simple or divided at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruiting carpels often becoming quite separate on the enlarged torus and drupaceous, or elongated capsular and septicidal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1 to many, with or without endosperm; embryo usually straight

Ochnaceae DC. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2(no. 40): 208. 1811 [Jan 1811] (1811)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016)


Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
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Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.