According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009
- Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic to more often slightly to strongly zygomorphic, often 2-lipped, rarely 1-lipped, rarely resupinate; tube short to elongate, rarely spurred, sometimes with a ring of hairs or appendaged within; lobes (2–)4–5(–16), equal or unequal, one or other lip often concave to galeate
- Stamens epipetalous, attached within corolla tube, usually 4 or 2 by abortion and then staminodes often present, or stamens 5–6, when 4 often didynamous, usually free; filaments usually exserted from corolla tube, sometimes included within lip of corolla, rarely held within tube; anthers dithecous, synthecous or monothecous by abortion, opening by longitudinal slits or rarely by pores
- Disk at base of ovary often present, nectariferous
- Gynoecium 2-carpellate, often 4-locular by intrusion of carpel margin forming a “false septum”, or rarely imperfectly 2-locular and free towards apex; ovary entire or lobed, with terminal style, or more often deeply 4-lobed, the locules often separated and with style gynobasic; ovules usually 4, anatropous to hemianatropous, usually basal or sub-basal, erect, rarely orthotropous, apical, pendulous, borne submarginally on the carpel wall (placenta); style usually with 2 equal or unequal stigma-lobes, rarely entire with 1 stigma-lobe vestigial, or stigma capitate or very rarely 4-lobed
- Fruit drupaceous or dry and indehiscent, 4-seeded or fewer by abortion, or frequently splitting into four 1-seeded mericarps, sometimes fewer by abortion; mericarps (nutlets) often with sculptured, tuberculate, hairy or rarely winged pericarp, mucilage cells often present
- Seeds albuminous or exalbuminous; embryo straight or bent.
- The traditional division of Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae is far from satisfactory, e.g. Bentham & Hooker in G.P. 2: 1131–1223 (1876); Baker & Stapf in F.T.A. 5: 273–502 (1900). The delimitation of these families was based on whether the taxa were mostly woody with a terminal or subterminal style (Verbenaceae) or mostly herbaceous with a gynobasic style (Lamiaceae). This traditional classification is difficult to implement, there being many intermediates, and also it does not represent phylogenetically natural taxa. A full discussion of the problems with this traditional classification and of the new circumscription of Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae is provided by Harley in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 188–190 (2004). The Verbenaceae are now restricted to subfamily Verbenoideae of traditional classifications (e.g. Briquet in E.P. Pf. IV, 3a: 132–182 (1895)) which has an indeterminate racemose inflorescence and a salverform corolla with stamens included; whereas in the Lamiaceae the inflorescence is cymose with determinate, usually opposite cymes and the corollas are tubular and usually bilabiate with the stamens usually exserted from the tube, but can be held within the lobes and rarely within the tube. The cymes in Lamiaceae are arranged usually in opposite pairs along an indeterminate axis, forming a thyrse. In some Lamiaceae the cymes are reduced to single flowers though bracteoles are often present below the flower in these cases, indicating the cymose, rather than racemose, nature of the inflorescence. These gross morphological differences are supported by anatomical and pollen characters: the Verbenaceae have their ovules attached marginally on the carpel margin, and have thickened pollen exine near the apertures; the Lamiaceae have the ovules attached submarginally and have an unthickened exine. Good general accounts of the Verbenaceae can be found in Sanders in Harvard Papers in Botany 5: 303–358 (2001) and Atkins in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 449–468 (2004). Following this delimitation the Verbenaceae includes 34 genera and around 1200 species, and is most abundant in temperate South America. Within the Flora of Tropical East Africa area the family is represented by 8 genera and 39 species. The genera are: Chascanum, Duranta, Lantana, Lippia, Phyla, Priva, Stachytarpheta and Verbena. Thus only genera 1–8 and the cultivated Aloysia, Citharexylum and Petrea listed by Verdcourt, Flora of Tropical East Africa, Verbenaceae (1992) remain in Verbenaceae. The classification of the Lamiaceae used here follows the account of Harley et al. in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 167–275 (2004). There are seven subfamilies. The genera of subfamily Viticoideae found within the Flora area have already been covered by the FTEA treatment of Verbenaceae (Verdcourt, 1992). Premna and Vitex are the only natively occurring genera of the Viticoideae, with teak ( Tectona) and Gmelina being the best known introduced members of this group. Subfamily Ajugoideae within the Flora area comprises Teucrium (genus 1) and Ajuga (2) covered in this volume, plus Clerodendrum (including Rotheca) and Karomia accounted for in the Flora treatment of Verbenaceae (Verdcourt, 1992). Subfamily Scutellarioideae includes Tinnea (3) and Scutellaria (4) in this volume plus the cultivated Holmskioldia included within the Verbenaceae volume. Subfamily Lamioideae includes genera 5–9, and subfamily Nepetoideae comprises genera 9–30. Subfamily Nepetoideae is by far the largest group of Lamiaceae and can be divided into tribe Mentheae (genera 10–14) and tribe Ocimeae (genera 15–30). Tribe Ocimeae is the most speciose group in the Flora area and an account of the relationships within this group can be found in Paton et al., Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31: 277–299 (2004). Of the remaining subfamilies, subfamily Prostantheroideae is Australian and absent from the Flora area, whereas the Asiatic Symphorematoideae is represented only by the cultivated Congea, included in the FTEA Verbenaceae account. In the FTEA area the family is represented by 416 species in 35 genera, 327 species in 30 genera being covered in this volume and 89 in the Flora treatment of Verbenaceae. The Lamiaceae is one of the most widely used and cultivated plant families, with 33 genera cultivated in the FTEA area. Uses include timber ( Tectona and Gmelina), medicine, flavouring and as ornamanentals. The family is best known for its aromatic herbs, many of which belong in subfamily Nepetoideae. A good review of uses and underlying phytochemistry can be found in Harley et al. (2004) along with references to more detailed sources. The account of cultivated Lamiaceae below is unlikely to be comprehensive as new species and cultivars will be introduced as the horticultural trade in southern and tropical Africa develops further. A comprehensive account of cultivated Lamiaceae can be found in Cullen, J. et al. (eds) (2000) European Garden Flora 6: 149–230.
- Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or climbers, rarely trees, aromatic or not
- Stems often square in cross-section
- Leaves simple or sometimes compound and then digitate or pinnate, opposite, often decussate, sometimes whorled, very rarely alternate, rarely forming a basal rosette, exstipulate
- Inflorescence composed of cymes and often arranged in a terminal, lax or congested indeterminate thyrse which may be paniculate, raceme-like with cymes 1-flowered, or spike-like, or rarely congested into a head, usually with bracts and sometimes with bracteoles
- Flowers actinomorphic to zygomorphic, hypogynous, usually bisexual
- Calyx gamosepalous, sometimes 2-lipped, often accrescent; lobes 2–many, often 5, equal or unequal, rarely obsolete, some lobes often fused, or lips entire
According to Neotropikey[NTK]
Bramley, G., Harley, R. & Paton, A. (2009). Neotropical Lamiaceae.
Trees, shrubs, subshrubs or perennial or annual herbs, [rarely climbers ], aromatic or not. Stems often quadrangular, erect to prostrate , sometimes forming stolons or large or slender rhizomes. Indumentum usually present, of glandular and non- glandular trichomes, often hair-like, rarely scale-like, usually multicellular-uniseriate, simple , branched, dendroid or stellate , sometimes gland -tipped, large-headed subsessile glands rarely absent. Leaves opposite, often decussate , sometimes whorled , very rarely alternate , simple , entire , toothed or lobed , sometimes compound and then digitate , petiolate or sessile , rarely forming a basal rosette , exstipulate . Inflorescence often bracteate, bracts persistent or deciduous , rarely spirally arranged, composed of cymes, bracteolate or not, and often arranged in a terminal , lax or congested indeterminate thyrse which may be paniculate, raceme -like with cymes often 1-flowered, or spike -like, or rarely congested into a capitulum , with or without a distinct involucre of bracteoles, sometimes conspicuous. Flowers hypogynous, usually bisexual , or less often unisexual due to gynodioecy or gynomonoecy, very rarely due to dioecy. Perianth biseriate, sepals 4-5[(--7)], connate , actinomorphic to zygomorphic , sometimes 2-lipped, lobes 2--many, often 5, equal or unequal, rarely obsolete, some lobes often fused, or lips entire , calyx -tube (5--)10--15-nerved, straight or curved, throat hairy or glabrous , calyx often accrescent , rarely inflated or fleshy in fruit . Petals (4--)5(--16) connate , actinomorphic to more often slightly to strongly zygomorphic , often 2-lipped, rarely 1-lipped, lobes (2--)4--5[(--7)], equal or unequal, porrect to patent, one or other lip often concave to galeate, corolla -tube short to elongate, [rarely spurred], often with annulus of hairs or appendaged within, rarely corolla resupinate. Stamens epipetalous, attached within corolla -tube, usually 4 or 2 by abortion and then staminodes often present, or stamens 5[-6], when 4 often didynamous (rarely a fifth, posterior vestigial staminode present), free or rarely monodelphic, filaments short or often elongate, usually exserted from corolla -tube and sometimes long- exserted from corolla ; parallel, divergent or ascending and sometimes included within or lying under the posterior corolla -lip, or declinate and then sometimes included within the anterior corolla -lip, anthers usually dithecous, tetrasporangiate or monothecous by abortion, thecae parallel or divergent , occasionally widely separated by an elongate connective, or apically confluent or synthecous, opening by longitudinal slits or rarely by pores. Disc at base of ovary often present, usually fleshy , entire or irregularly or often 4- lobed , anterior lobe sometimes longer than others, nectariferous. Gynoecium 2-carpellate, often 4-locular by intrusion of carpel wall forming "false septum", [or rarely imperfectly 2-locular and free towards apex ], ovary usually 4-ovuled, [2-locular ovaries generally with loculi 2-ovuled and 4-locular ovaries with 1 ovule per loculus], ovary entire or lobed , with terminal style , or more often deeply 4- lobed , the loculi often separated and with style gynobasic; style not persistent or rarely persistent in young fruit (Prostantheroideae), usually with 2 equal or unequal stigma -lobes, rarely entire with 1 stigma -lobe vestigial, or stigma capitate or very rarely 4- lobed . Ovules anatropous to hemianatropous, usually basal or sub - basal , erect , rarely orthotropous, apical, pendulous, borne laterally or submarginally on the placenta , unitegmic, tenuinucellate. Fruit drupaceous , often with pyrenes, or dry, indehiscent , or frequently, four 1-seeded mericarps, sometimes fewer by abortion. Mericarps (nutlets) often with sculptured, tuberculate , hairy or rarely winged pericarp , mucilage cells often present. Seeds albuminous or exalbuminous, epigeal. Embryo straight or bent, investing or spatulate.
Distribution in the Neotropics
The South American Labiate flora, which contains two very large genera, Salvia L. and Hyptis Jacq., but rather few genera in total, falls naturally into three regions: A. Andean; B. Guianan and Brazilian Shields; C Temperate South America.
A. The Andean Labiatae are primarily derived from north temperate genera, and the various groups have many links to Central America, including Mexico.
- The largest group is Salvia subg. Calosphace Raf. with its Andean centre of diversity linked to a much larger one in Mexico.
- Scutellaria L., Stachys L. and Clinopodium L. also appear to have been derived from a southern migration from Central America, but have radiated to produce endemic groups, in some cases associated with adaptations to humming-bird pollination.
- Other Andean Nepetoid genera include the monotypicObtegomeria Doroszenko & P.D.Cantino from Colombia, related to Clinopodium, Minthostachys (Benth.) Spach, which appears most closely related to the Macaronesian Bystropogon L'Hér., and Lepechinia Willd., which extends to Mexico with one Hawaiian extension.
- The small Neotropical genus Catoferia (Benth.) Benth. (Nepetoideae, Ocimeae) also links Central and S America, but its closest relatives would seem to be eastern Asiatic members of the Old World subtribe Ociminae, perhaps the genus Orthosiphon Benth. & M.Ashby.
- The only other member of the subtribe native to the Americas is Ocimum L., which extends from Mexico to South America. One species extends into lowland areas of the Andes.
B. Guianan and Brazilian Shields.
- This region, including Amazonian and eastern South America, mostly overlying much older geological formations, has a very different flora, dominated by the Nepetoid Ocimeae, subtribe Hyptidinae.
- This is composed of the large genus Hyptis with about 300 species, and a number of smaller endemic, satellite genera, such as Peltodon Pohl, Rhaphiodon Schauer, Hypenia Mart. ex Benth., Hyptidendron Harley and Eriope Humb. & Bonpl. ex Benth.
- The primarily Old World genus Ocimum (Nepetoideae: Ocimeae) is represented by several species endemic to the area. It seems probable that Ocimum originally had an Old World tropical origin, perhaps reaching the New World via W Africa in the early Tertiary.
- A few species of Salvia (Mentheae) reach the mountains of eastern Brazil and extend south into temperate S America.
- Other endemic genera to be found in this region include Cornutia (Viticoideae) L., Amasonia L.f. and Monochilus (Ajugoideae) Fisch. & C.A.Mey., and more widespread genera such as Vitex L., Clerodendrum (Viticoideae) L. and Aegiphila (Ajugoideae) Jacq. The latter, with over 100 species, extends throughout tropical America.
C. Temperate South America.
- A number of endemic genera occur in this region, belonging to Nepetoideae, tribe Mentheae: Kurzamra Kuntze, Rhabdocaulon (Benth.) Epling, Glechon Spreng. and Hoehnea Epling, while Cunila D.Royen ex L. and Hesperozygis Epling are trans-equatorial, being also represented in Mexico, although this needs confirmation from molecular studies.
D. Northern America and Mexico.
- This region has quite a large number of endemic genera, both in the west, especially California, as well as in the East.
- Most of these belong to Tribe Mentheae (Nepetoideae) and include: Monarda L., Monardella Benth., Pycnanthemum Michx., Rhododon Epling, Stachydeoma Small, Pogogyne Benth., Acanthomintha A.Gray, Neoeplingia Ramamoorthy, P.Hiriart Valencia & F.González Medrano and Blephilia Raf.
- Endemic Lamioideae include: Warnockia M.W.Turner, Physostegia Benth., Macbridea Raf., Brazoria Engelm. & Gray and Synandra Nutt. Trichostema (Ajugoideae) Gronov. ex L. is a near endemic, extending into the Caribbean.
- More widespread, species-rich genera represented in the area, include Scutellaria (Scutellarioideae) L., Stachys (Lamioideae), Salvia, Lycopus L. Clinopodium and Hedeoma (Nepetoideae) Pers., the last a New World genus extending into Andean and temperate South America.
- Of particular interest is Lycopus (Mentheae), with a circum-boreal distribution, but well represented in North America, while Mentha L. and Dracocephalum L., both primarily Old World genera, each have one species native in North America.
- One or two members of the species-rich genus Clerodendrum (Ajugoideae) L., primarily of the Old World tropics, occur in southern areas.
- The primarily tropical Viticoideae is represented by Vitex L., which in the New World is confined to the Caribbean and Central America from Mexico southwards, but there are also two genera endemic to the Caribbean: Petitia Jacq. and Pseudocarpidium Millsp.
- Mention should also be made here of Callicarpa (Incertae sedis) L. This is a mainly Asiatic genus, with a few New World species, especially C. americana L., in the S United States and Mexico, and others in the Caribbean.
Useful tips for generic identification
Grouped into seven subfamilies, five of which are native in the Neotropics:
Symphorematoideae: Congea Roxb.(planted):
- Inflorescence capitate, subtended by enlarged, showy bracteoles.
Viticoideae (transferred from Verbenaceae sensu Briq.):
- Tropical shrubs and trees.
- Characteristic fruit - a drupe, likened to an egg in egg-cup.
- Terminal style.
- Vitex usually has digitate leaves.
Ajugoideae (some genera transferred from Verbenaceae sensu Briq.):
- Stamens well exserted.
- Actinomorphic to 1-lipped corolla.
- Fruit a drupe with a terminal style but often lobes evident.
Scutellarioideae (In Neotropics):
- Calyx usually 2-lipped with lips entire e.g. Scutellaria Riv. ex L.
- Posterior lip of calyx usually folded to form a scutellum.
Lamioideae (wide range of genera e.g. Stachys L. Several genera widely introduced as weeds (Lamium L., Marrubium L.,Leonitis Spach,Leonurus L.):
- Gynobasic style.
- Often aromatic.
- Pollen hexacolpate (other subfamilies usually tricolpate e.g. Salvia L., Hyptis Jacq., Minthostachys (Benth.) Spach, Clinopodium L.).
- Many genera introduced and cultivated.
- Prunella L. naturalized in montane areas.
- Recognizable by its unusual stamen structure.
- Salvia only expresses two stamens, and the thecae on each stamen are separated by an elongate connective.
- This staminal structure is associated with a pollination syndrome in which the pollinator pushes against the posterior (usually sterile) anther theca while accessing a nectar reward at the base of the corolla tube. This causes the anterior (fertile) anther theca to deposit pollen on the pollinator via a lever-like mechanism.
- At least 500 species in Central and South America.
- The infra-generic classification proposed, especially by Briquet (1897), largely based on staminal structure, is out-dated, though the Neotropical subgenera Calosphace Benth. and Audibertia (Benth.) Epling appear to be monophyletic.
- Flowers arranged variously, often in pedunculate or sessile, congested cymes or involucrate capitula in terminal panicles, or in spikes or axillary.
- Flowers sometimes in lax cymes, rarely fasciculate on long pedicels in the axils of the leaves.
- About 280 species, mostly tropical and subtropical savannas, sometimes in humid areas, almost entirely New World, from southern U.S.A. to Caribbean and S to Argentina and Peru, a few species extending into Old World.
- Leaves opposite.
- Usually quadrangular stem when young.
- Stamens exserted.
- Corolla often zygomorphic.
- Style soon deciduous.
- Separate from Verbenaceae because of cymose inflorescence, usually lipped (rather than salverform) corolla, stamens well-exserted.
- Differs from Rubiaceae as fused interpetiolar stipules absent, usually zygomorphic flowers, superior (rather than inferior) ovary.
- Differs from Solanaceae as usually opposite leaves, fruits with 4 nutlets or 1-5 pyrenes (not copious seed).
- Separated from Apocynaceae by absence of white sap, petals not twisted in bud, no colleters on petiole base and adjoining stem, seed usually without tuft of hairs; androecium and gynoecium never fused.
- Separated from Boraginaceae as flowers not regular, cymes usually not scorpioid, often not hispid.
- Separate from Rutaceae (compound leaves Vitex can be confused with Rutaceae) as flowers not regular corolla and calyx lobes fused (not free), leaves usually opposite (not alternate).
- Stipules absent.
- Cymose inflorescence.
- Tubular corolla and persistent synsepalous calyx.
- General Description
- See Neotropical genera
There are 65 genera of Lamiaceae, of which 48 are native and 17 cultivated/introduced:
- Acanthomintha (A.Gray) A.Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 2(1): 365 (1878).California, NW. Mexico. 1 Species
- Aegiphila Jacq., Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist.: t. 16 (1763).Mexico to Tropical America 156 Species.
- Agastache Clayton ex Gronov., Fl. Virgin., ed. 2: 88 (1762).C. & E. Asia, N. America. 12 Species
- Amasonia L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 48 (1782).Trop. America. 5 Species Anisomeles R.Br., Prodr.: 503 (1810). 1 Species introduced in Neotropics, native to W. Indian Ocean, Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to N. Australia
- Asterohyptis Epling, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 60: 17 (1933 publ. 1932).Mexico to C. America, Caribbean. 3 Species
- Ballota L., Sp. Pl.: 582 (1753). 1 Species introduced in Neotropics, native to Macaronesia, Europe, Medit. to W. Asia, Mauritania, Chad, S. Africa
- Callicarpa L., Sp. Pl.: 111 (1753).America, W. Indian Ocean to W. Pacific. 31 Species
- Catoferia (Benth.) Benth. in G.Bentham & J.D.Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 1173 (1876).Mexico to Colombia. 4 Species
- Chaunostoma J.D.Sm., Bot. Gaz. 20: 9 (1895).SE. Mexico to C. America. 1 Species
- Clerodendrum L., Sp. Pl.: 637 (1753).Trop. & Subtrop. 34 Species
- Clinopodium L., Sp. Pl.: 587 (1753).Temp. & Subtrop. 57 Species
- Congea Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 3: 90 (1820) 1 Species introduced in Neotropics, native to India to SC. China and W. Malesia
- Cornutia Plum. ex L., Sp. Pl.: 628 (1753).Mexico to Trop. America. 9 Species
- Cunila Royen ex L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1359 (1759), nom. cons.C. & E. U.S.A. to C. America, Brazil to Argentina. 20 Species
- Eriope Humb. & Bonpl. ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 142 (1833). S. Trop. America. 30 Species
- Eriothymus (Benth.) Rchb., Handb. Nat. Pfl.-Syst.: 189 (1837).SE. Brazil. 1 Species
- Glechon Spreng., Syst. Veg. 4(2): 227 (1827).Brazil to Argentina. 7 Species
- Gmelina. Sp. Pl.: 626 (1753).1 Species introduced in Neotropics, native to Mascarenes, Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to W. Pacific
- Hedeoma Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 131 (1806).America. 34 Species
- Hesperozygis Epling, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 85: 132 (1936).Mexico, Brazil. 7 Species
- Hoehnea Epling, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 115: 8 (1939).Brazil to Argentina. 4 Species
- Holmskioldia Retz., Observ. Bot. 6: 31 (1791). 1 Species introduced to Neotropics, native to Indian Subcontinent to Myanmar
- Hypenia (Mart. ex Benth.) Harley, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 98: 91 (1988).N. South America to Brazil. 24 Species
- Hyptidendron Harley, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 98: 90 (1988).S. Trop. America. 16 Species
- Hyptis Jacq., Collectanea 1: 101 (1787).Trop. & Subtrop. America, W. Trop. Africa. 289 Species
- Lamium L., Sp. Pl.: 579 (1753). 2 Species introduced to Neotropics, native to Temp. Eurasia, Macaronesia to Ethiopia
- Leonotis (Pers.) R.Br., Prodr.: 504 (1810).Trop. & S. Africa, Madagascar. 1 Species introduced to Neotropics
- Leonurus L., Sp. Pl.: 584 (1753).Temp. Eurasia. 2 Species introduced to Neotropics
- Lepechinia Willd., Hort. Berol. 1: 20 (1804).SW. U.S.A. to S. America. 37 Species
- Leucas R.Br.: 504 (1810). 1 Species introduced to Neotropics, native to Africa to NE. Australia
- Marrubium L., Sp. Pl.: 583 (1753).Macaronesia to Temp. Eurasia. 1 Species introduced to Neotropics
- Marsypianthes Mart. ex Benth., Labiat. Gen. Spec.: 64 (1833).Mexico to Trop. America. 6 Species
- Melissa L., Sp. Pl.: 592 (1753).S. Europe to Malesia. 1 Species introduced to Neotropics
- Mentha L., Sp. Pl.: 576 (1753).Cosmopolitan. 5 Species
- Micromeria Benth., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 15: t. 1282 (1829).Temp. & Subtrop. 3 Species
- Mintostachys (Benth.) Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 9: 164 (1840).S. Trop. America. 11 Species
- Moluccella L., Sp. Pl.: 587 (1753).Medit. to C. Asia. 1 Species (cultivated/introduced)
- Monochilus Fisch. & C.A.Mey., Index Seminum (LE) 1: 34 (1835).Brazil. 84. 2 Species
- Neoeplingia Ramamoorthy, Hiriart & Medrano, Bol. Soc. Bot. México 43: 61 (1982).Mexico. 79. 1 Species
- Nepeta L., Sp. Pl.: 570 (1753).Temp. Eurasia Macaronesia to E. Trop. Africa. 1 Species introduced to Neotropics
- Obtegomeria Doroszenko & P.D.Cantino, Novon 8: 2 (1998).W. South America. 83. 1 Species
- Ocimum L., Sp. Pl.: 597 (1753).Trop. & Subtrop. 10 Species
- Origanum L. 1 Species introduced to Neotropics, native to Macaronesia, Europe, Medit. to C. China
- Peltodon Pohl, Pl. Bras. Icon. Descr. 1: 66 (1827).S. Trop. America. 5 Species
- Petitia Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl.: 1 (1760).Caribbean. 81. 3 Species
- Physostegia Benth. Edwards's Bot. Reg. 15: t. 1289 (1829) 2 Species, N. America to Mexico
- Plectranthus L'Hér., Stirp. Nov.: 84, verso (1788).Trop. & Subtrop. 4 Species
- Poliomintha A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 295 (1873).S. U.S.A. to Mexico. 8 Species
- Prunella L., Sp. Pl.: 600 (1753).Temp. & Subtrop. Northern Hemisphere. 1 Species probably naturalised in Neotropics
- Pseudocarpidium Millsp., Publ. Field Columbian Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 181 (1906).Caribbean. 81. 9 Species
- Rhaphiodon Schauer, Flora 27: 345 (1844).Brazil. 1 Species
- Rosmarinus L., Sp. Pl.: 23 (1753). 1 Species introduced to Neotropics, native to Mediterranean
- Salvia L., Sp. Pl.: 23 (1753).Cosmopolitan. 605 Species
- Scutellaria L., Sp. Pl.: 598 (1753).Cosmopolitan. 96 Species
- Stachys L., Sp. Pl.: 580 (1753).Cosmopolitan. 72 Species
- Tectona L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 151 (1781), nom. cons. 1 Species introduced to Neotropics, native to Tropical Asia
- Teucrium L., Sp. Pl.: 562 (1753).Cosmopolitan. 10 Species
- Tinnea Kotschy & Peyr., Pl. Tinn.: 25 (1867). 1 Species introduced to Neotropics, native to Trop. & S. Africa
- Trichostema L., Sp. Pl.: 598 (1753).N. America. 8 Species
- Vitex L., Sp. Pl.: 638 (1753).Trop. & Subtrop. 61 Species
- Warnockia M.W.Turner, Pl. Syst. Evol. 203: 78 (1996).C. U.S.A. to NE. Mexico. 1 Species
- The traditional division of Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae is far from satisfactory, e.g., Bentham & Hooker in Gen. Pl. 2: 1131-1223 (1876); Baker & Stapf in F.T.A. 5: 273-502 (1900). The delimitation of these families was based on whether the taxa were mostly woody with a terminal or subterminal style (Verbenaceae) or mostly herbaceous with a gynobasic style (Lamiaceae). This traditional classification is difficult to implement, there being many intermediates, and also it does not represent phylogenetically natural taxa. A full discussion of the problems with this traditional classification and of the new circumscription of Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae is provided by Harley in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 188-190 (2004).
- The Verbenaceae is now restricted to subfamily Verbenoideae of traditional classifications (e.g. Briquet in Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4, 3a: 132-182 (1895)) which has an indeterminate racemose inflorescence and a salverform corolla with stamens included; whereas in the Lamiaceae the inflorescence is cymose with determinate, usually opposite cymes and the corollas are tubular and usually bilabiate with the stamens usually exserted from the tube, but can be held within the lobes and rarely within the tube.
- The cymes in Lamiaceae are arranged usually in opposite pairs along an indeterminate axis, forming a thyrse. In some Lamiaceae the cymes are reduced to single flowers though bracteoles are often present below the flower in these cases, indicating the cymose, rather than racemose, nature of the inflorescence. These gross morphological differences are supported by anatomical and pollen characters: the Verbenaceae have their ovules attached marginally on the carpel margin, and have thickened pollen exine near the apertures; the Lamiaceae have the ovules attached submarginally and have an unthickened exine.
Harley*, R.M., Atkins*, S., Budantsev, A.L., Cantino, P.D., Conn, B.J., Grayer*, R., Harley*, M.M., de Kok*, R., Krestovskaja, T., Morales, R., Paton*, A.J., Ryding, O. & Upson, T. (2004). Labiatae. In Kadereit, J.W. (ed.) The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol. VII, Lamiales. Berlin: Springer. 167-282.
According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 8:7. 2005
- Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or trees, often aromatic
- Stems frequently square in cross section
- Leaves opposite and decussate or sometimes whorled, very rarely alternate, usually simple rarely pinnately or palmately dissected or compound, usually crenate or serrate, sometimes entire or more deeply toothed, petiolate or sessile, stipules absent
- Inflorescences terminal or axillary, branched or simple, thyrsoid with determinate cymes arranged along an indeterminate axis, often with paired cymes congested into verticils but sometimes appearing racemose by the reduction of cymes to a single flower, or spicate or capitate by reduction of both the internodes of the inflorescence axis and cyme axes; bracts persistent or not, occasionally coloured; bracteoles present or absent
- Flowers zygomorphic occasionally actinomorphic, usually hermaphrodite, hypogynous, usually showy, often with a fleshy nectariferous disk, sometimes resupinate, usually many subtended by a bract, occasionally 1 in bract axils (in reduced cymes), usually pedicellate, rarely sessile
- Calyx gamosepalous, actinomorphic to bilabiate, persistent, tubular to broadly campanulate or spreading, sometimes bearded at throat; lobes usually 5, sometimes 2 or 3, and often enlarged in fruit, sometimes closing throat
- Corolla gamopetalous, tubular, 5-lobed, typically bilabiate with posterior lip 2–4-lobed and anterior lip 1–3-lobed, variously coloured; tube cylindrical, parallel sided, amplified or constricted distally, or saccate below, straight or curved, sometimes annulate within
- Stamens 4, didynamous (anterior pair longer) or of equal length, or sometimes reduced to 2, epipetalous, free or rarely fused (monodelphic), usually exserted; filaments hairy or glabrous, rarely appendiculate; anthers basi- or dorsifixed, sometimes with a prominent connective, usually with 2-thecae, rarely with one aborted, introrse; thecae dehiscing longitudinally, rarely apically, parallel to divaricate, sometimes confluent at apex or synthecous
- Gynoecium 2-carpellate, fused to form a pistil; ovary superior, 2-locular but appearing 4-locular due to ovary wall intrusions (false septa), slightly to deeply 4-lobed; ovules 1 in each apparent locule, anatropous, erect, placentation axile (often appearing basal) with ovules laterally attached on the face of the false septum, subterminal (just short of inrolled carpel margins); style 1, gynobasic (arising from central depression of ovary lobes) to terminal, usually bifid at apex; stigmas minute at stylar branch tips
- Fruit a schizocarp splitting into 4 dry nutlets or drupaceous, undivided or 4-lobed with usually 4 pyrenes, sometimes fewer by abortion, subtended by or enclosed within persistent calyx; endosperm present, scant or absent; embryo generally straight, rarely bent
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa under the synonym Labiatae[FWTA]
Labiatae, J.K. Morton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963
- Herbaceous or rarely woody, often odoriferous
- Stems usually quadrangular
- Leaves opposite or whorled, simple; stipules absent
- Flowers hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, rarely almost actinomorphic, axillary, whorled, racemose or paniculate
- Calyx persistent, of 5 variously united sepals, often 2-lipped
- Corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, tubular; lobes 4-5, imbricate, often forming 2 lips or rarely 1 lip
- Stamens inserted in the corolla-tube, 4 or 2; anthers 2-celled, cells often divergent, opening lengthwise
- Ovules 4 in each ovary, erect Ovary superior, of 2 deeply lobed carpels, the style (gynobasic) arising from the inner base of the lobes; stigmas mostly bifid
- Fruit of 4 achene-like nutlets, free or cohering in pairs
- Seeds with usually straight embryo without endosperm, or the latter very scanty
- Acanthomintha (A.Gray) A.Gray
- Acanthoprasium (Benth.) Spach
- Achyrospermum Blume
- Acrotome Benth. ex Endl.
- Acrymia Prain
- Aegiphila Jacq.
- Aeollanthus C.Mart. ex Spreng.
- Agastache Clayton ex Gronov.
- Ajuga L.
- Ajugoides Makino
- Alvesia Welw.
- Amasonia L.f.
- Amethystea L.
- Anisochilus Wall. ex Benth.
- Anisomeles R.Br.
- Asterohyptis Epling
- Ballota L.
- Basilicum Moench
- Benguellia G.Taylor
- Betonica L.
- Blephilia (L.) Raf.
- Brachysola Rye
- Brazoria Engelm. & A.Gray
- Bystropogon L'Hér.
- Callicarpa L.
- Cantinoa Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Capitanopsis S.Moore
- Caryopteris Bunge
- Catoferia (Benth.) Benth.
- Cedronella Moench
- Chaiturus Ehrh. ex Willd.
- Chamaesphacos Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
- Chelonopsis Miq.
- Chloanthes R.Br.
- Cleonia L.
- Clerodendrum L.
- Clinopodium L.
- Colebrookea Sm.
- Coleus Lour.
- Collinsonia L.
- Colquhounia Wall.
- Comanthosphace S.Moore
- Condea Adans.
- Congea Roxb.
- Conradina A.Gray
- Cornutia Plum. ex L.
- Craniotome Rchb.
- Cuminia Colla
- Cunila Royen ex L.
- Cyanocephalus (Pohl ex Benth.) Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Cyanostegia Turcz.
- Cyclotrichium (Boiss.) Manden. & Scheng.
- Cymaria Benth.
- Dasymalla Endl.
- Dauphinea Hedge
- Dicerandra Benth.
- Dicrastylis Drumm. ex Harv.
- Discretitheca P.D.Cantino
- Dracocephalum L.
- Drepanocaryum Pojark.
- Drymosiphon Melnikov
- Elsholtzia Willd.
- Endostemon N.E.Br.
- Eplingiella Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Eriope Humb. & Bonpl. ex Benth.
- Eriophyton Benth.
- Eriopidion Harley
- Eriothymus (Benth.) Rchb.
- Eurysolen Prain
- Fuerstia T.C.E.Fr.
- Galeopsis L.
- Garrettia H.R.Fletcher
- Glechoma L.
- Glechon Spreng.
- Glossocarya Wall. ex Griff.
- Gmelina L.
- Gomphostemma Wall. ex Benth.
- Gontscharovia Boriss.
- Gymneia (Benth.) Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Hanceola Kudô
- Haplostachys (A.Gray) Hillebr.
- Haumaniastrum P.A.Duvign. & Plancke
- Hedeoma Pers.
- Hemiandra R.Br.
- Hemigenia R.Br.
- Hemiphora (F.Muell.) F.Muell.
- Hesperozygis Epling
- Heterolamium C.Y.Wu
- Hoehnea Epling
- Holmskioldia Retz.
- Holocheila (Kudô) S.Chow
- Horminum L.
- Hosea Ridl.
- Hoslundia Vahl
- Hymenocrater Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
- Hymenopyramis Wall. ex Griff.
- Hypenia (Mart. ex Benth.) Harley
- Hypogomphia Bunge
- Hyptidendron Harley
- Hyptis Jacq.
- Hyssopus L.
- Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach
- Isoleucas O.Schwartz
- Kalaharia Baill.
- Karomia Dop
- Killickia Bräuchler, Heubl & Doroszenko
- Kudrjaschevia Pojark.
- Kurzamra Kuntze
- Lachnostachys Hook.
- Lagochilus Bunge ex Benth.
- Lagopsis (Bunge ex Benth.) Bunge
- Lallemantia Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
- Lamium L.
- Lavandula L.
- Leonotis (Pers.) R.Br.
- Leonurus L.
- Lepechinia Willd.
- Leptohyptis Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Leucas R.Br.
- Leucosceptrum Sm.
- Lophanthus Adans.
- Loxocalyx Hemsl.
- Lycopus L.
- Macbridea Elliott ex Nutt.
- Madlabium Hedge
- Marmoritis Benth.
- Marrubium L.
- Marsypianthes Mart. ex Benth.
- Martianthus Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Matsumurella Makino
- Medusantha Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Meehania Britton
- Melissa L.
- Melittis L.
- Mentha L.
- Mesosphaerum P.Browne
- Metastachydium Airy Shaw ex C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li
- Microcorys R.Br.
- Micromeria Benth.
- Microtoena Prain
- Minthostachys (Benth.) Spach
- Moluccella L.
- Monarda L.
- Monardella Benth.
- Monochilus Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
- Mosla (Benth.) Buch.-Ham. ex Maxim.
- Muniria N.Streiber & B.J.Conn
- Nepeta L.
- Newcastelia F.Muell.
- Obtegomeria Doroszenko & P.D.Cantino
- Ocimum L.
- Ombrocharis Hand.-Mazz.
- Oocephalus (Benth.) Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Origanum L.
- Orthosiphon Benth.
- Otostegia Benth.
- Ovieda L.
- Oxera Labill.
- Panzerina Soják
- Paralamium Dunn
- Paraphlomis Prain
- Pentapleura Hand.-Mazz.
- Perilla L.
- Perillula Maxim.
- Peronema Jack
- Perovskia Kar.
- Petitia Jacq.
- Petraeovitex Oliv.
- Phlomidoschema (Benth.) Vved.
- Phlomis L.
- Phlomoides Moench
- Phyllostegia Benth.
- Physominthe Harley & J.F.B.Pastore
- Physopsis Turcz.
- Physostegia Benth.
- Piloblephis Raf.
- Pityrodia R.Br.
- Platostoma P.Beauv.
- Plectranthus L'Hér.
- Pleudia Raf.
- Pogogyne Benth.
- Pogostemon Desf.
- Poliomintha A.Gray
- Prasium L.
- Premna L.
- Prostanthera Labill.
- Prunella L.
- Pseudocarpidium Millsp.
- Pseudocaryopteris (Briq.) P.D.Cantino
- Pseudochamaesphacos Parsa
- Pseudomarrubium Popov
- Pycnanthemum Michx.
- Pycnostachys Hook.
- Quoya Gaudich.
- Renschia Vatke
- Rhabdocaulon (Benth.) Epling
- Rhaphiodon Schauer
- Rhododon Epling
- Rostrinucula Kudô
- Rotheca Raf.
- Roylea Wall. ex Benth.
- Rubiteucris Kudô
- Rydingia Scheen & V.A.Albert
- Saccocalyx Coss. & Durand
- Salvia L.
- Satureja L.
- Schnabelia Hand.-Mazz.
- Scutellaria L.
- Sideritis L.
- Siphocranion Kudô
- Sphenodesme Jack
- Stachydeoma Small
- Stachys L.
- Stenogyne Benth.
- Suzukia Kudô
- Symphorema Roxb.
- Synandra Nutt.
- Syncolostemon E.Mey. ex Benth.
- Tectona L.f.
- Teijsmanniodendron Koord.
- Tetraclea A.Gray
- Tetradenia Benth.
- Teucrium L.
- Thorncroftia N.E.Br.
- Thuspeinanta T.Durand
- Thymbra L.
- Thymus L.
- Tinnea Kotschy ex Hook.f.
- Trichostema L.
- Tripora P.D.Cantino
- Vitex L.
- Volkameria L.
- Warnockia M.W.Turner
- Wenchengia C.Y.Wu & S.Chow
- Westringia Sm.
- Zataria Boiss.
- Ziziphora L.
First published in Tekhno-Bot. Slovar 355. 1820 [3 Aug 1820] (1820)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2017. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
[C] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
Plants and People Africa
Roger and Alison Heath, Plants and People Africa
[E] © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/