1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Senna Mill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World, America.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock & R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or woody herbs, unarmed (in the Flora area).
    Leaves
    Leaves paripinnate; leaflets opposite or subopposite; stipules various but often persistent and prominent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence racemose or paniculate; bracts often prominent but usually falling at or before anthesis; bracteoles absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes 5, equal or subequal.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, yellow.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, all with almost straight filaments which are not more than twice the length of their anther; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by terminal pores only.
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, curved; ovules numerous; stigma terminal or subterminal.
    Fruits
    Pods cylindrical, flattened or winged, often transversely septate inside, tardily dehiscent (not elastically) or indehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, areolate.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Tribe Cercideae is basally branching in the Leguminosae (Bruneau et al., 2001; Herendeen et al., 2003a), as predicted by Wunderlin et al. (1981), and Cercis is the most basally branching genus in the tribe. While much taxonomic work has been carried out on the tribe in the past thirty years (e.g., Larsen et al., 1980, 1984; Wunderlin, 1976, 1979; Wunderlin et al., 1981, 1987; Zhang, 1995; Vaz, 2003; Vaz & Tozzi, 2003), few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses and inter- and intra-generic relationships are still largely unresolved with the exception of Cercis (Hao et al., 2001; Davis et al., 2002b).

    Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981) divided the tribe into two subtribes, Cercidinae and Bauhiniinae, based on seed, floral and fruit characters. Walpers (1842) had already down-ranked Bauhinieae Benth. (1840) to subtribal status, thus the combination Bauhiniinae (Benth.) Wunderlin (1979) is superfluous. Polhill (1994) kept the Cercideae unchanged with two subtribes and five genera. While the Cercidinae contains three small distinct genera, Cercis, Griffonia and Adenolobus, the Bauhiniinae houses the monospecific Madagascan genus Brenierea and the large, diverse pantropical genus Bauhinia sens. lat. which has been segregated into as many as twenty-six genera by various authors (Wunderlin, 1976).

    While many of the Bauhinia segregates are based on minor morphological differences, others are distinguished morphologically by a suite of characters. Britton and Rose (1930), in their account of the Caesalpiniaceae for the North American Flora, divided Bauhinia into several segregate genera, including Schnella Raddi which here is treated as a synonym of Phanera, but might prove to be distinct as indicated in recent molecular analyses by Forest (unpublished data). Britton and Killip (1936) recognised Schnella as distinct from Bauhinia in Colombia. De Wit (1956), treating ‘Malaysian Bauhinieae’, recognised Bracteolanthus, Lysiphyllum, Gigasiphon, Piliostigma, Lasiobema and Phanera as separate genera and this was largely followed by subsequent flora writers in Africa and New Guinea (e.g., Brenan, 1967; Coetzer & Ross in Ross, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979). Others have retained a more inclusive Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987), e.g., Macbride (1943: 207–220) for Peru; Larsen et al. (1980) for the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam; Larsen et al. (1984) for the Flora of Thailand; Chen (1988) for China, and Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) in Flora Malesiana. Zhang (1995) published a morphological cladistic analysis of the series of Bauhinia sens. lat., but few species of Bauhinia have been included in molecular studies. It remains equivocal as to whether Bauhinia sens. lat. is monophyletic, but preliminary molecular results indicate that some elements should be reinstated as distinct genera (Bruneau et al., in prep.; Forest, unpubl.). This runs contrary to the findings of Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) who concluded “that Bauhinia in the sense of Linnaeus, Bentham, De Candolle, Taubert and Hutchinson is an evolutionary unit and a very natural genus”. Larsen and Larsen also noted that Bauhinia sens. lat. presents a reticulate pattern of variation across its pantropical range (this apparently conflicting somewhat with its status as a “natural genus”). While this is undoubtedly true if the genus is considered as all-inclusive, recent studies of legume distributions in general (Schrire et al., this volume and 2005) have revealed repeated patterns of generic distribution which appear to be duplicated by at least some of the segregates of Bauhinia. If these segregates are recognised as distinct genera (as several are in this treatment) then the reticulate pattern of variation of Bauhinia is far less pronounced. More sampling at the species level in molecular analyses and more morphological studies are needed across the full pantropical range of Bauhinia sens. lat. before inter- and intra-generic relationships are clearly resolved. In the current account genera that have been recognised as distinct from Bauhinia in at least one flora treatment that post-dates De Wit (1956) have been treated as separate genera, especially where these are supported by the preliminary results from a chloroplast trnL (intron and spacer) sequence analysis (Forest, unpubl.). The reader’s attention is also alerted to the detailed infra-generic division of Bauhinia by Wunderlin et al. (1987) in their reorganisation of the Cercideae which also forms a sound basis for sampling in future studies.

    Palynological studies of Bauhinia (Larsen, 1975; Schmitz, 1977; Ferguson & Pearce, 1986) have all stressed the considerable variation in pollen morphology within the genus sens. lat. and there are clear correlations between pollen exine ornamentation, floral morphology and pollination. It remains to be seen just how closely these correspond to evolutionary relationships of species. Nevertheless, Schmitz (1977) made several new combinations in segregate genera of Bauhinia based on palynological type. These included new names in Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Pauletia, Perlebia and Phanera (Pauletia and Perlebia here considered as synonyms of Bauhinia). Zhang (1995), who analysed morphologically the series of Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1987), concluded that while some supraspecific segregates of the genus were supported, none of the subgenera appeared to be monophyletic. Several realignments were proposed.

    The Cercideae as presented here includes 12 genera and (322)–335–(348) species. This treatment differs from Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) and Polhill (1994) in that Barklya, Gigasiphon, Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma and Tylosema are considered distinct from Bauhinia. While some of these may well be reincluded in Bauhinia after further study, yet other genera may be reinstated from within Bauhinia. Bracteolanthus, treated as distinct by De Wit (1956), is here included in Lysiphyllum following Wunderlin et al. (1987), while Barklya, considered congeneric with Bauhinia by Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) is considered distinct following George (1998b) and Forest (unpublished data). The reinstatement of Lasiobema appears least well supported (Forest, unpubl.).

    One of three genera in subtribe Cassiinae; see under Cassia for comments on phylogenetic placement. In arid areas in Australia taxonomic distinctions are blurred by polyploidy, hybridisation and apomixis (Randell & Barlow, 1998b)
    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or herbs (some monocarpic)
    Ecology
    Arid scrubland, rocky hillsides and deep desert sands, deciduous woodland, thorn woodland (including caatinga), wooded grassland (savanna and cerrado), few in Amazonian forest; some endemics on limestone (especially in Madagascar), coastal tropical and su
    Distribution
    206 spp. native to the New World (c. 45 spp. restricted to C and N America, 10 spp. in the Greater Antilles [including 6 endemic in Cuba], c. 30 restricted to NW South America [Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru], 3 restricted to the Guianas and Venezuela, c. 28 in southern S America [Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, including 8 spp. endemic in Chile], 5 spp. endemic in Bolivia, c. 20 spp. restricted to SE Brazil and 13 to NE Brazil, c. 25 spp. widespread across S America, and c. 25-30 on either side of the Panama isthmus [either disjunctly or widespread] ), c. 18-20 spp. native to Africa (many in Somalia-Masai E and NE Africa [including 2 extending to Socotra; 1 sp. endemic on Socotra and 3 extending to the Middle East and Asia], others more widespread in dryland phytochoria), 9 spp. endemic in Madagascar, 3 spp. indigenous in Malesia, 3 spp. restricted to India, 1 sp. in Myanmar [Burma] and Thailand (and possibly also native in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam); 33 spp. endemic in Australia plus 16 endemic so-called 'form taxa'; c. 3-5 spp. widely cultivated and of unknown certain origin
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Senna alexandrina Mill. (= Cassia senna L.), or true senna is well-known as a laxative; many species are multi-purpose shrubs with numerous medicinal uses, especially as purgatives; S. alata (L.) Roxb. is universally used against parasitic skin diseases; timber of some species is used in construction and for charcoal; occasionally seeds are roasted and ground as a coffee substitute, less often used as fish poisons and for tanning leather; many are ornamentals and shade trees widely introduced throughout the tropics; for a detailed account of uses in W Africa see Burkill (1995)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Aldabra, Arkansas, Ascension, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Caprivi Strip, Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, Gabon, Georgia, Hainan, Hawaii, Inner Mongolia, Kazan-retto, Kermadec Is., Korea, Laccadive Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Primorye, Qinghai, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Senna Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 Vargas, C. [9818], Peru K000556674
    Jan 1, 1989 Maas, P.J.M. [6646], Amazonas K000841202
    Jan 1, 1985 Thomas, D.W. [3311 A], Cameroon K000092598
    Harley, R.M. [54689], Bahia K000841227
    Harley, R.M. [54463], Bahia K000841272
    Jeffrey, C. [2372] K001134450
    Pennington, R.T. [40], Bolivia 35772.020
    Ball, J. [s.n.], Chile K001259297
    Wood, J.R.I. [20533], Bolivia K001134997
    Wood, J.R.I. [20533], Bolivia K001134996
    Wood, J.R.I. [11023], Bolivia K001135000
    Wood, J.R.I. [21152], Bolivia K001105193
    Wood, J.R.I. [10730], Bolivia K001105194
    Wood, J.R.I. [10504], Bolivia K001105195
    Wood, J.R.I. [16671], Bolivia K001105198
    Plowman, T. [14217], Peru K000556679
    Plowman, T. [6485], Peru K001134452
    Plowman, T. [6406], Peru K001134453
    Hatschbach, G. [74570], Mato Grosso do Sul K000841221
    Rico, L. [1465], Bolivia K000295383
    Rico, L. [1180], Bolivia K000295021
    Rico, L. [1466], Bolivia K000295353
    Rico, L. [2016], Mexico K000266002
    Rico, L. [2052], Mexico K000266026
    Lawrence, A. [70], Bolivia K001134956
    Ruiz, J. [1697], Peru K000556683
    Lehmann [s.n.], Colombia K001134455
    Barrier, S. [1254], Peru K001105401
    Ratter, J.A. [6865], Pará K000841239
    Ratter, J.A. [7322], Goiás K000841241
    Lima, H.C. [2914], Espírito Santo K000841215
    Lima, H.C. [2973], Espírito Santo K000841225
    Davis, E.W. [550], Colombia K000556666
    Giulietti, A.M. [13665], Minas Gerais K000841257
    Giulietti, A.M. [13665], Minas Gerais K000841258
    Saldias, M. [5315], Bolivia K001105535
    Saldias, M. [3471], Bolivia K001105550
    Queiroz, L.P. [3832], Bahia K000841208
    Queiroz, L.P. [10672], Bahia K000841259
    Klitgaard, B.B. [402] K001134356
    Klitgaard, B.B. [545], Ecuador K001134363
    Klitgaard, B.B. [545], Ecuador K001134364
    Bautista, H.P. [584], Minas Gerais K000841236
    Cavalcanti, T.B. [1607], Goiás K000841248
    Cavalcanti, T.B. [1607], Goiás K000841249
    Cavalcanti, T.B. [1300], Goiás K000841273
    Campelo, M.J. [64], Pernambuco K000841217
    Campelo, M.J. [32], Pernambuco K000841218
    Rodal, M.J.N. [449], Pernambuco K000841265
    Barros, M. [2260], Brazil K000841243
    Andrade, I.M. [166], Pernambuco K000841267
    Heringer, E.P. [17698], Goiás K000841224
    Heringer, E.P. [6527], Brazil K000841228
    Heringer, E.P. [3710], Brazil K000841230
    Heringer, E.P. [4162], Brazil K000841231
    Heringer, E.P. [7166], Brazil K000841234
    Heringer, E.P. [4170], Brazil K000841235
    Pinto, G.C.P. [83/82], Minas Gerais K000841229
    Villarouco, F.M.O. [150], Pernambuco K000841269
    Semir, J. [2097], Minas Gerais K000841232
    Semir, J. [5046], Minas Gerais K000841233
    Saar, E. [5256], Bahia K000841219
    Bezerra, M. [10], Bahia K000841247
    Laurênio, A. [227], Pernambuco K000841268
    Castellanos, A. [22714], Rio de Janeiro K000841223
    Nelson, B.W. [934], Amazonas K000841216
    Claussen, P. [168], Rio de Janeiro K000841260
    Claussen, P. [163], Rio de Janeiro K000841261
    Stork, H.E. [11382], Peru K001134454
    Bernardi, L. [16425], Peru K000556677
    Lowe, J. [4033], Amazonas K000841237
    Cornejo, X. [5857], Ecuador K001134357
    Cornejo, X. [5826], Ecuador K001134358
    Cornejo, X. [2734], Ecuador K001134361
    Cornejo, X. [5594], Ecuador K001134362
    Mendoza, M. [1026], Bolivia K001134999
    Vasquez, R. [18638], Peru K001134824
    Vasquez, R. [20082], Peru K001134952
    Vasquez, R. [21017], Peru K001105395
    Rojas, R. [3892], Peru K001134573
    Rojas, R. [2898], Peru K001134844
    Rojas, R. [3036], Peru K001134938
    Rojas, R. [2341], Peru K001134939
    Rojas, R. [2728], Peru K001134950
    Rojas, R. [3968], Peru K001105196
    Rojas, R. [0922], Peru K001105399
    Rojas, R. [0922], Peru K001105400
    Woytkowski, Felix [54], Peru K000556680
    Souza, V. [441], Espírito Santo K000841262
    Huaylla, H. [696], Bolivia K001134998
    Huaylla, H. [1022], Bolivia K001105537
    Birschel [s.n.], Venezuela K000556669
    Tschá, M.C. [91], Pernambuco K000841264
    Tschá, M.C. [585], Pernambuco K000841270
    Chatrou, L.W. [459], Bolivia K001105547
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [604], Maranhão K000841266
    Melo, M.R.C.S. [43], Pernambuco K000841263
    Vásquez, R. [23904], Peru K001134575
    Vásquez, R. [31685], Peru K001134598
    Vásquez, R. [32400], Peru K001134600
    Vásquez, R. [21030], Peru K001134822
    Vásquez, R. [22374], Peru K001134823
    Vásquez, R. [23916], Peru K001134826
    Vásquez, R. [23996], Peru K001134838
    Vásquez, R. [26037], Peru K001134840
    Vásquez, R. [30922], Peru K001134932
    Vásquez, R. [29665], Peru K001134940
    Vásquez, R. [29667], Peru K001134949
    Vásquez, R. [24308], Peru K001105396
    Vásquez, R. [24308], Peru K001105397
    Vásquez, R. [26098], Peru K001105398
    Azevedo, M.L.M. [1346], Bahia K000841246
    Mendonça, R.C. [4170], Goiás K000841222
    Pennington, T.D. [17961 (4770)], Peru K000556675
    Pennington, T.D. [17961 (4770)], Peru K000556676
    Pennington, T.D. [17565], Peru K000556688
    Pennington, T.D. [17161], Peru K001134365
    Pennington, T.D. [17161], Peru K001105595
    Pennington, T.D. [17535], Peru K001105596
    Mansano, V.F. [344], Rio de Janeiro K000841253
    Forzza, R.C. [4063], Minas Gerais K000841220
    Forzza, R.C. [4582], Goiás K000841254
    Forzza, R.C. [4082], Bahia K000841255
    Thomas, W.W. [11524], Bahia K000841214
    Thomas, W.W. [11641], Bahia K000841250
    Peterson, P.M. [12651], Bolivia K001105594
    Seidel, R. [1991], Bolivia K001105191
    Killeen, T. [6878], Bolivia K001105408
    Killeen, T. [4119], Bolivia K001105410
    Arroyo, L. [3265], Bolivia K001134995
    Arroyo, L. [3259], Bolivia K001105407
    Fuentes, A. [1896], Bolivia K001105534
    Silva, B.R. [1427], Minas Gerais K000841256
    Delprete, P.G. [10092], Goiás K000841209
    Delprete, P.G. [10196], Goiás K000841211
    Foster, P.F. [762], Bolivia K001105409
    van der werff, H. [20761], Peru K001134821
    van der werff, H. [20721], Peru K001134834
    van der werff, H. [17514], Peru K001134951
    Ortiz V., E. [554], Peru K001134827
    Ortiz V., E. [1330], Peru K001134930
    Huamantupa, I. [10156], Peru K001134578
    Huamantupa, I. [10473], Peru K001134579
    Huamantupa, I. [8558], Peru K001134594
    Huamantupa, I. [10402], Peru K001134602
    Huamantupa, I. [3051], Peru K001134829
    Huamantupa, I. [4748], Peru K001134836
    Huamantupa, I. [3260], Peru K001134846
    Suclli, E. [1935], Peru K001134577
    Suclli, E. [2696] K001134833
    Monteagudo, A. [14043], Peru K001134599
    Monteagudo, A. [3516], Peru K001134848
    Monteagudo, A. [3531], Peru K001105402
    Monteagudo, A. [3531], Peru K001105403
    Monteagudo, A. [4974], Peru K001105404
    Monteagudo, A. [4932], Peru K001105405
    Monteagudo, A. [4932], Peru K001105406
    Valenzuela, L. [4143], Peru K000556689
    Valenzuela, L. [5052], Peru K001134572
    Valenzuela, L. [11773], Peru K001134589
    Valenzuela, L. [10820], Peru K001134591
    Valenzuela, L. [8404], Peru K001134592
    Valenzuela, L. [10580], Peru K001134601
    Valenzuela, L. [8025], Peru K001134608
    Valenzuela, L. [3012], Peru K001134825
    Valenzuela, L. [7339], Peru K001134828
    Valenzuela, L. [4244], Peru K001134830
    Valenzuela, L. [5831], Peru K001134831
    Valenzuela, L. [5294], Peru K001134835
    Valenzuela, L. [4766], Peru K001134837
    Valenzuela, L. [3964], Peru K001134842
    Valenzuela, L. [6709], Peru K001134843
    Valenzuela, L. [6121], Peru K001134847
    Valenzuela, L. [3586], Peru K001134927
    Valenzuela, L. [5169], Peru K001134928
    Valenzuela, L. [2119], Peru K001134934
    Valenzuela, L. [1888], Peru K001134943
    Valenzuela, L. [2485], Peru K001134944
    Valenzuela, L. [6482], Peru K001134945
    Valenzuela, L. [6062], Peru K001134946
    Farfán, J. [1247], Peru K001134935
    Farfán, J. [289], Peru K001134936
    Galiano, W. [6733], Peru K001134820
    Galiano, W. [5715], Peru K001134849
    Galiano, W. [4676], Peru K001134931
    Galiano, W. [5721], Peru K001134933
    Galiano, W. [6312], Peru K001105394
    Huamán, M. [171], Peru K001134596
    Soto, D. [1217], Bolivia K001105192
    Graham, J.G. [4104], Peru K001134817
    Graham, J.G. [4876], Peru K001134818
    Graham, J.G. [4876], Peru K001134819
    Jameson [738], Peru K000556678
    Triana, J. [s.n.], Colombia K001134457
    s. coll. [572 (middle digit may be wrong)], Ecuador K001134360
    Glaziou, A. [12616], Rio de Janeiro K000841238
    Saavedra, M.M. [474], Goiás K000841212
    Guillén, R. [1730], Bolivia K001105545
    Rojas [2891], Peru K001134937
    Calatayud, G. [4083], Peru K001134583
    Calatayud, G. [4189], Peru K001134604
    Calatayud, G. [2947], Peru K001134832
    Calatayud, G. [1384], Peru K001134839
    Perea, J. [0168], Peru K001134845
    Perea, J. [1576], Peru K001134947
    Perea, J. [2024], Peru K001134948
    Ortiz [579], Peru K001134571
    Ortiz [1164], Peru K001134574
    Ferreira, V. [5], Brazil K000841242
    Oliveira, C.A.M. [15], Pernambuco K000841251
    Killeen [5439], Bolivia K001134993
    Meirelles, J.E. [387], Amazonas K000841210
    Meirelles, J.E. [554], Rio de Janeiro K000841252
    Kersten, R.A. [1100], Tocantins K000841213
    Lopes, M.M.M. [862], Bahia K000841226
    Vilela, U.U.A. [16], Brazil K000841240
    Mendes, J.R.S. [2], Brazil K000841244
    Pereira, R.J.L. [12], Brazil K000841245
    Botelho, M.B. [5], Brazil K000841271
    Tunqui, Santiago [1106], Peru K001134953
    JDG [722; 460; 186 respectively, 722 associated with Ju], Peru K000556686
    s.coll. [56], Ecuador K001134359
    Lozano, R. [1272], Bolivia K001105411
    Lozano, R. [1459], Bolivia K001105538
    Stahl, B. [7102], Ecuador K000556672
    Stahl, B. [7297], Ecuador K000556673
    Foster, Robin B. [10634], Peru K000556685
    Barbosa, Cesar [8406], Colombia K000556664
    Edwards. K. S. [465], Venezuela K000556667
    Edwards. K. S. [465], Venezuela K000556668
    Torres, Luis [s.n.], Venezuela K000556671
    Smith, David [5709], Peru K000556684
    Revilla, Juan [2653], Peru K000556687
    Savatier, Lud. [1/46], Peru K001134451
    Díaz, Camilo [8296], Peru K001134576
    Díaz, Camilo [6919], Peru K001134929
    Rojas, Rocio [5719], Peru K001134580
    Rojas, Rocio [5720], Peru K001134593
    Rojas, Rocio [5776], Peru K001134595
    Rojas, Rocio [5832], Peru K001134603
    Rojas, Rocio [5812], Peru K001134605
    Vásquez M. Rodolfo [34931], Peru K001134582
    Monteagudo, Abel [16209], Peru K001134585
    Catatayud, G. [4506], Peru K001134587
    Vásquez M., Rodolfo [33935], Peru K001134606
    Vásquez M., Rodolfo [34383], Peru K001134607
    Suclli, Efrain [1562], Peru K001134597
    Monteagudo M., A. [11798], Peru K001134841
    Vasquez, R. et al [28281], Peru K001134941
    Valenzuela, L. Suclli, E. [1552], Peru K001134942
    Lawrence, S.A. [s.n.], Bolivia K001134954
    Lawrence, A [176], Bolivia K001134955
    Soto, A. [492], Bolivia K001134957
    Parada, G.A. [55], Bolivia K001105197
    Parada, G.A. [114], Bolivia K001105544
    Foronda, Ivan Linneo [979], Bolivia K001105536
    Paz R., C. [156], Bolivia K001105546
    Meneces, Elias [391], Bolivia K001105591
    Meneces, Elias [391], Bolivia K001105592
    Meneces, Elias [387], Bolivia K001105593
    Gay, M. Cl. [s.n.], Chile K001259296

    First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

    Accepted by

    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 1–918 (1982).
    • Irwin & Barneby in Polhill & Raven, Adv. Legume Syst. 1: 97–106 (1981)
    • Gard. Dict., abr.ed. 4, 3 (1754).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Legumes of the World Online
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0