1. Ranunculaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[NTK]

Sakuragui, C.M. (2011). Neotropical Ranunculaceae.

Morphology
Description

Annual to perennial herbs, shrubs or lianas (Clematis); plants hermaphrodite or dioecious Leaves alternate (often) or opposite (Clematis), simple or compound , margins entire , crenate , serrate or dentate ; petiolate ; stipules absent.  Inflorescences: flowers solitary or of cymes, racemes or panicles, terminal or axillary Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic , whorled , partially  whorled or spiral; calyx polysepalous or partially gamosepalous, the sepals (3-)5-8, often petaloid ; corolla polypetalous, partially gamopetalous or gamopetalous, the petals 0-50,  imbricate , clawed, sessile , various colors; androecium with many free stamens, maturing centripetally, free from the perianth , 1-13 whorled or spiralled, the anthers adnate, dehiscing via longitudinal slits or longitudinal valves; gynoecium superior , apocarpous (1-)3-100-many carpelled, carpels non-stylate or stylate, ovules 2-many, placentation marginal or basal Fruit follicles or achenes, dry or fleshy (rarely), aggregated (usually) or single, dehiscent or indehiscent .

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Although Ranunculaceae species are distributed worldwide (Wang et al., 2009), its members are most common in the temperate and cold areas of the northern hemisphere. The diversity is reduced in the tropics: of nearly 62 genera in total, only 11-13 are native to the Neotropics, with 90-100 species in total.

11-13 native genera:

  • Aphanostemma St-Hil. - 1 sp., low elevation, southern Brazil to central Argentina.
  • Anemone L. - 5 spp., almost cosmopolitan; in Latin America in temperate areas and zones of high elevation.
  • Barneoudia Gay - 3 spp., endemic to high elevation in Chile and Argentina.
  • Callianthemoides Tamura - 1 spp., endemic to high elevation in Chile and Argentina.
  • Caltha L. - 3 spp., cold, humid zones of the world; the 3 species in the high Andes and southern South America.
  • Clematis L. - c. 15 spp., throughout Latin America, mostly temperate and subtropical.
  • Hamadryas Comm. ex Juss. - 6 spp., limited to high elevation in Chile and Argentina.
  • Krapfia DC.  - 8 spp., confined to high elevation in the Andes.
  • Laccopetalum Ulbr. - 1 spp., confined to high elevation in the Andes.
  • Myosurus L. -  2(?3) spp., Laurasia, Mexico, and soouthern South America.
  • Oreithales Schldl. - 1 spp., endemic to the high elevation in Bolivia and Peru.
  • Ranunculus L. - 40-50 spp., almost cosmopolitan; in Latin America in areas with high humidity.
  • Thalictrum All.  - 10 spp., Mexico through Central America and the Andes to southern Argentina.

4 introduced genera:

  • Actaea L.
  • Aquilegia L.
  • Consolida Gray
  • Delphinium L.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Flowers parts whorled (Aquilegia), partially whorled /spiral or spiral.
  • Petals 0-50,  imbricate, clawed, sessile.
  • Stamens many, free, maturing centripetally, free from the perianth, 1-13 whorled or spiralled.
  • Gynoecium apocarpous (1-)3-100-many carpelled, usually with complete postgenital fusion.
Useful tips for generic identification
  • Aconitum - sepals and petals present, petals hidden by the sepals.
  • Anemone - perianth without distinction between sepals and petals, with styles; achenes without veins on lateral surface.
  • Aphanostemma - ovary with one ovule. Barneoudia - absence of basal leaves at flowering (See Meyer et al. 2010 for more details).
  • Caltha - perianth without distinction between sepals and petals, all sepaloid; follicles.
  • Clematis - liana, while all other genera are herbs or shrubs.
  • Hamadryas - unisexual flowers, while all other genera have bisexual flowers. Myosurus - ovary with one ovule.
  • Oreithales - absence of involucral bracts on the inflorescence (See Meyer et al. 2010 for more details).
  • Ranunculus - petals and sepals present, sepals 3-6, petals with basal nectaries.
Other important characters
  • Habit: herbs, shrubs or lianas (Clematis).
  • Leaves: alternate (often), or opposite (Clematis).
  • Fruits: achenes, follicles, or berries.
General Description
Status
  • 11-13 native genera; 4 introduced and cultivated.
General notes
  • Ornamental plants.
  • Many taxa within the family are pharmaceutically important and some have confirmed medicinal value.
  • Plants belonging to the Ranunculaceae have complex chemical compositions, many of which represent important taxonomic characteristics and the same chemical constituents are shared among different genera (Peng et al., 2006).
Notes on delimitation
  • A well-defined family resolved within the Ranunculales.  The family is considered as one of the most basal families within the eudicots. The family shows a wide range of morphological characters, especially in fruit types and floral organization.  Several classifications have been proposed for Ranunculaceae based on morphological characters (Tamura, 1995), on molecular data (Ro & al., 1997), and on a combined molecular and morphological dataset (Wang & al. 2009).
  • The family was subdivided into three subfamilies and eleven tribes by Tamura (1993, 1995). This classification has been based on chromosome base number, carpel and fruit types. Phylogenetic analyses resolve the family as sister to the Menispermaceae and Berberidaceae.
Literature
Important literature

APG II. 2003.  An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436.

Cronquist, A. 1981.  The families and genera of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York.

Lourteig, A. 1951.  Ranunculaceas de Sudamérica templada. Darwiniana 9: 562-604.

Lourteig, A. 1956.  Ranunculaceas de Sudamérica tropical. Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle 16: 199-224.

Meyer, K.M., Hot, S.B., & Arroyo, M.T.K. 2010.  Phylogenetic Affinities of South American Anemone (Ranunculaceae) including the endemic segregate genera Barnoudia and Oreithales. Int. J. Plant Sci. 171 (3): 323-331.

Peng Y., Chen S.B., Chen, S.L. & Xiao, P.G. 2006.  Preliminary pharmaphylogenetic study on Ranunculaceae, China.  J. Chin. Materia Medica 31: 1124-1128.

Ro, K., Keener, C.S. & McPheron, B.A. 1997.  Molecular phylogenetic studies of the Ranunculaceae: Utility of the nuclear 26S ribosomal DNA in inferring intrafamiliar relationships. Molec. Phylog. Evol. 8: 117-127.

Tamura, M. 1993.  Ranunculaceae. In: K. Kubitzki, J.G. Rohwer & V. Bittrich (eds.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants vol. 2, pp. 563-583. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Tamura, M. 1995.  Angiospermae. Ordnung Ranunculales. Fam. Ranunculaceae. II. Systematic Part. In: Hiepko, P. (ed.), Die natürliche Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 17aIV, pp. 223-519. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin.

Ziman, S.N. & Keener, C.S. 1989.  A geographical analysis of the family Ranunculaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76: 1012-1049.

Wang, W., Lu, A.-M., Ren, Y., Endress, M.E. & Chen, Z.-D. 2009. Phylogeny and classification of Ranunculales: Evidence from four molecular loci and morphological data. Perspect. Pl. Ecol. Evol.Syst. 11: 81-110.

[FWTA]

Ranunculaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Perennial (rarely annual) herbs with alternate leaves, or rarely shrubs or climbers with opposite leaves; stipules absent
Indumentum
Indumentum of simple hairs
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, hypogynous, usually actinomorphic
Perianth
Perianth usually double, of calyx and corolla, or rarely the calyx petaloid and the petals absent
Calyx
Sepals imbricate or valvate
Corolla
Petals when present often with a nectariferous claw
Androecium
Stamens numerous, free from one another; anthers dehiscing longitudinally
Gynoecium
Ovules numerous or solitary Carpels numerous, free or rarely partially connate, with a slightly bifid style or subsessile stigma
Fruits
Fruit a bunch of follicles, rarely baccate, or of dry achenes with often persistent and elongated styles
Seeds
Seeds small, usually smooth; embryo very small, at the base of horny or fleshy endosperm
[FTEA]

Ranunculaceae, E. Milne-Redhead And W. B. Turrill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1952

Habit
Herbs or woody climbers or subshrubs
Leaves
Leaves frequently compound with sheathing bases and most often without stipules, spirally arranged or opposite
Inflorescences
Inflorescence generally terminal and many flowered, more rarely with few flowers, or these solitary
Flowers
Flowers regular or irregular
Calyx
Sepals free, hypogynous, sometimes petaloid
Corolla
Petals sometimes absent, if present free, hypogynous, some nectariferous
Androecium
Stamens indefinite in number, hypogynous
Gynoecium
Carpels indefinite in number, few, or solitary, free or more or less joined together (if not solitary), with one or several ovules
Fruits
Fruits achenes, drupelets, follicles, or capsules
Seeds
Seeds without arils, with endosperm
[FZ]

Ranunculaceae, A. W. Exell and E. Milne-Redhead. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs with radical and alternate or spiral leaves, or shrublets or woody climbers with opposite or verticillate leaves
Leaves
Leaves simple or compound, entire, lobed or dissected, usually with sheathing bases
Inflorescences
Inflorescences generally terminal and many-flowered or more rarely with few or solitary flowers
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, hypogynous, bisexual or sometimes polygamous or dioecious
Calyx
Sepals free, often petaloid
Corolla
Petals free, sometimes nectariferous, often absent
Androecium
Stamens indefinite in number; anthers attached at the base, dehiscing longitudinally
Gynoecium
Carpels indefinite in number, few or solitary, free or more or less united; ovules 1-several
Fruits
Fruit usually of achenes, drupelets or follicles, rarely a capsule or berry
Seeds
Seeds with endosperm

Images

Ranunculaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 231. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
[A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
[B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
[C] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
[D] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
[E] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0