1. Caprifoliaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Caprifoliaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Habit
Small trees, shrubs, woody climbers or rarely herbs, often with soft pith
Leaves
Leaves opposite or less often alternate, simple or pinnately compound; stipules absent or very small, rarely conspicuous
Inflorescences
Inflorescences mainly cymose, less often flowers solitary or paired; bracts and bracteoles usually present
Flowers
Flowers regular or irregular, hermaphrodite
Calyx
Calyx-tube joined with the ovary; limb (3–)4–5-fid or -toothed, the teeth imbricate or open
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, tubular, funnel-shaped, campanulate or rotate, 3–5-lobed, sometimes 2-lipped, the lobes imbricate or less often valvate
Androecium
Stamens 4–5, inserted in the corolla-tube and alternate with the lobes; anthers 2-thecous, opening lengthwise inwards or outwards
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, 2–8-locular, with 1-many pendulous ovules in each locule; placentation axile or parietal; style simple or wanting; stigma ], capitate, or stigmas as many as the carpels
Fruits
Fruit a berry or drupe, less often a capsule or achene, 1–5-locular with 1–many seeds or as many pyrenes as locules; endosperm copious; embryo mostly small and straight
[NTK]

Zappi, D. (2009). Neotropical Caprifoliaceae.

Morphology
Description

Shrubs, vines, lianas, rarely trees. Leaves simple , opposite, sometimes ternate, with vestigial interpetiolary stipules, entire , margins often crenate Inflorescence generally axillary , cymose, bracteate. Flowers showy, hermaphrodite , slightly to strongly zygomorphic ; sepals (4-)5, united in short tube; corolla (4-)5- lobed , joined in a zygomorphic tube, white, pink or red; stamens 3-5, fused to the corolla -tube, anthers 2-locular; ovary inferior, (2-)3 carpellate, style long, exserted , stigma capitate , placentation axile , ovules 1-many per locule Fruit fleshy , generally berries (nutlet in Vesalea), 1-many seeded.

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • In former classifications, the Caprifoliaceae used to include species with actinomorphic flowers, such as Viburnum and Sambucus, but those are nowadays placed within the Adoxaceae after molecular studies (APG II, 2003). The old circumscription is still followed by Delprete in Smith (2004).
  • In 'APGII' (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2003) an expanded Dipsacales was promoted in the 'Euasterids II', including a broader concept of the Caprifoliaceae, which encompassed the Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae known from the Neotropics, along with the Adoxaceae. If sunk into the Caprifoliaceae the Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae would form very discrete subfamilies. However, in Neotropikey the three families (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae) are treated separately, q.v.
Number of genera
  • Vesalea R. Br. (formerly Abelia) - Temperate Asia, reaching Mexico, 2 - 5 species.
  • Lonicera L.  - honeysuckle, from Asia, N. Africa and North America south to Costa Rica, 5 species.
  • Symphoricarpos  Duhamel - snow berry, C. China; North America, reaching Guatemala, two species.
Status
  • Many species of Caprifoliaceae are cultivated in the Neotropics, especially Lonicera and Vesalea. However, this is not a very prominent family in the region, with only a few species ocurring only marginally in the area.
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • In the Neotropics, the Caprifoliaceae is a marginal family with a few genera ocurring at high altitude and reaching Mexico from the West of the USA, and none are native in South America.
Diagnostic
Other important characters
  • Stipules vestigial.
  • Fruitsucculent berries (sometimes nutlets).
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Climbers or shrubs.
  • Leaves opposite, margins rarely entire.
  • Flowers with bilateral symmetry.
  • Ovary inferior with 3 carpels.
Key differences from similar families
  • The opposite leaves, inferior ovary and tubular corolla may generate confusion with the Rubiaceae, but the Caprifoliaceae flowers are mostly zygomorphic and their stipules are vestigial.
Useful tips for generic identification

Key to genera of Neotropical Caprifoliaceae

1. Climbing plants with twinning stems ... Lonicera
1. Shrubs ... 

2. Berries white, inflated ... Symphoricarpus
2. Nutlets dry, with persistent calyx... Vesalea

Notable genera and distinguishing features
  • Lonicera japonica is often cultivated in the Neotropics.
Literature
Important literature

APG II, 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436.

Delprete, P. Caprifoliaceae in Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D. & Heald, S.V. 2004. Flowering plants of the Neotropics. NYBG, Princeton Univ. Press.

Souza, V.C. & Lorenzi, H. 2005. Botânica Sistemática: guia ilustrativo para identificação das famílias de Angiospermas da flora brasileira, baseado em APG II. Nova Odessa, Brazil: Instituto Plantarum.

[FTEA]

Valerianaceae, J. O. Kokwaro (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Habit
Annual (occasionally biennial) or perennial herbs, rarely subshrubs; often with strongly scented rhizomes
Leaves
Leaves opposite or sometimes forming basal rosettes, exstipulate, often pinnately much divided but sometimes entire; cauline leaves sometimes few, small or none; basal leaves pinnatifid or once- or twice-pinnatisect; base often sheathing
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a many-flowered compound dichasial cyme, thyrse or monochasium, sometimes condensed and capitate, bracteate and usually bracteolate (the subtended bracteoles often mistaken for the calyx)
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual by abortion (plants then dioecious, as in some Valeriana spp.), irregular or almost regular, usually 5-merous
Calyx
Calyx often small or obsolete at the time of flowering, sometimes enlarging as the fruit matures, and then variously lobed; lobes often forming a pappus
Corolla
Corolla funnel-shaped or tubular, often attenuated at the base, generally basally spurred or saccate, wider at the throat; limb 3–5-fid, oblique or 2-lipped; lobes imbricate
Androecium
Stamens 1–4, epipetalous, alternating with the corolla-lobes; anthers versatile, 2- or 4-lobed, 2- or 4-thecous, introrse, dehiscing longitudinally; pollen grains tricolpate, echinate
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, tricarpellate, 3-locular but only 1 locule fertile; ovule solitary and pendulous, anatropous; style single and slender; stigma subtruncate, entire or shortly 2–3-lobed
Fruits
Fruit a 1-seeded achene
Seeds
Seed pendulous; embryo straight, large; cotyledons oblong; radicle superior; endosperm very thin or absent
[NTK]

Hind, D.J.N. (2009). Neotropical Valerianaceae.

Morphology
Description

Terrestrial annual , biennial , or perennial herbs sometimes subshrubs or cushion-forming shrubs or shrublets, or climbers or scandent plants, usually with characteristic odour, especially when dry (associated with valeric acid); monoecious , dioecious or gynodioecious. Rootstock fibrous , sometimes rhizomatous, or possessing conical, napiform or fusiform taproots. Stems often hollow, often glabrous , or variously pubescent , sometimes glaucous . Leaves opposite or alternate , whorled or basal , sometimes decussate , exstipulate , simple or pinnatisect , variously shaped, base usually clasping , sessile or petiolate , margins entire or serrate . Inflorescences cymose, usually compound , often densely so, with many small flowers, bracteate. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, sessile or short-pedicellate, usually zygomorphic (especially with funnel-shaped corollas, but symmetrical with rotate corollas) and bilaterally symmetrical. Calyx persistent and often becoming woody in fruit , 0-5- lobed , each lobe of few to many segments, very small in flower and markedly inrolled and imbricate , often enlarging to a pappus on apex of fruit , pappus frequently plumose, sometimes absent. Corollas white, pink red or lilac, or very rarely yellow, funnel-shaped, subsalverform or rotate, corolla tube usually longer than corolla lobes, often bulging on one side, saccate or spurred below; corolla lobes 5; stamens 1-4, usually inserted near base of corolla tube and alternating with lobes, usually exserted from corolla , sometimes included; anthers sessile , on short filaments, or filaments distinct, versatile, 2- or 4- lobed , dehiscing introrsely; stigma 2-fid, 3-fid, or subentire, exserted . Ovary inferior, 3-celled, 1 cell with pendent ovule and other 2 sterile and often much reduced in fruit . Fruit dry and indehiscent , glabrous or variously setuliferous or hairy; seed endospermic with straight embryo.

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Valeriana L. is widespread throughout the Neotropics from Mexico south to Argentina. Most of the other genera in the family are restricted to the high altitude areas of the Andes throughout the region.
Diagnostic
Key differences from similar families

Most recent analyses of the Dipsacales place the Valerianaceae as sister to the Dipsacaceae itself. The easiest character to perhaps separate these two families is the presence of:

  • A characteristic capitulum in the Dipsacaceae surrounded by an involucre of more than 2 bracts, and a fruit surrounded by an epicalyx.
  • In the Valerianaceae a capitulum is never present, and the epicalyx is absent.
Other important characters
  • Modifications of the calyx which, if present, form an often distinctive plumose pappus.
  • Stamen number.
  • Corolla lobe number.
Distinguishing characters (always present)

The family is a very natural one characterized by:

  • Thyrsoid inflorescence.
  • Sympetalous asymmetric flowers.
  • Inferior 3-carpellate ovaries, one fertile carpel.
  • A single style.
  • Fruit an achene.
  • In addition, dried members of the tribe Valerianeae have a characteristic odour of valeric acid, although this is absent in the tribe Patrinieae.
General Description
Status
  • Centranthus ruber (L.) DC., an Old World species, is reportedly a weed in some areas of South America, as is Valeriana officinalis L.
Number of genera
  • Eriksen (1989a) reduced all of the South American representatives of the Valerianaceae to one amorphous Valeriana, s.l. She maintained this exceptional lumping in her treatment for the Flora of Ecuador (Eriksen 1989b). Weberling (2001) commented on this and, with the supporting evidence of Backlund & Donoghue (1996), maintained the status of the smaller South American genera together with a more restricted sense of Valeriana.
  • As now accepted, there are between 10-13 genera, and some 350-450 species, worldwide. Mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere, South America, and southeastern South Africa. One or two weedy species found in the Neotropics.

A total of eight genera are recorded for Central and South America:

  • Aretiastrum (DC.) Spach
  • Astrephia Dufr.
  • Belonanthus Graebn.
  • Phyllactis Pers.
  • Plectritis DC.
  • Stangea Graebn
  • Valeriana L. (the largest genus in the family), widespread in both the Old and New World.
Notes on delimitation
  • The only apparent delimitation problem appears to be with the inclusion of Triplostegia Wall. ex DC. in the family; it is often placed in its own family within the Dipsacales. It does not pose any problems with delimitation of the Valerianaceae in the New World.
  • In 'APGII' (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2003) an expanded Dipsacales was promoted in the 'Euasterids II', including a broader concept of the Caprifoliaceae, which encompassed the Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae known from the Neotropics, along with the Adoxaceae. If sunk into the Caprifoliaceae the Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae would form very discrete subfamilies. However, in Neotropikey the three families (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae) are treated separately, q.v.
Literature
Important literature

Backlund, A., & Donoghue, M. J. 1996. Morphology and phylogeny of the order Dipsacales. Pp. 1-27. In: Backlund, A., Phylogeny of the Dipsacales. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Borsini, O. E. (1962). Revisión de las valerianaceas de Brasil. Lilloa 31: 149-170.

Borsini, O. E. (1963). Valerianaceas del estado de Santa Catarina (Brasil). Sellowia 15: 123-136.

Enrech, N.X. de (1992). Valerianaceae. In: G. Morillo (ed.), Flora de Venezuela, (T. Lasser, ser. ed.), vol. 5, part 1: Cucurbitaceae (C. Jeffrey & B. Trujillo), Sabiaceae (J. A. Steyermark), Valerianaceae (N.X. de Enrech). Fondo Editorial Acta Cientifica Venezolana, Caracas. pp. 267. [221-266].

Eriksen, B. (1989a). Notes on generic and infrageneric delimitation in the Valerianaceae. Nordic J. Bot. 9(2): 179-187.

Eriksen, B. (1989b). Fam. 186. Valerianaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds), Flora of Ecuador. Vol. 34. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Göteborg & Section for Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. pp. 59.

Graebner, P. (1899). Beiträge zur Kentniss der süd- und centralamerikanischen Valerianaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 27: 425-436.

Killip, E. P. (1937). Valerianaceae. In: J. F. Macbride (ed.), Flora of Peru. [Pibl. Field Mus. Nat. Hist.] Fieldiana, Bot. Ser. 13 (Part 6, No. 2): 287-321.

Meyer, F. G. (1951). Valeriana in North America and the West Indies (Valerianaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 38: 377-503.

Meyer, F. G. (1976). Family 181. Valerianaceae. In: R. E. Woodson, Jr., R. W. Schery, & collabs., Flora of Panama, Part. IX. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63(3): 581-592.

Richardson, I. B. K. (1975). A revison of the genus Centranthus DC. (Valerianaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 211-234.

Rzedowski, J. & G. C. de Rzedowski. (2003). Familia Valerianaceae. In: Flora del Bajio y de regiones adyacentes. Fasciculo 112. Instituto de Ecologia, Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México.

Sobral, M. (1999). Valerianaceae. In Flora ilustrada do Rio Grande do Sul, 25. Boletim do Instituto de Biociencias 58, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre. pp. 61.

Weberling, F. (2001). Reappraisal of our current knowledge of the genus Stangea Graebn. (Valerianaceae). Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse Nr. 2. Mainz. pp. 51.

[FZ]

Valerianaceae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Habit
Perennial or, less commonly, annual herbs, often with aromatic rhizomes; rarely slightly shrubby
Leaves
Leaves opposite or occasionally basal; exstipulate, frequently pinnately divided, sometimes entire; bases often sheathing
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a many–flowered compound dichasial cyme, thyrse or monochasium, sometimes sub–capitate; bracts and bracteoles usually present
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite (occasionally unisexual and the plants then dioecious); normally 5–merous and irregular to nearly regular
Calyx
Calyx obsolete or minute, sometimes expanded in fruit and lobed to form a pappus
Corolla
Corolla tubular or funnel–shaped, often with a basal spur or sacoate; limb 3–5 fid, oblique or divided into 2 distinct lips
Androecium
Stamens 1–4 alternating with the lobes of the corolla, epipetalous; anthers versatile, 2–4 lobed
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, with 3 locules only 1 of which is fertile; ovule solitary, anatropous; style, stigma subtruncate, entire or shortly 2–3 lobed
Fruits
Fruit an achene
Seeds
Seed pendulous; embryo straight with oblong cotyledons; endosperm sparse or lacking
[FTEA]

Dipsacaceae, D. M. Napper. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs
Leaves
Leaves opposite, entire, lobed or variously dissected, often markedly heterophyllous
Inflorescences
Inflorescences of one or several long-pedunculate dense heads each surrounded by an involucre
Receptacle
Receptacle convex, globose or cylindric, naked, shortly pilose or with paleaceous bracts each subtending a single flower
Flowers
Flowers sessile, bisexual (excepting sometimes the marginal ones), with the ovary surrounded by and enclosed in a highly characteristic tubular involucel formed by the fusion of 2 or 4 bracts often with a membranous cupular or spreading lobed limb
Calyx
Calyx cupular or saucer-shaped with an entire, irregularly 4–5-lobed or toothed margin, sometimes with long naked or plumose bristles
Corolla
Corolla gamo-petalous with an irregularly 4- or 5-lobed limb and spreading lobes
Androecium
Stamens 2–4, alternating with the corolla-lobes and inserted near the top of the tube; anthers dithecous, oblong, exserted
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior and unilocular with a solitary ovule; style filiform with a terminal or lateral fusiform oblique or bifid stigma
Fruits
Fruit an achene closely surrounded by the persistent involucel and crowned by the persistent calyx
[FZ]

Dipsacaceae, Margaret J. and J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Habit
Usually perennial herbs or subshrubs, less commonly annual or biennials
Leaves
Leaves opposite, estipulate, entire to pinnatifid, to finely divided, sometimes noticeably heterophyllous, rarely connate at the base
Inflorescences
Inflorescence usually capitate on a long peduncle, rarely verticillate or in lax panicles Heads surrounded by well–developed involucres
Receptacle
Receptacle sometimes with short hairs, otherwise glabrous or with a paleaceous bract subtending each flower
Flowers
Flowers sessile, hermaphrodite (rarely the outer female only); the ovary surrounded by an involucel of fused bracts, which are frequently extended to form a cupule
Calyx
Calyx cupular, often with a toothed margin and long–spreading bristles
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, somewhat zygomorphic or otherwise irregular, and with a 4–5 lobed limb
Androecium
Anthers frequently on rather long filaments and exserted at anthesis Stamens 2–4, inserted towards the top of the tube and alternating with the corolla lobes
Gynoecium
Style filiform, simple, clavate or shortly 2–lobed Ovary inferior with a solitary ovule
Fruits
Fruit an achene within the persistent involucel and frequently with a conspicuous persistent calyx
[NTK]

Hind, D.J.N. (2010). Neotropical Dipsacaceae.

Morphology
Description

Annuals, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs. Roots fibrous or sometimes tuberous. Stems glabrous or variously pubescent , sometimes with prickles , often with basal rosettiform leaves, especially when young, or leaves cauline. Leaves opposite or verticillate , exstipulate , sessile , pseudopetiolate or petiolate , bases sometimes connate , sometimes heterophyllous with lower leaves usually simply but upper leaves variously lobed , lamina entire or deeply lobed , laciniate , lyrate - pinnatifid , or 1-2- pinnatisect , margins entire or variously toothed, glabrous or variously pubescent , sometimes the prickles on lower surface (especially on venation ). Inflorescences terminal or axillary , of dense cymose capitula, subtended by phyllaries 1-3-seriate, phyllaries free or rarely connate in basal half, flowering occurring at several points in capitulum , or rarely from apparent middle and working outwards (i.e. Dipsacus L.). Capitula appearing radiate/radiant, ovoid or subglobose, hemispherical or cylindrical. Florets hermaphrodite or female, each usually with a basal epicalyx (involucel) of connate bracteoles sometimes expanded into a variously shaped, often scarious , corona and often subtended by a receptacular scale, involucel variously angled or ridged, receptacular scales linear - lanceolate , sometimes spine -tipped, glabrous or variously pubescent ; calyx small, cupuliform or divided into 4-5 teeth or of numerous teeth or setae; corollas usually zygomorphic , lobes 4-5, subequal, or corolla 2-lipped, blue, lilac, white, yellow, pink, red, purple; stamens free , 2 or 4, epipetalous, alternating with corolla lobes, and usually conspicuously exserted from corolla , anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing introrsely via longitudinal slits; stigma solitary or 2- lobed ; ovary inferior, unilocular, ovule pendent. Fruit dry, indehiscent , enclosed by epicalyx and usually surrounded by persistent calyx , fruit body variously angled (4-), very rarely with an elaiosome at base (Knautia L.); seed 1, endospermic, embryo straight.

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics

Only two genera, and three species, have been commonly recorded within the Neotropics:

  • Dipsacusfullonum and D. sativus (both probably cultivated but occasionally naturalized).
  • Scabiosa atropurpurea (often cultivated, and escaped).
Diagnostic
Useful tips for generic identification

Dipsacus L. is easily recognized by:

  • The prickly stem.
  • Underside of the leaves with conspicuous prickles.
  • Characteristic capitulum.

Scabiosa L. often possesses:

  • Basal rosette of leaves.
  • The leaves are heteromorphous with entire or toothed lower leaves and pinnatifid cauline leaves.
  • Typically radiate/radiant capitula.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Capitulum, surrounded by a few-seriate involucre.
  • Florets with zygomorphic corollas.
  • Basal epicalyx or involucel.
  • Persistentcalyx.
  • Freeexserted stamens.
  • Cypsela.
Other important characters
  • The presence of radiate/radiant capitula in most genera is a useful character.
  • In Dipsacus the odd flowering pattern (acropetal/basipetal) is characteristic, along with the distinctly prickly stem and underside of the leaves, together with the connate leaf bases.
Key differences from similar families

Similar families include the Calyceraceae and Compositae in the presence of numerous florets arranged in capitula sometimes with receptacular bracts present.

The Compositae is easily recognized because of the presence of:

  • Included or exserted stamens with connate anthers (vs. stamens exserted with free anthers).
  • Achenes with or without a pappus of scales or hairs (vs. the presence of the involucel and persistent coroniform calyx in the Dipsacaceae).
  • The Dipsacaceae also have either 2 or 4 stamens; the number of stamens in Compositae is rarely reduced to 4.

The Calyceraceae differ from the Dipsacaceae as follows:

  • Stamens in the Calyceraceae are alternating with the corolla lobes whereas they are epipetalous in the Dipsacaceae.
  • Although both the Dipsacaceae and Calyceraceae have persistent calyces those in the Calyceraceae typically become lignified and spiny; those in the Dipsacaceae become cupuliform or divided into a number of setae.
  • An involucel is only found in the Dipsacaceae.
  • Anthers in the Calyceraceae dehisce antrorsely whereas those in the Dipsacaceae dehisce introrsely.
General Description
Status
  • Both representatives of the family found in the Neotropics have been/are cultivated in a number of countries, and have naturalized.
Number of genera
  • The greater part of the family (7 genera and c. 250 spp.) are found in the Old World in Asia, Eurasia and northern Africa. Only tow are found in the Neotropics. Only two are found in the Neotropics.
Notes on delimitation
  • The family appears to be reasonably naturally delimited, although some floras expand the family concept with the inclusion of the Morinaceae (Morina L.) with its spikes of false verticellasters, and Triplostegiaceae (Triplostegia Wall. ex DC.), with its characteristic double epicalyx. In the Neotropics the three taxa commonly encountered: Dipsacus fullonum L., D. sativus (L.) Honckeny and Scabiosa atropurpurea L., are all easily placed in the family sensu stricto.
  • In 'APGII' (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2003) an expanded Dipsacales was promoted in the 'Euasterids II', including a broader concept of the Caprifoliaceae, which encompassed the Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae known from the Neotropics, along with the Adoxaceae. If sunk into the Caprifoliaceae the Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae would form very discrete subfamilies. However, in Neotropikey the three families (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae) are treated separately, q.v.
Literature
Important literature

Caputo P, Cozzolino S. (1994). A cladistic analysis of Dipsacaceae (Dipsacales). Pl. Syst. Evol. 189. (1-2): 41-61

Nash, D.L. 1976. Dipsacaceae. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 24. (11 no. 4): 275 - 431 (1976) p.306.

Verlaque, R. (1984). Etude biosystematique et phylogenetique des Dipsacaceae: 1. Delimitation des Dipsacaceae a l'interieur des Dipsacales, rapports avec les autres familles de l'ordre. (Biosystematic and phylogenetic study of Dipsacaceae: 1. Delimitation of the Dipsacaceae and their relations with other families of the Dipsacales.) Rev. Gen. Bot., 91. (1079-1080-1081): 81-121.

Verlaque, R. (1985). Etude biosystematique et phylogenetique des Dipsacaceae: 2. Caracteres generaux des Dipsacaceae. (Biosystematic and phylogenetic study of the Dipsacaceae: 2. Fundamental characters of the Dipsacaceae.) Rev. Cytol. Biol. Veg. Bot., 8. (2): 117-168 (1985)

[FWTA]

Dipsacaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Habit
Perennial or annual herbs
Leaves
Leaves opposite or verticillate, entire or pinnately divided; stipules absent
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, often crowded into heads with an involucre of leafy bracts
Calyx
Calyx epigynous, cupular or divided into pappus-like segments
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, lobes imbricate
Androecium
Stamens usually 4, rarely 2-3, alternate with the corolla-lobes and inserted usually towards the bottom of the tube; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, 1-celled; style slender; ovule solitary, pendulous from the top
Seeds
Seeds with large straight embryo in scanty endosperm

Images

Caprifoliaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 210. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
[A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
[B] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
[C] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0