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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic & Subantarctic to Temp. and Tropical Mountains.

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Spikelets
Spikelets solitary, pedicelled, laterally compressed, muticous, 2-several-flowered; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, terete, glabrous or sparsely hairy; florets all hermaphrodite but for the usually reduced uppermost one (very rarely the 2 uppermost florets female only).
Glume
Glumes 2, slightly unequal, 1-3-nerved, thinly membranous, keeled, usually glabrous, persistent.
Lemma
Lemmas exceeding the glumes, (3)5-7-nerved, keeled, deeply concave, membranous, often with hyaline margins, apex acute to obtuse, usually pilose to a varying degree; callus short, obtuse, often with a woolly indumentum.
Palea
Paleas shorter than or as long as the corresponding lemmas, 2-keeled, thinly membranous, usually ciliolate along the keels, with the apex usually emarginate.
Lodicules
Lodicules 2, rather small, cuneate-2-lobate or lanceolate.
Stamens
Stamens 3.
Pistil
Ovary glabrous; styles distinct, rather short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
Fruits
Caryopsis ovate, oblong or linear-oblong in outline, often grooved, usually free between the lemma and palea; embryo small; hilum basal, punctiform.
Habit
Annuals or perennials of a wide range of habits.
Ligules
Ligule membranous or hyaline.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a lax or contracted sometimes spike-like panicle.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Habit
Annuals or perennials
Leaves
Leaf-blades usually flat, often with a blunt or hooded tip
Inflorescences
Inflorescence an open or contracted panicle
Spikelets
Spikelets 2–several-flowered, laterally compressed; glumes slightly unequal, 1–3-nerved, keeled, usually glabrous; lemmas deeply concave, keeled on the back, membranous often with hyaline margins, 5–7-nerved, awnless; callus short, obtuse, often with loose woolly hairs; ovary glabrous, the hilum basal and punctiform.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Habit
Annual or perennial; leaves usually flat, often with a blunt or hooded tip
Inflorescences
Panicle open or contracted
Spikelets
Spikelets 2- to several-flowered; glumes slightly unequal, 1- to 3-nerved, keeled, glabrous; lemmas deeply concave, keeled on the back, 5- to 7-nerved, membranous with hyaline margins and tip, often hairy on the keel and nerves, rarely also on the back, awnless; callus short, often with a web of fine cottony hairs; rhachilla glabrous; palea-keels scaberulous to stiffly ciliolate; ovary glabrous.
Distribution
Some 590 species in cool temperate regions throughout the world, extending into the tropics on mountain tops.

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Annual (25), or perennial (475). Rhizomes absent (364), or short (49), or elongated (94). Stolons absent (467), or present (36). Culms erect (239/323), or geniculately ascending (120/323), or decumbent (39/323), or prostrate (3/323), or rambling (5/323); robust (14/46), or slender (24/46), or weak (8/46); 1-38.73-400 cm long; firm (487), or wiry (8); without nodal roots (4/18), or rooting from lower nodes (18/18). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/2), or unequal, the upper longer (1/2); terete (158/183), or elliptical in section (31/183). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/4), or swollen (3/4). Lateral branches lacking (332/342), or sparse (9/342), or ample (8/342). Culm-sheaths persistent (1/1). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (40/80), or tubular for much of their length (40/80). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (494), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (456), or a ciliolate membrane (42), or absent (1). Leaf-blades persistent (486), or deciduous at the ligule (9); aciculate (9), or filiform (54), or linear (435), or oblong (1), or triangular (1); herbaceous (469), or coriaceous (28); stiff (65), or firm (398), or flaccid (34); without exudate (494), or pruinose (2). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/3), or conspicuous (2/3). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (494), or with obscure cross veins (1). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (3/10), or cartilaginous (7/10). Leaf-blade apex muticous (479), or pungent (16).
Inflorescences
Bisexual (441), or gynodioecious (male, in this context, indicating the bisexual state) (10), or monoecious (1), or dioecious (46); with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence (1/56), or with male and female spikelets in different inflorescences (55/56), or with sex changing according to season (1/56). Inflorescence a panicle (493), or comprising only a few spikelets (3); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (494), or bracts (1); exserted (484), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (14), or enclosed (1). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/1). Panicle open (374/492), or contracted (122/492), or spiciform (21/492). Primary panicle branches not whorled (482/493), or whorled at lower nodes (2/493), or whorled at most nodes (9/493). Spikelets appressed (2/6), or ascending (2/6), or spreading (1/6), or pendulous (1/6); solitary (494), or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (494). Male spikelets pedicelled (1/1); 1 in a cluster (1/1). Pedicels filiform (1/3), or oblong (1/3), or clavate (1/3); tip rectangular (1/2), or widened (1/2). Male inflorescence similar to female (51/51); a panicle (1/1). Male spikelets resembling female (46/51), or similar to female but less developed (4/51), or distinct from female (1/51); lanceolate (1/1). Male spikelet glumes 2 (3/3).
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1-4-13 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (3/494), or with a barren rhachilla extension (116/494), or with diminished florets at the apex (376/494). Spikelets linear (1/494), or lanceolate (31/494), or elliptic (52/494), or oblong (285/494), or ovate (195/494), or orbicular (2/494), or obovate (5/494), or oblanceolate (1/494), or cuneate (15/494); laterally compressed; 1.5-5.384-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (454/487), or sparsely hairy (20/487), or pubescent (25/487), or pilose (5/487), or villous (1/487). Floret callus glabrous (237/477), or sparsely hairy (17/477), or pubescent (15/477), or pilose (19/477), or bearded (4/477), or woolly (235/477).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1-4-13 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (3/494), or with a barren rhachilla extension (116/494), or with diminished florets at the apex (376/494). Spikelets linear (1/494), or lanceolate (31/494), or elliptic (52/494), or oblong (285/494), or ovate (195/494), or orbicular (2/494), or obovate (5/494), or oblanceolate (1/494), or cuneate (15/494); laterally compressed; 1.5-5.384-15 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (454/487), or sparsely hairy (20/487), or pubescent (25/487), or pilose (5/487), or villous (1/487). Floret callus glabrous (237/477), or sparsely hairy (17/477), or pubescent (15/477), or pilose (19/477), or bearded (4/477), or woolly (235/477).
Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (490), or reaching apex of florets (6), or exceeding apex of florets (3); thinner than fertile lemma (2), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (494); incurved at apex (2), or parallel to lemmas (490), or recurved at apex (1), or gaping (3). Lower glume linear (12/494), or lanceolate (298/494), or elliptic (42/494), or oblong (66/494), or ovate (108/494); not clasping (1/1); 0.33-0.8492-1.5 length of upper glume; membranous (487/493), or chartaceous (3/493), or herbaceous (2/493), or coriaceous (1/493); without keels (3/493), or 1-keeled (490/493); 1 -veined (301/455), or 2 -veined (91/455), or 3 -veined (244/455), or 4-5 -veined (4/455). Lower glume lateral veins absent (282), or obscure (60), or distinct (224), or prominent (2); without ribs (285/286), or ribbed (1/286). Lower glume surface smooth (451), or asperulous (35), or scabrous (23); glabrous (493), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex entire (492), or erose (3); emarginate (1/494), or obtuse (29/494), or acute (413/494), or acuminate (76/494), or attenuate (2/494), or setaceously attenuate (1/494); muticous (492/494), or mucronate (3/494). Upper glume linear (3/494), or lanceolate (164/494), or elliptic (83/494), or oblong (70/494), or ovate (213/494), or obovate (5/494); 0.25-0.8626-1.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (487/493), or chartaceous (3/493), or herbaceous (2/493), or coriaceous (1/493); with undifferentiated margins (441), or hyaline margins (46), or membranous margins (1), or scarious margins (7); without keels (3/493), or 1-keeled (490/493); 1 -veined (18/470), or 2 -veined (14/470), or 3 -veined (457/470), or 4 -veined (19/470), or 5 -veined (26/470), or 6-7 -veined (1/470). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (494), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (489/490), or ribbed (1/490); meeting at apex (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth (444), or asperulous (43), or scabrous (22), or papillose (2); glabrous (492), or pubescent (2), or pilose (1). Upper glume apex entire (491), or erose (5); emarginate (4/493), or truncate (1/493), or obtuse (49/493), or acute (407/493), or acuminate (62/493), or attenuate (1/493); muticous (492/494), or mucronate (2/494).
Florets
Fertile florets bisexual (448), or female (55). Fertile lemma linear (2/494), or lanceolate (73/494), or elliptic (55/494), or oblong (110/494), or ovate (282/494), or oblate (1/494); without auricles (494), or auriculate at base (1), or thickened on margins at base (1); laterally compressed (2/2); lanceolate in profile (22/134), or elliptic in profile (9/134), or oblong in profile (112/134), or ovate in profile (1/134); membranous (474/493), or chartaceous (8/493), or herbaceous (6/493), or coriaceous (6/493); of similar consistency above (442), or much thinner above (52), or firmer above (1); of similar consistency on margins (426), or much thinner on margins (69); without keel (1), or keeled (494); 0-5-11 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (398), or scaberulous (50), or scabrous (62); eciliate (272), or ciliolate (63), or ciliate (148), or pectinately ciliate (1), or pubescent (34). Lemma lateral veins obscure (57/135), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (21/135), or distinct (30/135), or prominent (31/135); extending close to apex (2/36), or stopping well short of apex (32/36), or less than two thirds length of lemma (2/36). Lemma surface smooth (388), or granulose (8), or asperulous (31), or scaberulous (66), or scabrous (40), or papillose (9), or punctate (4), or pitted (1); glabrous (368), or puberulous (51), or pubescent (98), or pilose (16), or hirsute (2), or villous (2); hairy on back (100/162), or on veins (55/162), or between veins (9/162), or in lines (1/162); with simple hairs (161/162), or turgid hairs (1/162); without hair tufts (494), or with basal hair tufts near margin (1). Lemma margins flat (494), or involute (1); eciliate (321), or ciliolate (51), or ciliate (111), or pubescent (25), or pilose (2), or villous (2), or woolly (1). Lemma apex entire (482), or erose (9), or dentate (7); 2 -fid (5/6), or 3 -fid (1/6); incised 0.2 of lemma length; emarginate (6/486), or truncate (6/486), or obtuse (148/486), or acute (342/486), or acuminate (20/486), or cuspidate (2/486), or apiculate (2/486); muticous (485), or mucronate (16), or awned (5); 1 -awned (5/5). Principal lemma awn apical (15/19), or from a sinus (4/19). Palea 0.2-0.9418-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (8/9), or 3 -veined (1/9). Palea keels separated (493), or approximate (2); wingless (494), or winged (1); smooth (213), or scaberulous (101), or scabrous (195), or spinulose (2); eciliate (390), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (1), or ciliolate (82), or ciliate (33). Palea surface glabrous (451), or puberulous (24), or pubescent (37), or pilose (3). Palea apex entire (1/8), or dentate (8/8). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (371/376), or distinct from fertile (5/376).
Flowers
Lodicules 1 (1/444), or 2 (443/444); membranous (442/442); glabrous (442/444), or ciliate (9/444); with a small lateral lobe (2/3), or irregularly toothed (1/3); obtuse (1/1). Anthers 1 (1/488), or 3 (487/488). Stigmas 2-3 (1/1). Ovary glabrous (11/11).
Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (460/460); lanceolate (4/49), or fusiform (8/49), or ellipsoid (19/49), or oblong (11/49), or ovoid (5/49), or obovoid (1/49), or oblanceolate (1/49); laterally compressed (1/1); trigonous (15/15); striate (1/2), or rugose (1/2). Embryo 0.2-0.2567-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (446/448), or elliptic (2/448).
Male
Male inflorescence similar to female (51/51); a panicle (1/1). Male spikelets resembling female (46/51), or similar to female but less developed (4/51), or distinct from female (1/51); lanceolate (1/1). Male spikelet glumes 2 (3/3).
Distribution
Europe (54), or Africa (29), or Temperate Asia (158), or Tropical Asia (95), or Australasia (84), or Pacific (7), or North America (80), or South America (120), or Antarctica (10).

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Annual. Culms 0.4-1 cm long. Leaves without demarcation between sheath and blade. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades triangular.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an inflated leaf-sheath; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle capitate. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet, or reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas, or recurved at apex. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex cuspidate. Upper glume oblong; 0.9-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex cuspidate.
Florets
Fertile lemma oblong; membranous; keeled; 1-5 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex cuspidate; muticous, or mucronate. Palea 1 length of lemma; 1-2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface pubescent.
Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous; 2-toothed. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2. Ovary glabrous.
Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; laterally compressed. Embryo 0.4 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
Distribution
South America.

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Perennial. Culms geniculately ascending (1), or prostrate (1); 14-29.5-50 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades firm (1), or flaccid (1).
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Primary panicle branches not whorled (1), or whorled at most nodes (1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (1/1).
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (1), or 3 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or oblong (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 5-7.75-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (1), or 3 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or oblong (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 5-7.75-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure (1), or two (1); persistent (1/1); shorter than spikelet (1/1). Lower glume linear (1/1); 1 length of upper glume; 1 -veined (1/1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1/1). Lower glume apex acute (1/1). Upper glume lanceolate (1/1); 0.25-0.29-0.33 length of adjacent fertile lemma; 3-4 -veined (1/1). Upper glume apex entire (1/1), or dentate (1/1); 2 -fid (1/1); acute (1/1).
Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; herbaceous; keeled; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (1), or scaberulous (1). Lemma apex entire (1), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); setaceously attenuate (1/1). Palea keels smooth (1), or scabrous (1). Palea apex dentate (1/1).
Flowers
Lodicules 2 (1/1). Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1). Hilum elliptic (1/1).
Distribution
South America.

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Annual. Culms erect; 5-30 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades flaccid.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear.
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 5-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 5-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 5-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 5-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.6-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 0.6-1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; linear in profile; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; keeled; 5-11 -veined. Lemma lateral veins ribbed. Lemma surface pilose; hairy on veins. Lemma apex emarginate, or obtuse. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate, or ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Flowers
Anthers 3.
Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform.
Distribution
Australasia.

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Annual (3), or perennial (11). Rhizomes absent (12), or short (1), or elongated (1). Culms erect (3/7), or geniculately ascending (2/7), or decumbent (3/7); slender (1/1); 2-9.803-35 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades herbaceous (12), or coriaceous (2); stiff (3), or firm (11).
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (2), or contracted (4), or spiciform (8). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets, or 3 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 2.4-3.889-6.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets, or 3 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 2.4-3.889-6.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glume
Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (6), or exceeding apex of florets (9); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (9), or oblong (2), or ovate (4); 1 length of upper glume; membranous (12), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1); 1-keeled; 3 -veined (12/12). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (13); without ribs (13), or ribbed (1). Lower glume apex acute (12), or acuminate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (7), or oblong (2), or ovate (6); 1-1.332-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (12), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1); with undifferentiated margins (13), or hyaline margins (1); 1-keeled; 3 -veined (12/12). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (13), or ribbed (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (11), or acuminate (2).
Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (8); chartaceous (13), or cartilaginous (1); of similar consistency above (12), or much thinner above (2); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (11), or scabrous (3). Lemma surface smooth (9), or asperulous (1), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (1); glabrous (10), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (1), or hispidulous (1). Lemma apex entire (13), or dentate (1); 3 -fid (1/1); truncate (2), or obtuse (4), or acute (9), or acuminate (1). Palea keels smooth (13), or scaberulous (3); eciliate (11), or ciliolate (3).
Flowers
Anthers 3 (11/11). Ovary glabrous (11/11).
Distribution
North America (2), or South America (13).

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Perennial. Culms erect (2/2); 25-69.16-120 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles absent, or falcate (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (2); coriaceous; stiff. Leaf-blade apex muticous (2), or pungent (1).
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (2), or contracted (1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels cuneate (1/1).
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 3 fertile florets (1), or 4-5 fertile florets, or 6 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 9-13-18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes pilose (1), or villous (2). Floret callus pubescent (1), or pilose (2).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 3 fertile florets (1), or 4-5 fertile florets, or 6 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 9-13-18 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes pilose (1), or villous (2). Floret callus pubescent (1), or pilose (2).
Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear; 0.9-0.9 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface asperulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate (2), or ovate (1); 0.75-0.9583-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume apex acute.
Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic (2), or ovate (1); coriaceous; of similar consistency above (2), or much thinner above (1); keeled; 5 -veined (2), or 6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (2), or 8-11 -veined (1). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (2), or scabrous (1); eciliate (2), or ciliolate (1). Lemma surface asperulous (1), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (1). Lemma apex entire (1), or erose (1), or dentate; 2 -fid; truncate (1/2), or acute (1/2); mucronate (1), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2). Principal lemma awn subapical (1), or from a sinus (2). Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels smooth (1), or scabrous (2); eciliate (2), or ciliolate (1). Palea apex dentate (2/2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous; glabrous (2), or ciliate (1); 2-toothed (1/1). Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous.
Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum elliptic.
Distribution
Australasia.

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Annual. Culms 2-5 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Racemes single; unilateral; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 2-6 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis angular. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.49-3.6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.49-3.6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of upper glume; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; 0.05-0.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Florets
Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma apex erose; truncate. Palea hyaline; 2 -veined.
Flowers
Lodicules absent. Anthers 3.
Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; laterally compressed. Hilum elliptic.
Distribution
Africa.

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Perennial. Culms 3-12 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Panicle spiciform. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong.
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 3-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 4-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 3-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 4-7 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 0.6-0.8 length of upper glume; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume orbicular; 0.6-0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse.
Florets
Fertile lemma flabellate; hyaline; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex emarginate. Palea 0.5 length of lemma; hyaline; 2 -veined. Palea apex lobed. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Distribution
South America.

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Annual. Culms decumbent; 8-21 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2-5 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 3-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2-5 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 3-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume elliptic; 0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface scabrous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; with hyaline margins; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma surface scaberulous; pilose; hairy between veins. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or mucronate. Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous; with a small lateral lobe; acute. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2.
Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform. Embryo 0.1 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform.
Distribution
Temperate Asia.

[GB]

nonem

Habit
Annual. Culms 5-27.1-65 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades firm (4), or flaccid (1).
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; without sterile bristles (3), or sterile at lowest node (2). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform; tip rectangular (1/1).
Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (3), or 2-3 fertile florets (4), or 4-7 fertile florets (2), or 8 fertile florets (3), or 9 fertile florets (2), or 10-12 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 2-5.15-11.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (3), or 2-3 fertile florets (4), or 4-7 fertile florets (2), or 8 fertile florets (3), or 9 fertile florets (2), or 10-12 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 2-5.15-11.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume elliptic (1), or ovate (4); 0.6-0.711-0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic (1), or ovate (4); 0.6-0.856-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; oblong in profile; membranous; much thinner above; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (4), or ciliolate (1). Lemma surface glabrous (2), or pubescent (3); hairy on back (1/3), or on veins (2/3). Lemma apex truncate (3), or obtuse (2), or acute (1). Palea keels eciliate (4), or ciliolate (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Flowers
Anthers 3.
Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate (1/1); trigonous (1/1). Embryo 1.1-1.15-1.2 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (1), or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia, or Tropical Asia (2).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Amur, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, Heard-McDonald Is., Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marion-Prince Edward, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, South Georgia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Antarctica, Ascension, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Cuba, Desventurados Is., Dominican Republic, Easter Is., El Salvador, Galápagos, Haiti, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Marianas, Mauritius, Namibia, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, St.Helena, Sumatera, Swaziland, Zambia

Poa L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2865], Brazil K001077914
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3791], Nepal K001117223

First published in Sp. Pl.: 67 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 31 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 67 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 31 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 67 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 31 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 67 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0