1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Inga Mill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    Nielsen (1981a) recognised 21 genera in Ingeae (Table 7), although 4 were not given generic names, but were referred to as ‘Gen. A’ to ‘Gen. D’. He recognised the genus Marmaroxylon, although without a generic number, so that the tribe, to the casual observer, appeared to contain only 20 genera. The genus Punjuba appended by Nielsen (1981a) under “genera and species of unknown affinity” is here treated as a synonym of Abarema, following Barneby & Grimes (1996), although we suggest that this may be reinstated as a good genus in the future. Nielsen (1981a) also included Pithecellobium incuriale (Vell.) Benth. as a “species of unknown affinity” but this is now placed in Leucochloron Barneby & Grimes (1996).

    Polhill (1994) increased the number of genera of Ingeae to 25 (Table 7). He recognised Nielsen’s ‘Gen. A’ as Paraserianthes I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. B’ as Archidendropsis I.C.Nielsen, ‘Gen. C’ as Pararchidendron I.C.Nielsen, and ‘Gen. D’ as Macrosamanea Britton & Rose ex Britton & Killip. He placed Faidherbia in Ingeae for the first time, reinstated Cathormion, Samanea and Chloroleucon, and recognised the monospecific Obolinga Barneby (subsequently subsumed into Cojoba by Barneby & Grimes, 1997). Zapoteca, a segregate of Calliandra described by Hernández (1986), was also added by Polhill (1994). Klugiodendron, recognised by Nielsen (1981a), was considered a synonym of Abarema by Polhill (1994), and Affonsea was placed as a synonym of Inga, a position later confirmed by Pennington (1997).

    The present treatment of Ingeae recognises 36 genera (24 of which are New World endemics) and (935)–951–(966) species (Fig. 27). We follow Barneby & Grimes (1997) in placing Obolinga as a synonym of Cojoba. Eight genera: Blanchetiodendron, Ebenopsis, Hesperalbizia, Hydrochorea, Leucochloron, Painteria, Pseudosamanea, and Sphinga, have either been reinstated or described as new since 1994 (Barneby & Grimes, 1996). Paraserianthes section Falcataria was raised to generic status as Falcataria (I.C.Nielsen) Barneby & Grimes (1996). Balizia Barneby & Grimes (1996) is considered a synonym of Albizia following Rico Arce (1999). Guinetia L.Rico & M.Sousa was described as new (Rico Arce et al., 1999, publ. 2000), and Viguieranthus Villiers in 2002.

    Clarification of generic relationships within tribe Ingeae still suffers from a paucity of molecular data, partly due to a lack of appropriate material for DNA extraction of the recently described and reinstated genera. Luckow et al. (2000) included four ingoid genera in their analysis of the basal genera of Mimosoideae. These formed a group together with Faidherbia (then still considered a member of tribe Acacieae, although moved to Ingeae by Polhill (1994)). Barneby & Grimes (1996) concentrating on neotropical taxa, divided American ingoids into five informal alliances: the Abarema-, Samanea-, Chloroleucon-, Pithecellobium- and Inga- alliances. Genera of uncertain position within their system included Albizia, Enterolobium and Cedrelinga. Lysiloma was considered as intermediate between tribes Ingeae and Acacieae. Luckow et al. (2003) carried out a phylogenetic analysis of the Mimosoideae using chloroplast DNA sequence data. They treated sixteen of the 36 ingoid genera recognised in this account, including Faidherbia, but concluded that relationships within the Ingeae are generally unresolved and that, with only a few exceptions, clades within the ingoid part of their topology were not strongly supported. Albizia proved to be polyphyletic, supporting the findings of Grimes (1999).

    Any new classification of the Ingeae will require sampling of all the genera not included by Luckow et al. (2003) and more extensive sampling of the larger and putatively non-monophyletic genera. Relationships between ingoid genera and the various elements of a polyphyletic Acacia have still to be resolved, although Luckow et al. (2003) have an Acacia subgenus Phyllodineae clade nested within the Ingeae, suggesting that at least part of Acacia sens. lat. (the Australian phyllodinous acacias) might be included within the Ingeae in the future, or that the Ingeae, as currently circumscribed, may have to be broken up into several distinct suprageneric taxa. Such suggestions are premature as 20 ingoid genera, including Abarema, Archidendron, Pithecellobium, Zygia and the largely Madagascan Viguieranthus have not yet been included in molecular analyses.

    Richardson et al. (2001), based on DNA sequence data, indicate that Inga has diversified relatively recently, and that speciation has been concentrated in the past 10 million years, with many species arising as recently as 2 million years ago. All Inga species have simply pinnate (not bipinnate) leaves; in the Mimosoideae, Zygia (1 sp.) and Cojoba (a few spp.) are the only other genera with some species simply pinnate
    Vernacular
    ingá
    Habit
    Trees
    Ecology
    Mostly of lowland and montane rain forest throughout the humid tropics, 0-3000 m, half in rain forest on non-flooded land, half in riparian habitats on periodically flooded land, rarely in seasonally dry areas
    Distribution
    Neotropics from 24°N in Mexico to 34°S in Uruguay, including 2 spp. restricted to the Caribbean, highest diversity in Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and southern C America. 40 spp. confined to Mexico and southern C America, 75 spp. essentially Amazonian, 33 spp. restricted to coastal Brazil, c. 60 spp. extra-Amazonian within an arc from the Guianas through Colombia to Peru and Bolivia, the remaining spp. (c. 40-45) extending across the Panama isthmus (several of these widespread especially in S America)
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as multi-purpose soil restoration and agroforestry trees (e.g., I. edulis Mart., or ice cream bean, guava machete, ingá cipa ), for edible fruits (the white pulp is eaten or used in flavouring desserts), shade for crops, leaf mulch, nitrogen fixing properties, timber, fuelwood and medicine

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Chile North, Cook Is., Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Jawa, Malaya, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Society Is., Tanzania, Zaïre

    Inga Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2006 Delprete, P.G. [9031], Brazil K000877304
    Jan 1, 2002 Jardim, J.G. [1521], Brazil K000877271
    Jan 1, 1997 Acevedo-Rodriguez, P. [8418], Brazil K000877275
    Jan 1, 1996 Garcia, F.C.P. [737], Brazil K000877243
    Jan 1, 1996 Vicentini, A. [532], Brazil K000877295
    Jan 1, 1996 Campbell, D.G. [7623], Brazil K000877254
    Jan 1, 1996 Campbell, D.G. [8055], Brazil K000877294
    Jan 1, 1996 Campbell, D.G. [P22093], Brazil K000877302
    Jan 1, 1996 Thomas, W.W. [3954], Brazil K000877241
    Jan 1, 1996 Thomas, W.W. [5129], Brazil K000877280
    Jan 1, 1996 Prance, G.T. [7161], Brazil K000877286
    Jan 1, 1996 Prance, G.T. [13528], Brazil K000877253
    Jan 1, 1996 Prance, G.T. [4575], Brazil K000877279
    Jan 1, 1996 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [8303], Brazil K000877251
    Jan 1, 1996 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [5740], Brazil K000877263
    Jan 1, 1996 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [4826], Brazil K000877267
    Jan 1, 1996 Ferreira, A.R. [s.n.] K000877283
    Jan 1, 1996 s.coll. [s.n.], Venezuela K000877284
    Jan 1, 1996 Burchell [3695], Brazil K000877289
    Jan 1, 1996 Glaziou [14643], Brazil K000877278
    Jan 1, 1996 Glaziou [11917], Brazil K000877281
    Mar 1, 1990 Thomas, W.W. [5056], Brazil K000877285
    Mar 1, 1990 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [5831], Brazil K000877300
    Mar 1, 1990 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [4860], Brazil K000877303
    Mar 1, 1990 Rabelo, B.V. [2241], Brazil K000877282
    Feb 1, 1990 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [7411], Brazil K000877287
    Sep 1, 1988 Cid Ferreira, C.A. [6025], Brazil K000877266
    Jan 1, 1988 Thomas, W.W. [4960], Brazil K000877264
    Jul 1, 1985 Rabelo, B.V. [3169], Brazil K000877291
    Jan 1, 1984 Amaral, I.L. [8343], Brazil K000877252
    Philcox, D. [3054], Brazil K000877277
    Pennington, R.T. [91], Bolivia 35772.030
    Pennington, R.T. [174], Bolivia 35772.031
    Pennington, R.T. [151], Bolivia 36688.000
    Pennington, R.T. [39], Bolivia 53791.000
    Pennington, R.T. [105], Bolivia 57588.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12353], Peru 29047.681
    Pennington, T.D. [13295], Bolivia 29047.725
    Pennington, T.D. [13371], Costa Rica 29047.727
    Pennington, T.D. [13399], Honduras 29047.733
    Pennington, T.D. [13487], Bolivia 29047.748
    Pennington, T.D. [13493], Bolivia 29047.749
    Pennington, T.D. [13512], Bolivia 29047.752
    Pennington, T.D. [13447], Bolivia 29047.753
    Pennington, T.D. [13525], Bolivia 29047.754
    Pennington, T.D. [13503], Bolivia 29047.756
    Pennington, T.D. [13542], Ecuador 29047.803
    Pennington, T.D. [13764], Ecuador 29047.808
    Pennington, T.D. [13541], Ecuador 29047.809
    Pennington, T.D. [13894], Ecuador 29047.875
    Pennington, T.D. [13878], Ecuador 29047.882
    Pennington, T.D. [12518], Peru 53847.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12448], Peru 54399.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12396], Peru 54400.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12394], Peru 54403.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12441], Peru 54405.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12377], Peru 54409.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12341], Peru 54410.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12361], Peru 54411.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12454], Peru 54432.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12472], Peru 54441.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12496], Peru 54674.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12500], Peru 54675.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12542], Peru 55617.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12470], Peru 55620.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12522], Peru 55621.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12547], Peru 55668.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12553], Peru 55670.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12541], Peru 55672.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12526], Peru 55679.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12507], Peru 55744.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12495], Peru 55746.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12472], Peru 55749.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12490], Peru 55764.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12485], Peru 55768.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12522], Peru 55769.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12519], Peru 55770.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12496], Peru 55778.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12483], Peru 55781.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12504], Peru 55782.000
    Pennington, T.D. [12462], Peru 55789.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13286], Bolivia 56015.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13494], Bolivia 56151.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13439], Bolivia 56152.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13517], Bolivia 56153.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13497], Bolivia 56156.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13445], Bolivia 56564.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13444], Bolivia 56565.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13494], Bolivia 57258.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13502], Bolivia 57324.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13492], Bolivia 57326.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13256], Bolivia 57332.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13289], Bolivia 57333.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13294], Bolivia 57334.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13244], Bolivia 57335.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13298], Bolivia 57337.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13263], Bolivia 57338.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13240], Bolivia 57341.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13246], Bolivia 57342.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13310], Bolivia 57343.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13250], Bolivia 57344.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13312], Bolivia 57345.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13275], Bolivia 57346.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13254], Bolivia 57347.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13264], Bolivia 57348.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13245], Bolivia 57349.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13316], Bolivia 57350.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13251], Bolivia 57357.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13406], Honduras 57359.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13281], Bolivia 57402.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13313], Bolivia 57403.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13249], Bolivia 57404.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13247], Bolivia 57405.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13228], Bolivia 57406.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13290], Bolivia 57407.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13265], Bolivia 57408.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13297], Bolivia 57409.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13315], Bolivia 57411.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13226], Bolivia 57412.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13300], Bolivia 57413.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13301], Bolivia 57414.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13241], Bolivia 57415.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13305], Bolivia 57416.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13235], Bolivia 57417.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13288], Bolivia 57418.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13299], Bolivia 57419.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13269], Bolivia 57420.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13293], Bolivia 57421.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13267], Bolivia 57422.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13327], Bolivia 57423.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13238], Bolivia 57424.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13307], Bolivia 57425.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13278], Bolivia 57428.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13302], Bolivia 57429.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13232], Bolivia 57430.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13287], Bolivia 57431.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13227], Bolivia 57432.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13308], Bolivia 57433.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13314], Bolivia 57434.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13279], Bolivia 57435.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13282], Bolivia 57436.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13326], Bolivia 57437.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13284], Bolivia 57438.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13270], Bolivia 57439.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13237], Bolivia 57440.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13328], Bolivia 57441.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13280], Bolivia 57442.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13292], Bolivia 57443.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13285], Bolivia 57444.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13317], Bolivia 57445.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13318], Bolivia 57446.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13291], Bolivia 57447.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13236], Bolivia 57448.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13277], Bolivia 57449.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13283], Bolivia 57450.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13398], Honduras 57475.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13423], Guatemala 57482.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13410], Honduras 57490.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13407], Honduras 57491.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13408], Honduras 57494.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13437], Guatemala 57495.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13440], Bolivia 57550.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13505], Bolivia 57551.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13521], Bolivia 57559.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13441], Bolivia 57563.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13453], Bolivia 57564.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13519], Bolivia 57598.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13442], Bolivia 57599.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13522], Bolivia 57601.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13628], Costa Rica 57651.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13602], Costa Rica 58683.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13609], Costa Rica 58684.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13603], Costa Rica 58690.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13650], Honduras 58711.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13440], Bolivia 58790.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13822], Ecuador 59201.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13234], Bolivia 59203.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13793], Ecuador 59206.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13742], Ecuador 59218.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13807], Ecuador 59220.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13878], Ecuador 59602.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13505], Bolivia 59912.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13512], Bolivia 59913.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13521], Bolivia 62803.000
    Owen, P.E. [18], Costa Rica 58681.000
    Owen, P.E. [13], Costa Rica 58692.000
    Owen, P.E. [17], Costa Rica 58698.000
    Milliken, W. [461], Brazil K000877288
    Lindeman, J.C. [1765], Brazil K000877276
    Lima, H.C. [1828], Brazil K000944306
    Lima, H.C. [1830], Brazil K000944307
    Spironelo, W.R. [A54-1], Brazil 59111.000
    Cardeil, J.M. [119], Bolivia 57677.000
    Ribeiro, J.E.L.S. [1314], Brazil K000877244
    Silva, M.G. [4298], Brazil K000877301
    Filgueiras, T.S. [3585], Brazil K000877305
    Folli, D.A. [6332], Brazil K000877268
    Folli, D.A. [6332], Brazil K000877269
    Krukoff, B.A. [8228], Brazil K000877260
    Krukoff, B.A. [8228], Brazil K000877261
    Krukoff, B.A. [7114], Brazil K000877274
    Atkins, S. [4649], Brazil K000877298
    Daly, D.C. [9332], Brazil K000877246
    Daly, D.C. [10397], Brazil K000877259
    Faria, S.M. [1134], Brazil K000944308
    Rosário, C.S. [778], Brazil K000877257
    Forzza, R.C. [4559], Brazil K000944309
    Forzza, R.C. [4785], Brazil K000944310
    Assunção, P.A.C.L. [477], Brazil K000877272
    Prance, G.T. [5315], Brazil K000877292
    Cunha, N.M.L. [131], Brazil K000877293
    Martínez S., E.M. [26284], Mexico K000564138
    Martínez S., E.M. [26269], Mexico K000564139
    Cid Ferreira, C.A. [1930], Brazil K000877242
    Paula-Souza, J. [5001], Brazil K000877299
    Stehmann, J.R. [3081], Brazil K000877270
    Hatschbach, G.G. [66655], Brazil K000877249
    Hatschbach, G.G. [49873], Brazil K000877256
    Silveira, M. [1447], Brazil K000877245
    Silveira, M. [1539], Brazil K000877273
    Oliveira, A.R.S. [182], Brazil K000877247
    Oliveira, A.R.S. [580], Brazil K000877248
    Figueiredo, C. [1114], Brazil K000877290
    Figueiredo, C. [736], Brazil K000877297
    Figuereido, C. [509], Brazil K000877296
    Silva, D.G. [28], Brazil K000877258
    Silva, D.G. [30], Brazil K000877262
    Silva, D.G. [17], Brazil K000877265
    Tameirão Neto, E. [1959], Brazil K000877255
    Borges, R.A.X. [194], Brazil K000944311
    Spironelo, W. [186], Brazil K000877250

    First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

    Accepted by

    • Pennington, T.D. (1997). The genus Inga botany: 1-488. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0