1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Stylosanthes Sw.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Southern America, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The present circumscription of Dalbergieae sens. lat. contains radical changes to Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233–242). In the first instance it takes a traditional view of the tribe by including genera such as Vatairea and Vataireopsis (now in the Vataireoid clade, see Figs. 1& 40) and Andira and Hymenolobium, which in Wojciechowski et al. (2004) are sister to the combined Dalbergioid clade of Lavin et al. (2001a), plus Amorpheae. The bulk of the treatment, however, recognises the cryptic Dalbergioid clade (Lavin et al., 2001a) as comprising tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat., diagnosed by the synapomorphy of aeschynomenoid root nodules. This clade includes all the genera placed in the Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233– 242), the Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) and the Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g: 355–356), plus subtribe Bryinae of the Desmodieae sensu Ohashi et al. (1981) as well as the genus Diphysa (tribe Robinieae sensu Polhill & Sousa (1981)).The placements of all members of the Dalbergioid clade within the classification presented here and in those of Polhill (1981d: 233–242; 1981g: 355–356), Polhill & Sousa (1981), Ohashi et al. (1981) and Rudd (1981) are listed in Fig. 40.

    Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d) contained 19 genera defined by woody habit, supposedly plesiomorphic flowers, pods with a specialised seed chamber and seeds that accumulated alkaloids. Polhill (1981d) noted that there seemed to be two centres within the Dalbergieae: one around Andira with Hymenolobium, Vatairea, Vataireopsis, Dalbergia, and Machaerium, and one around Pterocarpus. He also highlighted evidence from wood anatomy (Baretta-Kuipers, 1981) which showed that Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis have coarser wood structures more typical of members of the Sophoreae than the remaining members of the Dalbergieae. The study of fruit and seedling morphology by Lima (1990) further supported these two centres within the Dalbergieae: one including Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis, and the second the remaining genera. Most recently several molecular and morphological studies (e.g., Lavin et al., 2001a; Pennington et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004) confirm that these four genera do not belong in the Dalbergioid clade. Since there is, however, still much work to be done to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of these four genera, they have been kept in tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat. in this treatment to avoid tentative placements, which might be treated by users as formal.

    The tribe Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) contained 25 genera characterised by lomentaceous pods, although some members lack loments (e.g., Arachis, Ormocarpopsis, Diphysa spp., Ormocarpum spp., and Pictetia spp.). None of the Aeschynomeneae had previously been considered closely related to the Dalbergieae, but the work of Lavin et al. (2001a) has resolved all the ‘aeschynomenoid genera’ within the Dalbergioid clade.

    The taxonomic history of the monogeneric tribe Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g) is very different from that of the Dalbergieae. The Adesmieae combines the presumed plesiomorphic trait of free stamen filaments, with presence of lomentaceous pods that are supposedly derived. This combination of features suggested a taxonomically isolated position far removed from the Dalbergieae. The analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) based on molecular sequence and morphological data, however, support Adesmia (nested together with five genera of Rudd’s Aeschynomeneae) being sister to the Pterocarpus and Dalbergia clades. The neotropical genera Brya and Cranocarpus were placed together in a new subtribe Bryinae of Desmodieae in the classification of Ohashi et al. (1981). The features common to these genera are periporate pollen and glochidiate hairs or glandular trichomes. In the molecular studies of Doyle et al. (1995) and Bailey et al. (1997), Brya and Cranocarpus did not lack the intron for the chloroplast gene rpl2 nor for the open reading frame ORF184, which are characteristic of the other desmodioid genera studied. Bailey et al. (1997), therefore, suggested that Brya and Cranocarpus should be removed from the Desmodieae. Their findings were strongly corroborated by the three gene analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) which place the two genera in the Pterocarpus clade (Fig. 40).

    One further transfer has been made in the Dalbergioid clade since Rudd (1981) and Polhill & Sousa (1981). Lavin (1987) transferred Diphysa from the Robinieae to tribe Aeschynomeneae based on the absence of canavanine in the seeds, a feature consistently present in the Robinieae (Lavin, 1986). Lavin (1987) also listed 14 morphological characters that placed Diphysa with the Aeschynomeneae rather than the Robinieae. In the phylogenetic analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a), Diphysa is resolved in the Dalbergioid clade nested within the ‘transatlantic clade’ (Fig. 40), first identified by Lavin et al. (2000).

    Finally, since 1981 four new genera have been published: the Brazilian monotypic Grazielodendron (Lima, 1983b), the possibly extinct Madagascan endemic Peltiera (Labat & Du Puy, 1997), Zygocarpum, the Horn of Africa – Arabian segregate of Ormocarpum (Thulin & Lavin, 2001) and Maraniona from northern Peru (Hughes et al., 2004). Three genera have also been placed in synonymy since 1981: the Caribbean genus Belairia which is a synonym of Pictetia (Beyra-Matos & Lavin, 1999), and the genera Pachecoa and Arthrocarpum which Thulin (1999) synonymised under Chapmannia. In this treatment 49 genera and (1319) –1325–(1331) species are recognised in Dalbergieae sens. lat. (including 4 basally branching dalbergioid genera comprising c. 58 species, and (1261)–1267– (1273) species in the 45 genera of the Dalbergioid clade [Lavin et al., 2001a]).The following informal groupings of genera are based on the work of Lavin et al. (2001a): Adesmia clade: 6 genera; c. 360 species; neotropical except Zornia, which is pantropical. Pterocarpus clade: 22 genera; c. 200 species centred in the Neotropics, Pterocarpus and Stylosanthes are pantropical, Inocarpus Asian, and Chapmannia transatlantic.Dalbergia clade: 17 genera; c. 706 species which are pantropical, but centred in Africa; Weberbauerella, Soemmeringia, Pictetia and Diphysa are neotropical, Machaerium transatlantic, Dalbergia and Aeschynomene are pantropical, and Geissaspis Asian. Isolated genera: 4 genera; 58 species, neotropical except Andira, which has one amphiatlantic species.

    Mohlenbrock (1957) placed Stylosanthes in tribe Hedysareae subtribe Stylosanthinae, related to Zornia, Chapmannia and Arachis; Rudd (1981) placed it in tribe Aeschynomeneae, subtribe Stylosanthinae related to Arthrocarpum and Pachecoa (both synonyms of Chapmannia in this treatment), Chapmannia and Arachis; Lavin et al. (2001a), based on DNA sequences, placed Stylosanthes in the Pterocarpus clade, sister to Arachis, and nested with Chapmannia (Fig. 40)
    Habit
    Subshrubs or perennial herbs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical to warm temperate woodland, wooded grassland, thicket, shrubland and grassland, on sandy or rocky soils, along streams and sometimes weedy in old cultivated lands and on roadsides
    Distribution
    native to New and Old World, mainly neotropical (c. 23 spp.; centred in S America [13 spp.] with 4 spp. in N & C America and 6 spp. widespread in the Neotropics) and 2 spp. widespread in Africa, Madagascar, India and Sri Lanka ( S. fruticosa (Retz.) Alston [wild lucerne] and S. erecta P.Beauv). Several New World spp. have been cultivated and are naturalised in Africa, Asia and Australia (e.g., S. guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. sens. lat., S. humilis Kunth and S. viscosa Sw.)
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect or spreading perennial herbs or subshrubs, often somewhat hispid with glandular hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate or abnormally 1-foliolate; stipules adnate to the petiole for most of their length, persistent, biapiculate; stipels absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually dense, axillary or terminal, composed of 1-flowered elements in spikes or panicles; primary bracts l(–2–3)-foliolate, imbricate, persistent; secondary bracts lanceolate or irregularly 2–3-fid, hyaline, persistent, ciliate
    Flowers
    Flowers subsessile, accompanied by 1–2 persistent linear hyaline ciliate bracteoles and sometimes by a plumose filiform axis representing a reduced part of an inflorescence now no longer present
    Hypanthium
    Receptacle (hypanthium) long and filiform
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; lobes joined at the base, membranous, the lowest longest and the upper pair joined for about half their length
    Corolla
    Standard rounded or obovate, emarginate, narrowed into a basal claw; wings oblong or obovate, free, with a lateral basal spur and a small internal appendage and also with a series of small pockets on the blade; keel-petals similarly spurred and appendaged Corolla usually small, yellow
    Stamens
    Stamens all joined; 5 anthers longer and subbasifixed alternating with 5 shorter and versatile
    Pistil
    Ovary linear, sessile, 2–3-ovuled; style long and filiform, after flowering breaking off towards the middle or nearer the base, the lower part persistent, recurved or revolute with the dilated apex simulating a stigma; true stigma terminal, minute
    Fruits
    Pods oblong, compressed, beaked, 1–2-jointed, but usually either the upper or lower joint aborted, reticulate or muriculate
    Seeds
    Seeds approximately ovoid or irregularly oblong, compressed; hilum often eccentric; aril somewhat developed or absent.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:6. 2000

    Habit
    Erect or spreading perennial herbs or subshrubs, often somewhat hispid with glandular hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, or abnormally 1-foliolate; stipules adnate to the petiole for most of their length, persistent, biapiculate; stipels absent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually dense, axillary or terminal, composed of l-flowered groups (reduced inflorescence parts) in spikes or panicles; primary bracts l(2–3)-foliolate, imbricate, persistent; secondary bracts lanceolate or irregularly 2–3-fid, hyaline, persistent, ciliate.
    Flowers
    Flowers subsessile, accompanied by 1–2 persistent linear hyaline ciliate bracteoles and sometimes by a plumose filiform axis representing a reduced part of an inflorescence now no longer present.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle (hypanthium) long and filiform.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed; lobes joined at the base, membranous, the lowest lobe longer than the rest, the upper pair joined for about half their length.
    Corolla
    Corolla usually small, yellow; standard rounded or obovate, emarginate, narrowed into a basal claw; wings oblong or obovate, free, with a lateral basal spur and a small internal appendage and also with a series of small pockets on the blade; keel petals similarly spurred and appendaged.
    Stamens
    Stamens all joined; 5 anthers longer and sub-basifixed alternating with 5 shorter and versatile.
    Pistil
    Ovary linear, sessile, 2–3-ovuled; style long and filiform, breaking off towards the middle or nearer the base after flowering, the lower part persistent, recurved or revolute with the dilated apex simulating a stigma; true stigma terminal minute.
    Fruits
    Fruit oblong, compressed, beaked, 1–2-jointed, but usually either the upper or lower loment aborted, reticulate or muriculate.
    Seeds
    Seeds approximately ovoid or irregularly oblong, compressed; hilum often eccentric; aril somewhat developed or absent.
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Major livestock fodder plants in warm temperate and tropical areas of the world (e.g., S. guianensis or Brazilian lucerne ); several species are planted as soil stabilisers and improvers, and as ground cover, in e.g., coffee plantations; also used for medicine

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, New Jersey, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oklahoma, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Assam, Bangladesh, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cook Is., Fiji, Hainan, Hawaii, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mauritius, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, South Australia, Taiwan, Thailand, Western Australia

    Stylosanthes Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2007 Delprete, P.G. [9603], Brazil K000908866
    Jan 1, 1998 Ganev, W. [851], Brazil K000908862
    Freire, E. [67], Brazil K000908893
    Silva, J.M. [52237], Brazil K000908860
    Silva, J.M. [5671], Brazil K000908879
    Hind, D.J.N. [4144], Brazil K000908886
    Giulietti, A.M. [797], Brazil K000908890
    Pirani, J.R. [2875], Brazil K000908899
    Coradin, L. [7938], Brazil K000908897
    Carvalho, A.M. [1064], Brazil K000908872
    Bautista, H.P. [3634], Brazil K000908887
    Guedes, M.L. [480], Brazil K000908880
    Guedes, M.L. [472], Brazil K000908882
    Guedes, M.L. [600], Brazil K000908883
    Orlandi, R. [524], Brazil K000908881
    Orlandi, R. [0530], Brazil K000908885
    Heringer, E.P. [4702], Brazil K000908861
    Heringer, E.P. [18317], Brazil K000908868
    Heringer, E.P. [1768], Brazil K000908870
    Heringer, E.P. [4298], Brazil K000908871
    Heringer, E.P. [s.n.], Brazil K000908873
    Pereira, A. [1864], Brazil K000908892
    Nascimento, L.M. [334], Brazil K000908876
    Poveda, A. [0465], Brazil K000908874
    Ribas, O.S. [1778], Brazil K000908895
    Dubs, B. [2065], Brazil K000908863
    Pott, A. [12568], Brazil K000908891
    Lucas, E.J. [933], Brazil K000908878
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5974], Myanmar K001122679
    Lobato, L.C. [1072], Brazil K000908898
    Paula-Souza, J. [5198], Brazil K000908864
    Delprete, P.G. [10256], Brazil K000908865
    Delprete, P.G. [10508], Brazil K000908867
    Delprete, P.G. [9650], Brazil K000908884
    Meireles, J.E. [450], Brazil K000908875
    Hind, N. [3146], Brazil K000908888
    Hind, N. [3152], Brazil K000908889
    Hatschbach, G.G. [75238], Brazil K000908877
    Kirkbride, M.C.G. [1168], Brazil K000908896
    Burchell [7199], Brazil K000908869
    Carvalho, J.H.de [627], Brazil K000908894

    First published in Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 108 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Vanni, R.O. (2017). The genus Stylosanthes (Fabaceae, Papilionoideae, Dalbergieae) in South America Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 52: 549-585.
    • Carvalho da Costa, L., Sartori, A.L.B. & Pott, A. (2008). Estudo taxonômico de Stylosanthes (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae-Dalbergieae) em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Rodriguésia 59: 547-572.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 155.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kirkia 9: 492 (1974).
    • in J. S. African Bot. 31: 95 (1965).
    • Mohlenbrock in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 44: 299 (1957)
    • Fl. Ind. Occid. 3: 1280, t. 25 (1806).
    • Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. Prodr.: 108 (1788)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Journ. S. Afr. Bot. 31: 95 (1965)
    • Mohlenbrock in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 44: 299 (1957)
    • Fl. Ind. Occ. 3: 1280, t. 25 (1806)
    • Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 108 (1788)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/