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  1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Triumfetta Plum. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.


    Tiliaceae, C. Whitehouse, M. Cheek, S. Andrews & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2001

    Annual herbs to large shrubs, rarely with annual stems from a woody rootstock; stems mostly erect, pubescent, rarely prostrate or glabrous
    Leaves petiolate; blade entire or trilobed, sometimes digitately divided to the base, margin serrate, rarely crenate; often with raised black glands at the petiole apex or adjoining leaf-blade, or sunken black cylindrical glands on the basal margin of the leaf, replacing the teeth; stipules narrowly triangular, brown, often persistent
    Inflorescence usually terminal, several-branched and leafy, with 1–12 cymes, each with (1–)3(–5) flowers at each node, usually opposite the leaf; cymes usually with short and inconspicuous peduncle, bracts and pedicels
    Sepals 5, entirely free, usually as long or longer than the petals, usually stellate-hairy and with 1(–2) glabrous, conspicuous terminal spines
    Petals 5, yellow to orange, often with a ± distinct basal claw, the basal part with a pubescent margin
    Stamens all fertile, (5–)10–25(–35), often in 2 ranks in bud, reaching the same height at anthesis, filaments cylindrical; anthers dehiscing by slits
    Ovary spherical, tomentose, with 2–5-locules each with 2 pendulous collateral ovules, style slightly longer and thicker than the stamen filaments; stigma entire or minutely 2–5-lobed
    Fruit spherical or ovoid, indehiscent or dehiscent by 4(–5) valves, dry, brown or black, very rarely ( T. glechomoides ) becoming red and fleshy, with hooked or straight bristles, rarely with thick-based spines
    Seeds 1–2 per locule, subreniform, 1.5–4 mm long, brown or black, not fleshy.

    Tiliaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Annual or perennial herbs, shrublets or shrubs, sometimes with annual stem from a woody rootstock.
    Leaves alternate, petiolate, simple or digitate, often lobed, serrate or crenate, often several-nerved from the base; stipules lateral.
    Flowers actinomorphic, borne in cymes in terminal inflorescences or at the nodes.
    Sepals 5, usually linear and with a short horn just behind the apex, usually stellately hairy without.
    Petals 5, yellow or orange, linear to obovate, narrowed to the base, and often hairy at the base or just above it.
    Stamens 4–40, raised on a short glabrous androgynophore or torus with a glandular patch just above each petal base; apex of the androgynophore produced into a ciliate or pubescent or villous disk or annulus between which and the ovary the stamens are inserted.
    Ovary often tubercled or echinulate, each tubercle surmounted by one or more minute bristles, 2–5-locular with 2 pendulous collateral ovules in each loculus or falsely 10-locular by the intrusion of longitudinal false septa; style terete, about as long as the stamens; stigma entire or very shortly 2–5-lobed.
    Fruit a capsule, dividing into 3–5-valves with 1–2 seeds per loculus or indehiscent, usually globose, sometimes ovoid, echinate or setose.
    Seeds obovoid or subreniform; testa rather leathery and brown; embryo straight; cotyledons flat, suborbicular; endosperm fleshy, scanty.



    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Galápagos, Norfolk Is., Rodrigues, Réunion, Seychelles, St.Helena

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Triumfetta Plum. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Chancellor, R.J. [71], Uganda 9867.000
    Philcox, D. [4472], Brazil K001209655
    Sanford, W.W. [5455], Cameroon K000094581
    Trail, J.W.H. [69], Brazil K001209611
    Trail, J.W.H. [69], Brazil K001209612
    Bauer, P.J. [100], Cameroon K000094582
    Krapovickas, A. [43758], Brazil K001209661
    Krapovickas, A. [43758], Brazil K001209662
    Mori, S.A. [11040], Brazil K001209606
    Lucena, M.F.A. [75], Brazil K001209607
    Irwin, H.S. [s.n.], Brazil K001209547
    Irwin, H.S. [22650], Brazil K001209549
    Heringer, E.P. [4153], Brazil K001209600
    Heringer, E.P. [4238], Brazil K001209605
    Heringer, E.P. [6759], Brazil K001209660
    Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K001209596
    Eiten, G. [2400], Brazil K001209610
    Eiten, G. [2400], Brazil K001209615
    Pinto, G.C.P. [s.n.], Brazil K001209609
    Anderson, W.R. [10310], Brazil K001209548
    Kirkbride, J.H. [4766], Brazil K001209608
    Silva, A. [252], Brazil K001209658
    Robert, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001209657
    Lucas, E.J. [453], Brazil K001209601
    Prance, G.T. [5191], Brazil K001209613
    Prance, G.T. [13724], Brazil K001209614
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [14515], Brazil K001209656
    Vieira, M.C.W. [437], Brazil K001209603
    Lima, J.M. [399], Brazil K001209659
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Bangladesh K001132318
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132319
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132320
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001209595
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001209597
    Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K001209616
    Weyland, M.C. [318], Brazil K001209602
    Weyland, M.C. [437], Brazil K001209604


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 444 (1753)


    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Sprague & Hutch. in J. Linn. Soc. 39: 231–276 (1909).
    • —F.T.A. 1: 254

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Sprague & Hutch, in Journ. Linn. Soc., Bot. 39: 231–276 (1909).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 203 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 444 (1753)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • T.V. Jacobs in Phyton 61: 1–7, 87–94 (1997)
    • Sprague & Hutch. in J.L.S. 39: 231–276, t. 17/1–12 (1909)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 203 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 444 (1753)


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.