1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Cynoglossum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Old World.

    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, the basal ones long petiolate, the cauline ones shortly petiolate or sessile.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of scorpioid cymes, ebracteate or bracteate to the base.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, pedicellate.
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed, not or but a little accrescent.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube short, cylindrical or infundibuliform, closed with 5 scales (fornices) at the throat; lobes 5, imbricate.
    Stamens
    Stamens included; filaments very short; anthers ovate, elliptic or oblong, obtuse.
    Gynoecium
    Gynobase conical.
    Pistil
    Ovary of 4 separate lobes, attached to the gynobase only by a little part of the inner surface; style usually shorter than the calyx; stigma terminal, capitate or subcapitate.
    Fruits
    Fruit of 4 nutlets; nutlets glochidiate, depressed, with the outer surface flat, slightly concave or convex, the inner surface with the attach cicatrice near the apex, cohering with style or free.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Perennial, biennial or rarely annual usually very hairy herbs or subshrubby herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, the radical ones long-petiolate, the cauline ones sessile or shortly petiolate
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal or axillary, generally ebracteate, scorpioid, lengthening considerably in fruit
    Flowers
    Flowers white or blue, pedicellate or subsessile; calyx persistent with 5 spreading or reflexed lobes, slightly accrescent
    Corolla
    Corolla cylindric-rotate or funnel-shaped with 5 broadly ovate imbricate spreading obtuse lobes; throat closed by ± squarish or crescent-shaped appendages
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, included, inserted at the base or towards the apex of the tube
    Pistil
    Ovary distinctly 4-lobed, adhering to the central stylar column by a part of the internal face only of each lobe; style gynobasic; disc sometimes distinct and lobulate
    Fruits
    Nutlets 4, depressed-ovoid, usually densely echinulate with glochidiate spines or smooth in part, sometimes the apical beak cohering with the style.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Borneo, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Comoros, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Ascension, Bolivia, Brazil South, California, Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Missouri, New Mexico, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Panamá, Peru, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Venezuela, Vermont

    Cynoglossum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28376], Cameroon K000029873
    Eyles, F. [8843], Zimbabwe 17687.000
    Sanford, W.W. [5379], Cameroon K000029872

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 134 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Brand in Engl. Pflanzenr. 4, 252 (1921).
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 51
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Brand in Engl., Pflanzenr. 78 [IV, 252]: 114 (1921).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 65 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 134 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Brand in E.P. IV. 252 (78): 114 (1921)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 65 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 134 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0