1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Rhamnus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

    [FZ]

    Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Small trees or shrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite or fasciculate, petiolate; lamina penninerved, margin often toothed.
    Stipules
    Stipules small, soon deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence an axillary fascicle (in our area), less often flowers solitary.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually bisexual.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle urceolate or flat.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4–5, valvate.
    Corolla
    Petals 4–5 or absent, cucullate or flat.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–5.
    Disc
    Disk thin, lining the receptacle.
    Pistil
    Ovary superior, 2–4-locular; ovules 1 per loculus; style simple or 2–3(4)-fid.
    Fruits
    Fruit obovoid, drupaceous with a fleshy or somewhat woody endocarp.
    [FTEA]

    Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs (or scandent shrubs)
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate (or opposite but not in East Africa), petiolate
    Stipules
    Stipules present, small, free, usually soon deciduous
    Flowers
    Flowers usually in axillary cymes or these reduced to fascicles or solitary flowers, or rarely in more elaborate bracteate or non-bracteate panicles or thyrses, 5- or 4-merous, usually perfect but in some species dioecious (? not in East Africa), perigynous
    Corolla
    Petals present or absent
    Disc
    Disk thin, lining the cup
    Ovary
    Ovary 3-celled or reportedly rarely 4-celled (or 2-celled but not in East Africa)
    Style
    Style usually 3-partite about half the length
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe with 3 (or 2 but not in East Africa) or rarely 4 free 1-seeded stones.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hainan, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Mauritius

    Rhamnus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132931

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 193 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Suessenguth in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 20D: 59 (1953).
    • —F.T.A. 1: 381
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 89 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 193 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 89 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 193 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0