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  1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Rhamnus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.


    Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Small trees or shrubs.
    Leaves alternate or opposite or fasciculate, petiolate; lamina penninerved, margin often toothed.
    Stipules small, soon deciduous.
    Inflorescence an axillary fascicle (in our area), less often flowers solitary.
    Flowers usually bisexual.
    Receptacle urceolate or flat.
    Sepals 4–5, valvate.
    Petals 4–5 or absent, cucullate or flat.
    Stamens 4–5.
    Disk thin, lining the receptacle.
    Ovary superior, 2–4-locular; ovules 1 per loculus; style simple or 2–3(4)-fid.
    Fruit obovoid, drupaceous with a fleshy or somewhat woody endocarp.

    Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

    Trees or shrubs (or scandent shrubs)
    Leaves alternate (or opposite but not in East Africa), petiolate
    Stipules present, small, free, usually soon deciduous
    Flowers usually in axillary cymes or these reduced to fascicles or solitary flowers, or rarely in more elaborate bracteate or non-bracteate panicles or thyrses, 5- or 4-merous, usually perfect but in some species dioecious (? not in East Africa), perigynous
    Petals present or absent
    Disk thin, lining the cup
    Ovary 3-celled or reportedly rarely 4-celled (or 2-celled but not in East Africa)
    Style usually 3-partite about half the length
    Fruit a drupe with 3 (or 2 but not in East Africa) or rarely 4 free 1-seeded stones.



    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hainan, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Society Is., Somalia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Mauritius, New Zealand North

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Rhamnus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Buchanan-Hamilton, F. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132931


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 193 (1753)


    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Suessenguth in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 20D: 59 (1953).
    • —F.T.A. 1: 381

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 89 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 193 (1753)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 89 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 193 (1753)


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.