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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Eleusine Gaertn.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World, Brazil to S. South America.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of digitate or subdigitate racemes, the axis shorter than the longest raceme (rarely longer), the racemes with imbricate, biseriate spikelets and terminating in a fertile (rarely sterile) spikelet.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-flowered, laterally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets (the florets persistent in cultivated races); glumes 1–several-nerved, keeled, shorter than the lemmas, persistent, awnless; lemmas 3-nerved, membranous, strongly keeled, sometimes the keels thickened and containing 1–3 closely spaced additional nerves on either side, glabrous, obtuse to acute or rarely mucronate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic to subrotund, trigonous in section, flat or concave on the hilar side (rarely sulcate), rugose, the pericarp free.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (4), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (6), or short (4). Culms erect (5), or geniculately ascending (6), or decumbent (2); of moderate stature (1/3), or slender (2/3); 10-69.45-200 cm long; without nodal roots (1/1), or rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes elliptical in section. Lateral branches lacking (1/4), or sparse (2/4), or fastigiate (1/4). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (8), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blades stiff (1), or firm (9). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (1), or digitate; erect (1), or ascending (9), or spreading (5); linear (9), or oblong (3), or ovate (1); unilateral. Rhachis wingless (8), or narrowly winged (1), or broadly winged (1); flattened (9/9); terminating in a spikelet (9), or sterile spikelet (1). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (1), or contiguous (8), or lax (1); 2 -rowed (9/9). Spikelets appressed (9/9); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (9), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (1). Spikelets comprising 3 fertile florets (5), or 4 fertile florets (8), or 5-6 fertile florets (9), or 7 fertile florets (8), or 8-9 fertile florets (7), or 10 fertile florets (3), or 11-13 fertile florets (2), or 14-15 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic (5), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); laterally compressed; 3-6.545-11 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or breaking up at maturity (9); disarticulating below each fertile floret (9/9).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (9), or rudimentary (1), or well-developed (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3 fertile florets (5), or 4 fertile florets (8), or 5-6 fertile florets (9), or 7 fertile florets (8), or 8-9 fertile florets (7), or 10 fertile florets (3), or 11-13 fertile florets (2), or 14-15 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic (5), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); laterally compressed; 3-6.545-11 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or breaking up at maturity (9); disarticulating below each fertile floret (9/9).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (9/9); shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate (8), or oblong (2); 0.4-0.67-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; wingless (5), or winged on keel (5); 1 -veined (9), or 2-3 -veined (3). Lower glume lateral veins absent (7), or distinct (3). Lower glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (9). Upper glume elliptic (6), or oblong (4); 0.6-0.815-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; wingless (6), or winged on keel (4); 1 -veined (4), or 3 -veined (4), or 5-7 -veined (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (4), or acute (9).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate (1/1); lanceolate in profile (6/9), or elliptic in profile (1/9), or oblong in profile (3/9), or ovate in profile (1/9); membranous; keeled (1/1); 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (9), or scabrous (1). Lemma surface smooth (9), or scaberulous (1). Lemma margins eciliate, or pilose (2). Lemma apex obtuse (3), or acute (8), or cuspidate (1); muticous, or mucronate (1). Palea 0.66-0.921-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (4), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid (5), or oblong (4), or orbicular (2), or obovoid (1); isodiametric (4/7), or laterally compressed (1/7), or dorsally compressed (2/7); biconvex (1/9), or concavo-convex (1/9), or trigonous (7/9); granular (3), or striate (3), or rugose (6). Embryo 0.3-0.35-0.4 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Europe (6), or Africa, or Temperate Asia (6), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (2), or North America (3), or South America (3), or Antarctica (1).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted annuals or tussocky perennials from a short ascending rhizome; culms slender to robust, flattened
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear, usually folded; ligule membranous, truncate, often ciliate; leaf-sheaths keeled
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence digitate or shortly racemose, composed of a number of secund spikes clustered at the top of the culm
    Spikelets
    Spikelets several-flowered, ovate to narrowly oblong, laterally compressed, biseriate, usually closely overlapping, disarticulating between the florets; glumes 1-several-nerved, keeled, shorter than the lemmas, persistent; lemmas 3-nerved, keeled, sometimes with additional nerves on either side of the keel, elliptic to oblong, membranous, glabrous, the lateral nerves shorter than the lemma, the tip entire, obtuse to acute
    Fruits
    Grain enclosed within a free hyaline pericarp, blackish (except in E. coracana), the surface ornamented, usually obtusely trigonous in cross-section.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Philippines, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Chile North, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Kriti, Leeward Is., Libya, Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Samoa, Sardegna, Society Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Switzerland, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yugoslavia

    Accepted Species

    Other Data

    Eleusine Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3819], India K001117314
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3820], India K001117315

    Bibliography

    First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 7 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Fruct. 1: 7, t. 1 (1789).

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • S.M. Phillips in Kew Bull. 27: 251–270 (1972).
    • Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 7 (1788).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fruct. & Sem. 1: 7 (1788)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0