1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Erythrina L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Deciduous trees, shrubs or rarely suffrutices; bark usually corky in trees, unarmed or armed with dark prickles often borne on hard woody bosses.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; petiole and leaf rhachis and leaflet veins unarmed or armed with prickles; stipels present, often fleshy or glandular.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences mostly terminal, usually appearing before the new leaves on current or previous year's growth, flowers in 2–several-flowered fascicles; bracts and bracteoles present, sometimes deciduous.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, bilabiate or spathaceous, the lobes poorly to well developed.
    Corolla
    Corolla showy, usually bright red or orange; standard greatly exceeding the other petals, often folded longitudinally, without appendages.
    Stamens
    Stamens in a sheath with the vexillary filament free or attached.
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, hairy; ovules 2–many; style long, incurved, usually glabrous, with a small capitate stigma.
    Fruits
    Pods linear-oblong to cylindrical, often constricted between the seeds, usually dehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, ellipsoid to ellipsoid-oblong, red or orange, sometimes bicoloured; hilum elliptic to oblong, black or white.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Trees or less often shrubs or small subshrubs, rarely perennial herbs, often armed with strong prickles, those on the trunk with large conical woody bases
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; stipules persistent or deciduous; stipels usually fleshy and glandular
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or terminal, mostly pyramidal and many-flowered, frequently appearing when the plant is quite leafless, falsely racemose, the flowers mostly in 2-several-flowered groups (pedicel-bases often not joined but approximate), scattered on the rhachis or rarely flowers axillary and solitary; bracts and bracteoles mostly deciduous
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube tubular or fusiform, the limb truncate, oblique or consisting of 1–2 truncate lips or 1–5 teeth varying from small lobes to long filiform divisions, becoming campanulate or at length sheathing, often split down one side
    Corolla
    Corolla usually bright red or orange, generally fairly large; standard oblong or rounded, clawed or not, often folded longitudinally, without appendages; keel and wings usually much smaller than the standard (keel rarely subequal), the keel-petals free or ± joined
    Stamens
    Vexillary stamen free or partly connate with the tube; anthers uniform
    Pistil
    Ovary stipitate, mostly linear or fusiform, 2–many-ovuled; style long, incurved, usually glabrous; stigma small, capitate, glabrous
    Fruits
    Pods mostly linear-oblong, sometimes falcate or oblong-lunate, mostly leathery or woody, frequently much constricted between the seeds, 1–14-seeded, 2-valved or opening only along upper edge or apparently indehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, ellipsoid or ellipsoid-reniform, mostly red or orange with an elliptic or oblong, white or black hilum; rim-aril not developed.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Vernacular
    lucky bean tree, coral tree
    Habit
    Trees and shrubs
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical and subtropical lowland to upland forest (sometimes coastal, in inundated areas or riverine), woodland, wooded grassland, bushland, thicket and grassland
    Distribution
    c. 70 spp. in the Neotropics (c. 50 spp. in Mexico, C America and Caribbean; c. 20 spp. in S America, a number of which may comprise the basally branching elements of the genus); 38 spp. in Africa and Madagascar; c. 12 spp. in Asia to Australia
    Note
    A genus in the unnatural subtribe Erythrininae, in a basally branching clade sister to subtribes Glycininae and Phaseolinae; Bruneau et al. (1995) place Erythrina sister to subtribe Glycininae

    Previous accounts of the Phaseoleae by Baudet (1978) and Lackey (1981) recognised 90 and 84 genera and c. 1540 and 1480 species respectively in the tribe. In an equivalent, i.e. traditionally held view of Phaseoleae, 89 genera and (1554)–1567–(1580) species are treated here (Table 9; Fig. 47). Changes between Baudet (1978) and this treatment are that eleven genera are now in synonymy or have subsequently been placed in Millettieae, two genera have been transferred from Desmodieae and eight new genera have been added. Vigna has traditionally been thought to comprise some 150–200 species, but Vigna sens. strict. may contain fewer than 100.

    Recent molecular analyses of the tribe, however, have emphasised both the polyphyletic and paraphyletic nature of Phaseoleae as traditionally circumscribed (Bruneau & Doyle, 1990; Doyle & Doyle, 1993; Delgado Salinas et al., 1993; Bruneau et al., 1995; Doyle et al., 1997, 2000; Kajita et al., 2001; Goel et al., 2001; Lee & Hymowitz, 2001). This has required a radical realignment of elements of the phaseoloids (Table 9; Fig. 47), with at least two major clades being evident: Phaseoleae subtribes Diocleinae and Ophrestiinae which together with tribe Abreae are allied to the core-Millettieae (Fig. 45), and the remaining groups comprising a Phaseoleae sens. lat. clade. The rbcL phylogeny of Kajita et al. (2001) and the ITS analysis of Hu et al. (2002) are equivocal as to which clade subtribe Clitoriinae belongs. Phaseoleae sens. lat. also includes two traditionally independent tribes, the Desmodieae and Psoraleeae. Delimiting a recircumscribed Phaseoleae sens. strict is thus very problematic. A solution may be to recognise a broad tribe Phaseoleae, comprising the subtribes Kennediinae, Cajaninae, Phaseolinae and Glycininae, assorted basally branching genera, and tribes Desmodieae and Psoraleeae (both treated at subtribal level).

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used as ornamentals ( coral or lucky bean trees ), shade trees, timber (construction, implements), living fences and enclosures, green manure, livestock fodder, medicine and seeds are used for necklaces

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cape Verde, Chagos Archipelago, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Madeira, Mauritius, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Rodrigues, Réunion, St.Helena, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Erythrina L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2013 Etuge, M. [1508], Cameroon K000749737
    Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4572], Cameroon K000337805
    Oct 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [9717], Cameroon K000051301
    Hepper, F.N. [937], Nigeria 4965.000
    Pennington, T.D. [13230], Bolivia 57410.000
    Cheek, M. [7474], Cameroon K000093841
    Etuge, M. [1585], Cameroon 63807.000
    Lee [E 005/ B 157] 71408.000
    Lee [E 004/ B 156] 71409.000
    Gosline, G. [93], Cameroon K000460247

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 706 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 181.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Krukoff & Barneby in Lloydia 37: 332–459 (1974).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 334 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 706 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 316 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 706 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0