1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Aeschynomene L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect or prostrate shrubs, subshrubs or annual or perennial herbs or in very few cases climbers, mostly covered with tubercular-based hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or subfasciculate on short lateral branches, paripinnately 2–many-foliolate; stipules truncate or produced below the point of attachment, membranous to foliaceous, persistent or deciduous; stipels absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or less often terminal or leaf-opposed, falsely racemose or paniculate, rarely umbellate, or sometimes flowers solitary to ternate or in fascicles; bracts entire or 2–3-fid, persistent or deciduous, rarely wanting; bracteoles inserted below the calyx, mostly deciduous
    Calyx
    Calyx either 2-lipped, the lips practically free, the upper lip entire or bifid, the lower entire or trifid, or campanulate with subequal lobes
    Flowers
    Flowers small to fairly large, mostly yellow, often lined with purple
    Corolla
    Standard mostly rounded or pandurate, often emarginate, shortly clawed, often with thickenings at the base of the limb and tiny appendages at the base of the claw; wings straight or falcate, oblong or obovate with lateral spur and a series of small pockets; keel-petals either partly joined or adhering only by means of the marginal fimbriations when present
    Stamens
    Stamens monadelphous or rarely diadelphous, sometimes in 2 joined groups of 5 or the vexillary filament free in a few species; anthers uniform (see below)
    Pistil
    Ovary linear, usually stipitate, 2–28-ovuled; style inflexed, mostly glabrous; stigma terminal
    Fruits
    Pods linear or elliptic, compressed, straight, slightly curved or in one case rolled into a spiral, shortly to distinctly stipitate, mostly exserted from the calyx, the sutural nerve entire, crenulate, 1–28-jointed; articles disarticulating, round, elliptic or rectangular, flat or slightly convex, smooth or tuberculate, sometimes papery, nearly always indehiscent
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong, reniform or lunate, sometimes slightly beaked; hilum small, often eccentric; rim-aril not developed or rarely slightly so.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:6. 2000

    Habit
    Erect or prostrate shrubs, subshrubs or annual or perennial herbs or in very few cases climbers, mostly covered with tubercular-based hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or subfasciculate on short lateral branches, paripinnately 2–many-foliolate (one species is aphyllous, and one Brazilian species is unifoliolate); stipules truncate or produced below the point of attachment, membranous to leaf-like in texture, persistent or deciduous; stipels absent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or less often terminal or leaf-opposed, falsely racemose or paniculate, rarely umbellate, or sometimes flowers solitary to ternate or in fascicles; bracts entire or 2–3-fid, persistent or deciduous, rarely wanting; bracteoles inserted below the calyx, mostly deciduous.
    Flowers
    Flowers small to fairly large, mostly yellow, often lined with purple.
    Calyx
    Calyx either 2-lipped, the lips practically free, the upper lip entire or 2-fid, the lower entire or 3-fid, or campanulate with subequal lobes.
    Corolla
    Standard mostly rounded or pandurate, often emarginate, shortly clawed, often with thickenings at the base of the limb and tiny appendages at the base of the claw; wings straight or falcate, oblong or obovate with lateral spur and a series of small pockets; keel petals either partly joined or adhering only by means of the marginal fimbriations when present.
    Stamens
    Stamens monadelphous or rarely diadelphous, sometimes in 2 joined groups of 5 or the vexillary filament free in a few species; anthers uniform (see below).
    Pistil
    Ovary linear, usually stipitate, 2–28-ovuled; style inflexed, mostly glabrous; stigma terminal.
    Fruits
    Fruit linear or elliptic, compressed, straight, slightly curved or in one case rolled into a spiral, shortly to distinctly stipitate, mostly exserted from the calyx, the sutural nerve entire, crenulate, 1–28-jointed; articles disarticulating, round, elliptic or rectangular, flat or slightly convex, smooth or tuberculate, sometimes papery, nearly always indehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong, reniform or lunate, sometimes slightly beaked; hilum small, often eccentric; rim-aril not developed or rarely slightly so.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Habit
    Shrubs or herbs, in very few cases climbers
    Ecology
    Seasonally dry tropical woodland, wooded grassland, bushland and grassland (sometimes montane), often in rocky or sandy areas; many species are hydrophytes occurring in marshes, at the edges of water holes, in swampy areas and flood plains
    Distribution
    c. 84 spp. occur in the Neotropics and subtropics, centred in Mexico to C America; in the Old World the distribution is principally African-Madagascan (c. 90-95 spp), with 1 sp., A. aspera L., endemic to Asia and Australia; c. 3-4 spp. are widely introduced in the Palaeotropics from the New World
    Note
    Verdcourt (2000) in his treatment for Flora Zambesiaca subdivided Aeschynomene into three subgenera: subgen. Aeschynomene, subgen. Rueppellia, and subgen. Ochopodium. Rudd (1955), Fernandes (1996, treating the Brazilian species) and Lavin et al. (2001a) studying the evolutionary relationships of the genus, subdivide Aeschynomene into two subgenera based on stipule placement: subgen. Aeschynomene with medifixed stipules, and subgenus Ochopodium with basifixed stipules. Rudd (1981) placed Aeschynomene in tribe Aeschynomeneae, subtribe Aeschynomeninae together with Soemmeringia, Kotschya, Smithia, Geissaspis, Bryaspis, Humularia, and Cyclocarpa, and Lavin et al. (2001a) resolved subtribe Aeschynomeninae as a well-supported monophyletic group (Fig. 40). Extrapolating from the small sampling, however, it is suggested that members of subgen. Ochopodium sensu Rudd, are more closely related to Machaerium (tribe Dalbergieae sensu Polhill, 1994) than to species in subgen. Aeschynomene; it is for a future revision of Aeschynomene to resolve these relationships; some species of Aeschynomene produce stem nodules

    The present circumscription of Dalbergieae sens. lat. contains radical changes to Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233–242). In the first instance it takes a traditional view of the tribe by including genera such as Vatairea and Vataireopsis (now in the Vataireoid clade, see Figs. 1& 40) and Andira and Hymenolobium, which in Wojciechowski et al. (2004) are sister to the combined Dalbergioid clade of Lavin et al. (2001a), plus Amorpheae. The bulk of the treatment, however, recognises the cryptic Dalbergioid clade (Lavin et al., 2001a) as comprising tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat., diagnosed by the synapomorphy of aeschynomenoid root nodules. This clade includes all the genera placed in the Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d: 233– 242), the Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) and the Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g: 355–356), plus subtribe Bryinae of the Desmodieae sensu Ohashi et al. (1981) as well as the genus Diphysa (tribe Robinieae sensu Polhill & Sousa (1981)).The placements of all members of the Dalbergioid clade within the classification presented here and in those of Polhill (1981d: 233–242; 1981g: 355–356), Polhill & Sousa (1981), Ohashi et al. (1981) and Rudd (1981) are listed in Fig. 40.

    Dalbergieae sensu Polhill (1981d) contained 19 genera defined by woody habit, supposedly plesiomorphic flowers, pods with a specialised seed chamber and seeds that accumulated alkaloids. Polhill (1981d) noted that there seemed to be two centres within the Dalbergieae: one around Andira with Hymenolobium, Vatairea, Vataireopsis, Dalbergia, and Machaerium, and one around Pterocarpus. He also highlighted evidence from wood anatomy (Baretta-Kuipers, 1981) which showed that Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis have coarser wood structures more typical of members of the Sophoreae than the remaining members of the Dalbergieae. The study of fruit and seedling morphology by Lima (1990) further supported these two centres within the Dalbergieae: one including Andira, Hymenolobium, Vatairea, and Vataireopsis, and the second the remaining genera. Most recently several molecular and morphological studies (e.g., Lavin et al., 2001a; Pennington et al., 2001; Wojciechowski et al., 2004) confirm that these four genera do not belong in the Dalbergioid clade. Since there is, however, still much work to be done to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of these four genera, they have been kept in tribe Dalbergieae sens. lat. in this treatment to avoid tentative placements, which might be treated by users as formal.

    The tribe Aeschynomeneae sensu Rudd (1981) contained 25 genera characterised by lomentaceous pods, although some members lack loments (e.g., Arachis, Ormocarpopsis, Diphysa spp., Ormocarpum spp., and Pictetia spp.). None of the Aeschynomeneae had previously been considered closely related to the Dalbergieae, but the work of Lavin et al. (2001a) has resolved all the ‘aeschynomenoid genera’ within the Dalbergioid clade.

    The taxonomic history of the monogeneric tribe Adesmieae sensu Polhill (1981g) is very different from that of the Dalbergieae. The Adesmieae combines the presumed plesiomorphic trait of free stamen filaments, with presence of lomentaceous pods that are supposedly derived. This combination of features suggested a taxonomically isolated position far removed from the Dalbergieae. The analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) based on molecular sequence and morphological data, however, support Adesmia (nested together with five genera of Rudd’s Aeschynomeneae) being sister to the Pterocarpus and Dalbergia clades. The neotropical genera Brya and Cranocarpus were placed together in a new subtribe Bryinae of Desmodieae in the classification of Ohashi et al. (1981). The features common to these genera are periporate pollen and glochidiate hairs or glandular trichomes. In the molecular studies of Doyle et al. (1995) and Bailey et al. (1997), Brya and Cranocarpus did not lack the intron for the chloroplast gene rpl2 nor for the open reading frame ORF184, which are characteristic of the other desmodioid genera studied. Bailey et al. (1997), therefore, suggested that Brya and Cranocarpus should be removed from the Desmodieae. Their findings were strongly corroborated by the three gene analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a) which place the two genera in the Pterocarpus clade (Fig. 40).

    One further transfer has been made in the Dalbergioid clade since Rudd (1981) and Polhill & Sousa (1981). Lavin (1987) transferred Diphysa from the Robinieae to tribe Aeschynomeneae based on the absence of canavanine in the seeds, a feature consistently present in the Robinieae (Lavin, 1986). Lavin (1987) also listed 14 morphological characters that placed Diphysa with the Aeschynomeneae rather than the Robinieae. In the phylogenetic analyses of Lavin et al. (2001a), Diphysa is resolved in the Dalbergioid clade nested within the ‘transatlantic clade’ (Fig. 40), first identified by Lavin et al. (2000).

    Finally, since 1981 four new genera have been published: the Brazilian monotypic Grazielodendron (Lima, 1983b), the possibly extinct Madagascan endemic Peltiera (Labat & Du Puy, 1997), Zygocarpum, the Horn of Africa – Arabian segregate of Ormocarpum (Thulin & Lavin, 2001) and Maraniona from northern Peru (Hughes et al., 2004). Three genera have also been placed in synonymy since 1981: the Caribbean genus Belairia which is a synonym of Pictetia (Beyra-Matos & Lavin, 1999), and the genera Pachecoa and Arthrocarpum which Thulin (1999) synonymised under Chapmannia. In this treatment 49 genera and (1319) –1325–(1331) species are recognised in Dalbergieae sens. lat. (including 4 basally branching dalbergioid genera comprising c. 58 species, and (1261)–1267– (1273) species in the 45 genera of the Dalbergioid clade [Lavin et al., 2001a]).The following informal groupings of genera are based on the work of Lavin et al. (2001a): Adesmia clade: 6 genera; c. 360 species; neotropical except Zornia, which is pantropical. Pterocarpus clade: 22 genera; c. 200 species centred in the Neotropics, Pterocarpus and Stylosanthes are pantropical, Inocarpus Asian, and Chapmannia transatlantic.Dalbergia clade: 17 genera; c. 706 species which are pantropical, but centred in Africa; Weberbauerella, Soemmeringia, Pictetia and Diphysa are neotropical, Machaerium transatlantic, Dalbergia and Aeschynomene are pantropical, and Geissaspis Asian. Isolated genera: 4 genera; 58 species, neotropical except Andira, which has one amphiatlantic species.

    [LOWO]
    Use
    Used ecologically in management of inundated areas, as ornamentals, for fodder and green manure; A. aspera (sola, shola, ambatch wood, joint vetch) and A. elaphroxylon (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. are major sources of pith, a white spongy wood used for paper, fibre, helmets (solar topi), art work, handicrafts and artificial flowers (e.g., sola rosario flowers); the wood is also used for floats, rafts and canoes

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Jersey, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Delaware

    Introduced into:

    Bismarck Archipelago, California, Chagos Archipelago, Egypt, Fiji, Greece, Kazan-retto, Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Rodrigues, Samoa, Society Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera

    Aeschynomene L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [297], Cameroon K000746981
    Richards, P.W. [6675], Brazil K000920431
    Rico, L. [2045], Mexico K000266022
    Giulietti, A.M. [2968], Brazil K000920445
    Souza, V.C. [5311], Brazil K000920440
    Pirani, J.R. [4821], Brazil K000920442
    Pirani, J.R. [4860], Brazil K000920441
    Coradin, L. [3756], Brazil K000920439
    Carvalho, A.M. [6512], Brazil K000920438
    Cavalcanti, T.B. [1350], Brazil K000920436
    Luetzelburg, P.V. [21943], Brazil K000920443
    Luetzelburg [21128], Brazil K000920444
    Claussen, P. [91], Brazil K000920435
    Mendonça, R.C. [3857], Brazil K000920437
    Maciel, U.N. [109], Brazil K000920446
    Gardner [747], Brazil K000920432
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000920434
    Burchell [1216], Brazil K000920433

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 713 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 145.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Verdcourt in Kirkia 9: 370 (1974).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 319 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 713 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • J. Léon. in B.J.B.B. 24: 63–84 (1954)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 319 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 713 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0