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  1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Clinopodium L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.


    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Perennial, rarely annual herbs and shrubs, aromatic, with simple or branched hairs
    Leaves petiolate to subsessile, simple, variously toothed or entire, margin sometimes revolute
    Inflorescence of axillary cymes, these sometimes reduced to solitary flowers or merging to form a terminal, paniculiform to spiciform, verticillastrate, or subcapitate thyrse
    Calyx actinomorphic to 2-lipped, not accrescent, usually cylindrical to tubular-campanulate, straight to sigmoid, sometimes gibbous, usually 13-(11-, 15-) nerved, 5-lobed, lobes often upcurved, posterior 3 often partially fused to form a lip, anterior 2 u
    Corolla white to blue, lavender, red, or orange (rarely yellow), 2-lipped (2/3), posterior lip usually notched, tube straight or curved
    Stamens usually 4 (rarely the posterior pair reduced to staminodes), didynamous, included or exserted, filaments usually glabrous, thecae parallel to divaricate, separate at dehiscence
    Stigma lobes equal or unequal
    Disc usually symmetrical
    Nutlets ellipsoid to ovoid, obloid, obovoid, or subglobose, often somewhat trigonal, smooth or minutely sculptured, glabrous or puberulent.
    2n = 10-72 (most frequently 18 or 20).  About 100 species As delimited here, Clinopodium includes most of the native New World species of Satureja sensu Epling and Játiva (1964, 1966), see Cantino and Wagstaff (1998).
    Mostly in the New World (both temperate and tropical) and temperate Eurasia, but a few in Africa, tropical Asia and Indomalaysia.

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Clinopodium, O Ryding. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Perennial, aromatic herbs, subshrubs or small shrubs
    Leaves opposite, toothed or sometimes entire, not thickened
    Inflorescence thyrsoid or sometimes with the cymes reduced to single flowers; bracts ± similar to the ordinary leaves but gradually smaller upwards in the inflorescences; bracteoles present
    Calyx 5-lobed, hardly accrescent, slightly zygomorphic to strongly 2-lipped; tube (11–)13(–15)-veined, mostly hairy inside near the mouth; posterior lip 3-lobed; anterior lip 2-lobed, divided to the base, with narrower lobes
    Corolla 2-lipped; posterior lip emarginate, entire or sometimes 4-toothed; anterior lip almost flat, 3-lobed
    Stamens 4, or upper pair reduced to staminodes, sometimes sterile in female flowers, ascending under the posterior corolla lip; thecae divaricate to parallel, often separated by a short connective
    Ovary deeply 4-lobed, style gynobasic, branches subequal or lower branch much longer
    Nutlets ± trigonal, matt, usually with a ± distinct areole at the scar, apex rounded to acuminate.
    In most other Floras and systematic works, the tropical African species of Clinopodium are included in the genus Satureja. With new generic concepts, Satureja sensu stricto is not known from tropical Africa.



    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil South, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Florida, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands, New Guinea, New Mexico, New York, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Somalia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Mexican Pacific Is.

    Introduced into:

    Arizona, Bermuda, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Iowa, Magadan, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode I., Trinidad-Tobago, Utah, Vermont, Washington

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Clinopodium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Tweedie, E.M. [811], Kenya Calamintha 2733.000
    Jones [4467], Ethiopia Calamintha 60203.000


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 587 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (2011). Clinopodium L. (Lamiaceae) in Bolivia Kew Bulletin 66: 199-226.
    • Ryding, O. (2006). Revision of Clinopodium simense group (Labiatae) Kew Bulletin 61: 419-432.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.


    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • J.L.S. 150: 391–408 (2006)
    • K.B. 61: 419–432 (2006)
    • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 241 (2004)
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5.: 256 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 587 (1753)

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets

    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • Harley & Granda Paucar, Kew Bull. 55: 917-927 (2000).
    • Cantino & Wagstaff, Brittonia 50: 63-70 (1998)
    • L., Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 256 (1754)
    • Clinopodium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 587 (1753)


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew