1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Urochloa P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of racemes along a short central axis, the spikelets single and abaxial, or paired.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate to ovate, plano-convex, cuspidate (U. platyrrhachis acute).
    Glume
    Inferior glume mostly shorter than spikelet.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma shorter than spikelet, coriaceous, broadly obtuse, mucronate (except U. platyrrhachis), the mucro sometimes puberulous; superior palea obtuse. Inferior lemma awnless.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (8), or perennial (4). Stolons absent, or present (1). Culms erect (1/8), or geniculately ascending (5/8), or decumbent (4/8); 10-62.7-170 cm long; without nodal roots (1/3), or rooting from lower nodes (3/3). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades linear (9), or lanceolate (8), or ovate (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (1), or paired (1), or digitate (1), or borne along a central axis (11); unilateral. Rhachis wingless (7), or narrowly winged (4), or broadly winged (1); foliaceous (1/1); angular (10/10). Spikelet packing abaxial (9/9); contiguous (11), or lax (1); 1 -rowed (1/11), or 2 -rowed (10/11), or 3 -rowed (5/11), or 4 -rowed (4/11). Spikelets appressed (1/2), or pectinate (1/2); solitary (9), or in pairs (9). Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or sessile and pedicelled (9), or pedicelled (2). Pedicels oblong (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (5), or ovate (6); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (2), or plano-convex (10); 2.5-4.062-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (5), or ovate (6); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (2), or plano-convex (10); 2.5-4.062-6 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or oblong (2), or ovate (5), or oblate (3); clasping (4/4); hyaline (2), or membranous (8), or herbaceous (2); without keels; 0 -veined (2/11), or 1-2 -veined (1/11), or 3 -veined (8/11), or 4 -veined (4/11), or 5 -veined (6/11). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct (11). Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent (3), or pilose (1); without hair tufts, or with a dorsal tuft of hair (2). Lower glume apex truncate (3), or obtuse (7), or acute (6), or acuminate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (5), or ovate (6); membranous (9), or herbaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keels; 5 -veined (4), or 6 -veined (2), or 7 -veined (8), or 8-9 -veined (2), or 10 -veined (1), or 11 -veined (3). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (2/2). Upper glume surface smooth (10), or spinose (1), or tuberculate (2); glabrous (11), or pubescent (7), or setose (1); with simple hairs (7/8), or tubercle-based hairs (1/8). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (4), or acuminate (6), or cuspidate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (8), or barren (6); with palea, or without significant palea (1). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or elliptic (5), or ovate (6); 1.2-1.25-1.3 length of fertile lemma; membranous (8), or chartaceous (1), or herbaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (1); 5 -veined (10), or 6 -veined (4), or 7 -veined (6); without grooves (11), or sulcate (1); acute (5), or acuminate (5), or cuspidate (2). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (9), or becoming indurate on keels at maturity (2), or becoming indurate on flanks at maturity (1). Fertile lemma elliptic (5), or oblong (1), or orbicular (6); dorsally compressed (11/11); not gibbous (11), or gibbous (1); hemispherical (1/1); indurate; without keel; 5 -veined (2/3), or 6 -veined (1/3), or 7 -veined (2/3). Lemma surface smooth (3), or granulose (5), or papillose (2), or reticulate (2); unwrinkled (6), or rugulose (7). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (11/11), or acute (1/11); mucronate. Palea not rolled (11), or involute (1); indurate; without keels (1), or 2-keeled (11).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa, or Temperate Asia (4), or Tropical Asia (4), or Australasia (3), or Pacific (1), or North America (3), or South America (2).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear to lanceolate; ligule represented by a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes borne upon a short common axis; rhachis ± triquetrous, rarely ribbon-like, bearing single or paired spikelets, their lower glume abaxial
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate or ovate, plano-convex, cuspidate to acuminate; lower glume mostly shorter than the spikelet; upper glume as long as the spikelet, usually membranous; lower floret ♂ or sterile, its lemma resembling the upper glume, the palea almost as long and usually hyaline; upper lemma coriaceous usually much shorter than the spikelet, obtusely rounded at the tip and mucronate, its margins inrolled and covering only the edges of the palea; upper palea obtuse
    Fruits
    Caryopsis broadly elliptic to subrotund, strongly flattened.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (76), or perennial (46). Rhizomes absent (114), or short (7), or elongated (1). Stolons absent (113), or present (12). Culms erect (20/96), or geniculately ascending (41/96), or decumbent (48/96), or prostrate (12/96), or rambling (5/96), or scandent (1/96); robust (3/18), or slender (13/18), or weak (2/18); 2-49.57-210 cm long; firm (116), or wiry (4), or woody (2); without nodal roots (7/44), or with prop roots (1/44), or rooting from lower nodes (42/44). Culm-internodes terete (3/5), or channelled (2/5), or elliptical in section (1/5). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3/19), or sparse (4/19), or ample (12/19), or fastigiate (3/19), or suffrutescent (1/19). Ligule an eciliate membrane (5), or a ciliolate membrane (6), or a ciliate membrane (12), or a fringe of hairs (98), or absent (3). Leaf-blades persistent, or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (2), or linear (72), or lanceolate (75), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (7); membranous (1), or herbaceous (120), or coriaceous (1); stiff (4), or firm (118). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (37/37).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (1), or composed of racemes (120), or comprising only a few spikelets (1); terminal (120), or terminal and axillary (2); exserted (117), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (5). Panicle open (1/1). Racemes single (5/120), or paired (1/120), or borne along a central axis (118/120); not compacted (116/118), or in a multilateral false spike (1/118), or in an interrupted false spike (1/118), or in a head (1/118); appressed (8/120), or erect (4/120), or ascending (111/120), or spreading (2/120), or deflexed (2/120); linear (120/121), or oblong (2/121), or globose (1/121); unilateral (120/120); bearing few fertile spikelets (3/121), or many spikelets (118/121); bearing 2-9-30 fertile spikelets on each. Central inflorescence axis tip without extension (118/119), or filiform (4/119). Rhachis wingless (91/121), or narrowly winged (16/121), or broadly winged (16/121); herbaceous (15/16), or foliaceous (1/16); not appreciably folded (30/31), or folded longitudinally to embrace spikelets (1/31); flattened (1/99), or angular (92/99), or subterete (4/99), or semiterete (2/99); terminating in a spikelet (119/121), or sterile spikelet (2/121). Spikelet packing adaxial (84/85), or abaxial (1/85); crowded (11/121), or contiguous (84/121), or lax (16/121), or distant (10/121); 1 -rowed (17/62), or 2 -rowed (53/62), or 3 -rowed (1/62), or 4 -rowed (2/62). Raceme-bases brief (119/121), or filiform (1/121), or linear (1/121). Spikelets appressed (3/7), or ascending (1/7), or spreading (1/7), or pectinate (2/7); solitary (87), or in pairs (59), or in threes (2), or clustered at each node (3). Fertile spikelets sessile (33), or sessile and pedicelled (17), or pedicelled (73); 1 in the cluster (1/5), or 2 in the cluster (5/5), or 3-4 in the cluster (3/5). Pedicels filiform (8/60), or linear (32/60), or oblong (22/60), or reduced to a stump (1/60); tip oblique (3/9), or widened (1/9), or discoid (4/9), or cupuliform (1/9).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (121), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (7), or elliptic (75), or oblong (16), or ovate (24), or orbicular (3), or obovate (9); laterally compressed (1), or dorsally compressed (121); symmetrical (114), or gibbous (1), or turgidly plano-convex (3), or plano-convex (4); 1.494-3.466-8.5 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus brief (96), or square (14), or oblong (10), or cuneate (2), or linear (1); free from lower glume (112), or incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume (10); pubescent (3/4), or pilose (1/4); base pungent (3/3); attached obliquely (2/2). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (91), or elongated between glumes (31), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (2/2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (121), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (7), or elliptic (75), or oblong (16), or ovate (24), or orbicular (3), or obovate (9); laterally compressed (1), or dorsally compressed (121); symmetrical (114), or gibbous (1), or turgidly plano-convex (3), or plano-convex (4); 1.494-3.466-8.5 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus brief (96), or square (14), or oblong (10), or cuneate (2), or linear (1); free from lower glume (112), or incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume (10); pubescent (3/4), or pilose (1/4); base pungent (3/3); attached obliquely (2/2). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (91), or elongated between glumes (31), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (2/2).
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (4), or reaching apex of florets (118); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (4), or elliptic (2), or oblong (9), or ovate (96), or orbicular (5), or oblate (3), or obovate (4); clasping (58/58); hyaline (8/121), or membranous (112/121), or cartilaginous (1/121); without keels; 0-5-15 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (14), or obscure (2), or distinct (107), or prominent (1); without ribs (109/110), or ribbed (1/110). Lower glume surface convex (121), or grooved on either side of midvein (1); smooth (121), or scabrous (1); glabrous (89), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (21), or pilose (6), or hirsute (1), or villous (6), or hispidulous (1); without hair tufts, or with a dorsal tuft of hair (1). Lower glume apex emarginate (1), or truncate (4), or obtuse (53), or acute (75), or acuminate (9). Upper glume elliptic (24), or oblong (43), or ovate (51), or obovate (4); 1.2-1.481-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (117), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (4); without keels; 3-6-13 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (120), or ribbed (2); without cross-veins (1/19), or transversely connected at apex (2/19), or with cross-veins (17/19). Upper glume surface smooth (120), or scabrous (1), or tuberculate (1); glabrous (70), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (47), or pilose (9), or hirsute (1), or villous (8), or hispidulous (1), or setose (1); with simple hairs (65/68), or tubercle-based hairs (2/68), or clavate hairs (1/68); without hair tufts (110), or with marginal tufts of hair (1), or with transverse tufts of hair (1), or with a transverse fringe of hair (12). Upper glume apex obtuse (34/119), or acute (73/119), or acuminate (12/119), or cuspidate (3/119), or rostrate (2/119); muticous (121), or mucronate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (70), or barren (63); with palea (103), or without significant palea (21). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (20), or oblong (42), or ovate (56), or obovate (4); 2.1-2.3-2.5 length of fertile lemma; membranous (115/121), or chartaceous (1/121), or cartilaginous (5/121), or coriaceous (2/121); 3-5-13 -veined; without ribs (120), or ribbed (2); without grooves (113), or sulcate (9); obtuse (28/117), or acute (80/117), or acuminate (9/117), or cuspidate (4/117), or rostrate (1/117); muticous (120), or mucronate (1), or awned (3). Palea of lower sterile floret wingless (102/103), or winged on keels (1/103). Fertile lemma lanceolate (4/121), or elliptic (93/121), or oblong (12/121), or ovate (14/121), or obovate (1/121); dorsally compressed (1/1); not gibbous (120), or gibbous (2); hemispherical (1/1); chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (2), or indurate (117); without keel (121), or keeled (1); 3 -veined (2/10), or 5 -veined (8/10). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (72), or granulose (21), or papillose (12), or striate (19), or punctate (2), or pitted (1); unwrinkled (67), or rugulose (37), or rugose (21), or corrugate (3). Lemma margins flat (1), or involute (121); exposing palea (121), or covering most of palea (1). Lemma apex obtuse (43/115), or acute (50/115), or apiculate (25/115), or rostrate (2/115); without ornament (118), or laterally pinched (2), or pubescent (3); muticous (106), or mucronate (19), or awned (2); 1 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn limb glabrous (18/19), or puberulous (1/19). Palea not rolled (3), or involute (119); 1 length of lemma; membranous (1), or chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (2), or indurate (116); without keels (117), or 2-keeled (5).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (4/4); fleshy (1/1). Anthers 3 (27/27).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (9/9); ellipsoid (8/11), or oblong (1/11), or ovoid (2/11), or orbicular (1/11). Embryo 0.5-0.6525-0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/6), or elliptic (4/6), or linear (2/6); 0.25-0.29-0.33 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (80), or Temperate Asia (22), or Tropical Asia (27), or Australasia (25), or Pacific (10), or North America (19), or South America (23).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of racemes along a central axis (this branched in B. malacodes), the spikelets single and adaxial, paired, or rarely in fascicles.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate to oblong, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes the lowest internode elongated and then often accrescent to the sheathing base of the inferior glume to form a short stipe.
    Glume
    Inferior glume mostly shorter than spikelet.
    Lemma
    Inferior lemma awnless, rarely (B. nigropedata, B. serrata) with an awn-point up to 1 mm. long. Superior lemma filling the spikelet, coriaceous to crustaceous, obtuse to acute, rarely mucronate.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear to lanceolate; ligule represented by a line of hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes borne upon a common axis; rhachis triquetrous to ribbon-like, bearing single or sometimes paired spikelets, their lower glume adaxial
    Spikelets
    Spikelets ovate to oblong, plump, obtuse to acute, sometimes the lowest internode elongated, then often accrescent to the sheathing base of the lower glume and forming a short stipe; lower glume mostly shorter than the spikelet; upper glume as long as the spikelet, membranous or herbaceous; lower floret ♂ or sterile, its lemma resembling the upper glume; upper lemma coriaceous to crustaceous, obtuse to acute, usually muticous, its margins inrolled and covering only the edges of the palea; upper palea obtuse to subacute, its tip tucked within the lemma
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic, dorsally compressed.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Azores, Belgium, Bermuda, Canary Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Easter Is., Great Britain, Kermadec Is., Line Is., Madeira, Masachusettes, Nauru, New Zealand North, Norfolk Is., Oregon, Phoenix Is., Primorye, Sicilia, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Tuamotu, Turks-Caicos Is.

    Urochloa P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hatschbach, G. [78367], Brazil Brachiaria K001102385

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 52 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Sosef, M.S.M. (2016). Taxonomic novelties in Central African grasses (Poaceae), Paniceae 1 Plant Ecology and Evolution 149: 356-365.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 586 (1920).
    • Ess. Agrost. 52 (1812)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Ess. Agrost: 52 (1812)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ess. Agrost.: 52 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/