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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs
Leaves opposite, free or united at the base to form a sheath around the stem, entire
Flowers in terminal cymes or in 1–few-flowered axillary clusters, (3–)4–5(–8)-merous
Sepals free or slightly united
Petals usually slightly united at the base, white or reddish
Stamens as many as petals
Nectary scales usually very small
Follicles with 1–many seeds.
About 200 species, the majority in South Africa, some also in Arabia, Madagascar, Europe, America and Australia.


Crassulaceae, G.E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, frequently fleshy
Leaves very rarely absent, decussate, free or ± connate at the base to form a sheath around the stem, usually sessile, almost always entire, flattish, semiterete or subterete, glabrous, pubescent papillose or scabrid, margin smooth, ciliate or papillate
Inflorescence usually corymbose, subumbellate, capitate or thyrsoid, sometimes an axillary fascicle or flowers rarely solitary
Flowers isomerous, 3–4- or 5-merous, rarely 6- or 9-merous
Calyx usually much shorter than the corolla Sepals free or slightly united at the base
Petals usually slightly united at the base, white or red, rarely yellow or bluish; lobes stellate, erect, patent or connivent, apex often dorsally mucronate, the mucro small, hemispherical or cylindrical, usually blunt or conspicuous, ovoid or subglobular
Stamens equal in number to the petals, episepalous, or in gamopetalous corollas affixed to the tube; filaments often subulate, sometimes flattened; anthers ovate or oblong, sometimes with conspicuous connective
Nectary scales usually very small, narrowly to broadly spathulate to obcuneate or square, rounded and slightly emarginate at the apex, rarely stipitate
Carpels free or slightly united at the base; ovules numerous, rarely 1–2; styles often subulate, narrowly cylindrical or filamentous, often as long as the ovaries, or short and relatively thick; stigmata small, terminal or more rarely subdorsal.


Crassulaceae, R. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Annual or perennial succulent herbs, sometimes with a tuber-like root, or undershrubs or shrubs with ± woody root-stock and succulent usually ± fleshy leaves.
Leaves opposite, usually decussate, the lowermost frequently rosulate, free or ± connate in a sheath, usually simple, undivided and entire, thin to ± thick, flat, terete, semiterete, ovoid, etc.
Flowers (3-4)5(6-9)-merous, isomerous, usually small and not showy, in cymes arranged either in dense subsessile or pedunculate axillary clusters sometimes forming thyrsoid inflorescences, or in corymb-like axillary or terminal loose or ± dense inflorescences, sometimes 1(2) flowers in the leaf-axils.
Calyx usually shorter than the corolla, with the sepals free or slightly connate at the base, appressed to the corolla, ± succulent.
Corolla usually white or whitish turning orange or brownish-red when dry, sometimes red or carmine, rarely bright yellow, persistent; petals erect or stellate, connate at the base into a ± short tube.
Stamens free or with the lower part of the filaments connate with the corolla-tube, alternipetalous; anthers ovate or oblong, sometimes nearly circular.
Carpels free or connate at the base, oblong or obovoid, attenuate towards or contracted into a ± short usually terminal style, sometimes the styles nearly absent and stigmas subdorsal, completely glabrous or papillose along the suture; ovules numerous or sometimes 1-4.
Scales shorter than the carpels, hyaline or reddish-brown or rose, thin, narrowly to broadly spathulate or obovate or cuneate.

Native to:

Alabama, Alaska, Algeria, Amur, Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Brazil South, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China South-Central, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Iceland, Idaho, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kenya, Kerguelen, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Manchuria, Marion-Prince Edward, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sicilia, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Washington, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Baltic States, Delaware, Poland

Introduced into:

China North-Central, Hawaii, Ireland, Juan Fernández Is., St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha

Crassula L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Apr 1, 1870 McKen [2], South Africa K000310200
Madagascar 12161.000
Wild, H. [45844], Mozambique 8512.000
Polhill, R. [1288], Tanzania 3777.000
Fearn, B., South Africa 30690.000
Collenette, I.S. [7480], Saudi Arabia 55141.000
Collenette, I.S. [7954], Saudi Arabia 56666.000
Hargrave-Wilson, Kenya 24522.000
Philcox [8901], Zimbabwe 49891.000
Philcox [8881], Zimbabwe 49892.000
Philcox [8962], Zimbabwe 49893.000
McWhirter, J. [185], Madagascar 32203.000
Owen, D. [064], Malawi 54442.000
Guichard, K. 8513.000
Baur, R. [595], South Africa K000310199
Baur, R. [595], South Africa K000310198

First published in Sp. Pl.: 283 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.


Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 388, incl. Tillaea Linn.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 136 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 1:282 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Wickens & Bywater in Kew Bull. 34: 629–637 (1980).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • emend. Schönl. in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 17: 160 (1929)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 136 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 282 (1753)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.