1. Family: Primulaceae Batsch ex Borkh.
    1. Lysimachia Tourn. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Falkland Island, Pacific, Southern America, Australasia, Northern America and Asia-Temperate.

    [FZ]

    Primulaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Perennial herbs or very rarely shrubs, prostrate or erect.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate, entire.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary or in spike–like racemes or panicles.
    Calyx
    Calyx more or less deeply 5–6–lobed.
    Corolla
    Corolla rotate–or campanulate, white or yellow or rarely (as in F.Z. species) pink to purple, 5–6–lobed, the segments contorted, entire or dentate.
    Androecium
    Stamens equalling petals, epipetalous and oppositipetalous, often alternating with staminodes.
    Pistil
    Ovary superior, ovoid or globose; style slender, with terminal stigma.
    Fruits
    Capsule usually dehiscing at apex by 5 valves, few–many–seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds various, usually angular.
    [FTEA]

    Primulaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

    Habit
    Perennial herbs or rarely shrubs, prostrate or erect
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate, entire
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, racemose or paniculate
    Calyx
    Calyx more or less deeply 5–6-lobed
    Corolla
    Corolla rotate or subcampanulate, 5–6-lobed, white, yellow or rarely (as in the tropical African species) pink or purple
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted on the corolla-tube; staminodes often present and alternating with them
    Pistil
    Ovary globose or ovoid; style filiform
    Fruits
    Capsule dehiscing by 5 valves, few- to many-seeded
    Seeds
    Seeds various, usually angular.
    [FTEA]

    Primulaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

    Habit
    Glabrous annual or perennial herbs, erect or prostrate and rooting at the nodes
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile or subpetiolate, alternate or opposite, capillary to orbicular, entire
    Flowers
    Flowers small, pedicellate or rarely sessile, solitary and axillary or in terminal or subterminal racemes
    Calyx
    Calyx-segments 5 (rarely 4 or 6), lanceolate; margins aften hyaline
    Corolla
    Corolla hypocrateriform to subcampanulate; lobes 5 (rarely 4 or 6), 1/2 to almost the length of the corolla, rounded or acuminate, sometimes glandular-ciliate
    Stamens
    Filaments ± connate at the base (sometimes very shortly) all, or the lower part of, the connate part adnate to the corolla-tube, the free part often bearded with multi-cellular hairs; anthers ovoid or oblong, obtuse or acute
    Ovary
    Ovary globose, glabrous or covered with granular glands
    Fruits
    Capsule globose or obovoid, indehiscent or circumscissile
    Seeds
    Seeds 3-angled or globose, smooth or minutely papillose, 1–many.
    [FZ]

    Primulaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Glabrous annual and perennial herbs; stems erect or prostrate and rooting at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile or subpetiolate, alternate or opposite, elliptic to suborbicular or rarely capillary, entire.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, 5(6)–merous, pedicellate or rarely sessile, solitary in leaf axils or in terminal racemes.
    Calyx
    Calyx gamosepalous, divided almost to the base; segments often with hyaline margins.
    Corolla
    Corolla subcampanulate; lobes shortly connate at the base, usually white or pale pink, rarely (in F.Z. area) bright blue or red.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, oppositipetalous and epipetalous, adnate to the base of the corolla; filaments free or connate into a short tube, often bearded with multicellular hairs; anthers basifixed, introrse, ± square to oblong.
    Pistil
    Ovary globose, 5–carpelled, unilocular, with terminal simple terete style and capitate stigma; placentation free–central.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose or obovoid, circumscissile or indehiscent, 1– or many–seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 3–angled, dark brown, papillose.
    [FTEA]

    Primulaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

    Habit
    Glabrous annual herbs; stems erect, simple or usually much branched
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile, opposite, lanceolate or ovate
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, pedicellate, erect at anthesis, strongly recurved in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx deeply 5-lobed; lobes lanceolate, acute
    Corolla
    Corolla rotate-campanulate, 5-lobed, minute; lobes orbicular or elliptic, much shorter than the calyx
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the base of the corolla, shorter than the corolla-lobes; filaments filiform; anthers globose
    Pistil
    Ovary globose; style filiform
    Fruits
    Capsule globose, dehiscing by 5 valves, 2–many-seeded
    Seeds
    Seeds 3-angled.

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nigeria, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced Into:

    Antipodean Is., Ascension, Bermuda, Chatham Is., Crozet Is., Easter Is., Haiti, Iowa, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., Ohio, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Vermont

    Lysimachia Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 146 (1753)

    Literature

    • [1] P. Taylor in Kew Bull. 13: 142 (1958).
    • [2] Pax & Knuth in Engl. Pflanzenr. 4, 237, Primulac.: 256 (1905)
    • [3] —F.T.A. 3: 489
    • [4] Sp. Pl. 1: 147 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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    [D] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0