1. Family: Sarraceniaceae Dumort.
    1. Genus: Sarracenia Tourn. ex L.
      1. Sarracenia purpurea L.

        Sarracenia purpurea is a carnivorous plant that attracts insects and other small animals to the colours and sweet secretions of its pitchers. Its prey includes insects, beetles and spiders, as might be expected, but also slugs and more rarely frogs, lizards and newts. Insects entering the pitchers lose their footing on the smooth hairs and waxy covering of the rim and inner surface and fall to the bottom of the pitcher where they are digested by plant enzymes. This mechanism of capturing prey (termed a pitfall trap) is therefore different from that of the Venus flytrap ( Dionaea muscipula), for example.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Sarracenia purpurea is a fairly common, but nevertheless spectacular, carnivorous pitcher plant that grows in wetlands in eastern North America.

    Sarracenia purpurea is a carnivorous plant that attracts insects and other small animals to the colours and sweet secretions of its pitchers. Its prey includes insects, beetles and spiders, as might be expected, but also slugs and more rarely frogs, lizards and newts. Insects entering the pitchers lose their footing on the smooth hairs and waxy covering of the rim and inner surface and fall to the bottom of the pitcher where they are digested by plant enzymes. This mechanism of capturing prey (termed a pitfall trap) is therefore different from that of the Venus flytrap ( Dionaea muscipula), for example.

    Despite the danger for most insects, there is a species of mosquito and a midge that actively seek out pitchers and use them as their breeding grounds. Larvae of the pitcher plant mosquito ( Wyeomyia smithii) and midge ( Metriocnemus knabi) commonly inhabit the aquatic environment in the pitchers of  Sarracenia purpurea in the wild.

    The genus  Sarracenia was originally named by Linnaeus in 1753 after Michel Sarrazin de l’Etang (1659–1734), the French king’s physician in New France (Canada), who sent plant specimens of  S. purpurea to Europe.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Sarracenia purpurea is found throughout most of Canada, north-eastern parts of the USA and south-eastern USA as far south as Florida. There are two subspecies: S. purpurea subsp. purpureagrows in the north, in areas that were glaciated; S. purpurea subsp. venosagrows in the southern, non-glaciated parts of the species’ range. Several varieties are recognized within these subspecies.

    Sarracenia purpurea subsp. purpureais considered the hardiest of the pitcher plants, and for many years it has been naturalised in bogs in Ireland (following initial planting) and Switzerland. The most recent comprehensive survey of the British flora indicates that S. purpureahas increased its range in the last few decades and is now found in several boggy sites in England and Scotland.

    Description

    Overview:  Sarracenia purpurea has a rhizome that produces a tuft of 4–10 hollow leaves, forming pitchers that trap insects and other small prey. The hood is curved around the mouth of the pitcher. Pitchers contain liquid in which the insects drown.

    Leaves: Leaves are 10–30 cm long, green, yellow or reddish with purple veins, curved, swollen around the middle, with a flat wing along the inside margin. The inner surface of the apex of the pitcher is covered with downward-pointing hairs.

    Flowers: The flowering stems are 30–80 cm tall and carry a single nodding, deep purple flower. This has five green sepals and 3–4 bracts. The five petals are obovate (egg-shaped), around 5 cm long and curl over the style, which is yellow, flattened and umbrella-like with five small, hooked stigmas. The flowers are scented (but sometimes not pleasantly so) and pollinated by bumblebees.

    Seeds: The seeds are small and numerous.

    Threats and conservation

    Although Sarracenia purpurea is considered fairly common in suitable habitat throughout much of Canada and north-eastern USA, it is considered rare in much of south-eastern USA, where states have passed legislation to protect native populations due to declining numbers.

    The species is widely traded for ornamental and medicinal purposes, and Sarracenia purpurea is therefore included on Appendix II of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species), which mandates regulation of international trade in threatened species. Whereas much of the international trade is now conducted with artificially propagated plants, poaching and wild-harvesting of this species continue. In addition to potential collection pressures on wild plants, significant declines in wetland habitat threaten the native populations. In particular, conversion of natural pine savanna to pine plantations in south-eastern USA has destroyed many sites for this and other Sarraceniaspecies. Changes in fire regimes and grazing patterns, nutrient enrichment and chemical pollutants deposited from the atmosphere also pose significant threats.

    Uses

    Native American Indians used Sarracenia purpureafor a variety of medicinal purposes, including as a diuretic and in childbirth, menstruation and treatment of fevers, chills, whooping cough and smallpox.

    Sarracenia purpurea is grown as an ornamental. It is well suited for growing in cool greenhouse conditions or in sheltered places outdoors - in the bog garden or in damp woodland settings, for example. There are several hybrids and cultivars, including Sarraceniax chelsonii(a hybrid between S. purpurea and S. rubra), which has slightly curved, narrow pitchers that are strongly veined dark red. This hybrid of garden origin has received an Award of Garden Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in the seed bank vault at Wakehurst.

    Description of seeds:Average 1000 seed weight is 1.21 g ( Sarracenia purpurea subsp. purpurea) and 1.88 g ( S. purpureasubsp. venosa)Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:One

    This species at Kew

    Sarracenia purpurea is growing in the Princess of Wales Conservatory in the carnivorous plant zone.

    Pressed and dried specimens of Sarracenia purpurea are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world by appointment. The details of some of these can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Samples of the rhizome, roots, leaves and pitchers of Sarracenia purpurea are held in Kew’s Economic Botany Collection, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

    The botanical artist Marianne North depicted Sarracenia purpurea in her painting North American Carnivorous Plants, (see image, above), which can be seen in the Marianne North Gallery.

    Kew at the British Museum - North American Landscape (2012)

    Pitcher plants ( Sarracenia sp.) were one of 12 star plants featured in the 2012 North American Landscape - the fifth in the series created by Kew for the British Museum’s West Lawn.

    North American plants have global ecological and economic importance and have been utilised by native peoples for thousands of years. Many were introduced to Europe following the colonisation of North America in the early 1600s. Grown for their medicinal uses, as food crops and for other economic purposes, some species have also become familiar ornamental garden plants.

    The landscape was designed to evolve throughout the seasons - from a carpet of colourful daisies in the summer to spectacular orange and red maple leaves in the autumn. Other plantings included cypress, echinacea and carnivorous pitcher plants.

    Distribution
    Canada, USA
    Ecology
    Wetlands.
    Conservation
    NatureServe Status: G5 - Secure. Listed in Appendix II of CITES.
    Hazards

    None known, but most insects and other small creatures are advised to stay well away from the pitfall traps!

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, medicinal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Alabama, Illinois

    Introduced Into:

    Austria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden, Switzerland

    Common Names

    English
    Huntsman’s cup

    Sarracenia purpurea L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 510 (1753)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011) Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama . Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • [3] (2010) Phyton; Annales Rei Botanica 49: 279-292
    • [11] (1999) Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 12: 1-250

    Literature

    • [2] Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011) Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama . Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • [4] The Plant List (2010). Sarracenia purpurea.
    • [5] Moerman, D. E. (2009). Native American Medicinal Plants: an Ethnobotanical Dictionary. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
    • [6] Butler, J. L., Atwater, D. Z. & Ellison, A. M. (2005). Red-spotted newts: an unusual nutrient source for northern pitcher plants. Northeastern Naturalist 12: 1-10.
    • [7] Gotelli, N. J. & Ellison, A. M. (2002). Nitrogen deposition and extinction risk in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea. Ecology 83: 2758-2765.
    • [8] Herkert, J.R. & Ebinger, J.E. (eds.) (2002) Endangered and Threatened Species of Illinois: status and distribution 1: 1-161. Endangered species protection board, Springfield, Illinois.
    • [9] Preston, C. D., Pearman, D. A. & Dines, T. D. (2002). New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora: an Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. CD-ROM. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • [10] Schnell, D. E. (2002). Carnivorous Plants of the United States and Canada. Timber Press, Portland Oregon.
    • [12] Cheek, M., Schnell, D., Reveal, J. L. & Schlauer, J. (1997). Proposal to conserve the name Sarracenia purpurea (Sarraceniaceae) with a new type. Taxon 46: 781-783.
    • [13] Nastase, A. J., De La Rosa, C. & Newell, S. J. (1995). Abundance of pitcher-plant mosquitoes, Wyeomyia smithii (Coq.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and midges, Metriocnemus knabi Coq. (Diptera: Chironomidae), in relation to pitcher characteristics of Sarracenia purpurea L. American Midland Naturalist 133: 44-51.
    • [14] Cheek, M. (1994). The correct names for the subspecies of Sarracenia purpurea L. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 23: 69-73.
    • [15] Foss, P. J. & O’Connell, C. A. (1985). Notes on the ecology of Sarracenia purpurea L. on Irish peatlands. The Irish Naturalists’ Journal 21: 440-443.
    • [16] NatureServe – Sarracenia purpurea.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0