1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Triticum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Central Asia and NW. India, Ethiopia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect (1/2), or geniculately ascending (1/2); 30-88.88-160 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; linear (13), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); bilateral; bearing 19-23 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis tough (9), or fragile at the nodes (8); flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (3), or contiguous (14), or lax (2). Rhachis internodes indefinite (1), or oblong (14), or clavate (1), or cuneate (1); falling with spikelet alongside (1/8), or falling with spikelet above (7/8). Spikelets ascending (5/5); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (3), or 2 fertile florets (14), or 3 fertile florets (7), or 4 fertile florets (5), or 5 fertile florets (2), or 6 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (14), or ovate (4); laterally compressed; 7-13.25-30 mm long; persistent on plant (9), or falling entire (8); deciduous with accessory branch structures (8/8). Spikelet callus pilose (1/1). Floret callus pubescent (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (3), or 2 fertile florets (14), or 3 fertile florets (7), or 4 fertile florets (5), or 5 fertile florets (2), or 6 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (14), or ovate (4); laterally compressed; 7-13.25-30 mm long; persistent on plant (9), or falling entire (8); deciduous with accessory branch structures (8/8). Spikelet callus pilose (1/1). Floret callus pubescent (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (15), or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (1). Lower glume lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (8), or ovate (6); 1-1.012-1.2 length of upper glume; membranous (1), or coriaceous (16); 1-keeled (4), or 2-keeled (13); wingless (14), or winged on keel (3); 3-4 -veined (1/16), or 5 -veined (16/16), or 6-7 -veined (15/16), or 8-9 -veined (14/16). Lower glume lateral veins distinct (16), or prominent (1). Lower glume surface glabrous (14), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (7), or pilose (3), or villous (1). Lower glume apex entire (3), or with a unilateral tooth (9), or dentate (5); 2 -fid (5/5); emarginate (1/9), or truncate (6/9), or acute (2/9); muticous (16), or awned (3). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (9), or ovate (6); 0.5-0.9033-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (1), or coriaceous (16); 1-keeled (4), or 2-keeled (13); wingless (15), or winged on keel (2); 3-4 -veined (1/16), or 5 -veined (16/16), or 6-7 -veined (15/16), or 8-9 -veined (14/16). Upper glume lateral veins divergent at apex. Upper glume surface glabrous (14), or pubescent (9), or pilose (2), or villous (1). Upper glume apex entire (2), or with a unilateral tooth (9), or dentate (6); 2 -fid (6/6); emarginate (1/8), or truncate (6/8), or acute (1/8); muticous (16), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/3).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic (13), or ovate (4); membranous (1), or chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (13); without keel (10), or keeled (7); 5 -veined (5/15), or 6-8 -veined (4/15), or 9 -veined (14/15), or 10-11 -veined (10/15), or 12-15 -veined (1/15). Lemma surface glabrous (14), or pubescent (3). Lemma apex entire (13), or dentate (4); 2 -fid (4/4); acute (7/7); muticous (3), or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (15), or from a sinus (2). Palea embraced by lemma (16), or readily splitting down midline (1); membranous (16), or coriaceous (1); 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless (13), or winged (4); eciliate (3), or ciliolate (14). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped; 1 in number (4/5), or 2 in number (2/5), or 3 in number (1/5).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (4/7), or oblong (2/7), or ovoid (1/7), or orbicular (1/7). Embryo 0.2-0.25-0.3 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (9), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (16), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (2).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Spikelets
    Spikelets pedicelled, solitary, 2-many-flowered, laterally compressed to a varying degree, usually compact; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; florets all hermaphrodite but the uppermost one usually reduced.
    Glume
    Glumes 2, unequal, or very rarely equal, similar, persistent, keeled, membranous, with the apex subacute; the inferior 1-7-nerved; the superior 3-9-nerved.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 5-9-(-13)nerved, keeled, membranous, lanceolate to lanceolate-elliptic, with the apex 2-dentate or 2-lobed, awned or mucronate from the sinus, usually scabrous along the keel and the nerves.
    Palea
    Paleas c. as long as or slightly shorter than the corresponding lemmas, thinly membranous, 2-nerved, 2-keeled, linear or lanceolate, with the apex entire or 2-fid, ciliate or ciliolate or pectinate along the keels.
    Lodicules
    Lodicules 2, entire or lobed.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3.
    Ovary
    Ovary obovate in outline, crowned by an apical pilose or villous appendage.
    Pistil
    Styles 2, distinct, inserted laterally below the appendage, rather short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted (permanently enclosed in cleistogamic spp.).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis linear-oblong in outline, usually concave-convex in cross-section, adherent to the palea; embryo small, basal; hilum linear, stretching almost the entire length of the caryopsis.
    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Ligules
    Ligule membranous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a lax or contracted panicle (rarely reduced to a raceme).
    Distribution
    large genus of c. 100 spp., distributed throughout the temperate areas and the montane regions of the tropics.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (47), or perennial (105). Rhizomes absent (135), or short (9), or elongated (11). Culms erect (91/102), or geniculately ascending (58/102), or decumbent (5/102); robust (3/7), or slender (4/7); 4-64.66-200 cm long; without nodal roots (2/3), or rooting from lower nodes (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (17/18), or ample (1/18). Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length (10/10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (143), or erect (1), or falcate (12). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear; stiff (3), or firm (142), or flaccid (6). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes (1); exserted (150), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Peduncle cylindrical at apex (1/3), or tipped by a glumaceous appendage (3/3). Panicle open (133), or contracted (28). Primary panicle branches not whorled (148), or whorled at lower nodes (1), or whorled at most nodes (2). Racemes single (1/1); paucilateral (1/1). Spikelets appressed (1/3), or pendulous (2/3); solitary (148/149), or in pairs (1/149), or in threes (1/149). Fertile spikelets sessile (5/149), or pedicelled (145/149); 2-3 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels filiform (5/6), or clavate (1/6).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-7-30 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (6/140), or lanceolate (39/140), or elliptic (14/140), or oblong (79/140), or ovate (19/140), or cuneate (16/140); laterally compressed (149), or subterete (2); 4-23.01-60 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (129), or pubescent (18), or pilose (4). Floret callus brief (147), or evident (4); glabrous (3/9), or pubescent (2/9), or pilose (4/9); obtuse (150), or pungent (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-7-30 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (6/140), or lanceolate (39/140), or elliptic (14/140), or oblong (79/140), or ovate (19/140), or cuneate (16/140); laterally compressed (149), or subterete (2); 4-23.01-60 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (129), or pubescent (18), or pilose (4). Floret callus brief (147), or evident (4); glabrous (3/9), or pubescent (2/9), or pilose (4/9); obtuse (150), or pungent (1).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (149/149); shorter than spikelet (149/149); thinner than fertile lemma (11), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (140); parallel to lemmas (146), or gaping (5). Lower glume linear (23), or lanceolate (117), or elliptic (3), or oblong (8), or ovate (6); 0.3-0.7744-1 length of upper glume; membranous (110), or chartaceous (35), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1), or coriaceous (4); without keels (106/150), or 1-keeled (44/150); 1 -veined (87), or 2 -veined (14), or 3 -veined (69), or 4 -veined (25), or 5 -veined (32), or 6-7 -veined (10), or 8-9 -veined (2). Lower glume lateral veins absent (83), or obscure (8), or distinct (66), or prominent (3). Lower glume surface smooth (146), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (6); glabrous (125), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (28), or pilose (5), or hirsute (6), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (4/145), or acute (78/145), or acuminate (66/145), or attenuate (1/145), or setaceously attenuate (3/145); muticous (146), or mucronate (6), or awned (3). Upper glume linear (2), or lanceolate (129), or elliptic (14), or oblong (2), or ovate (7); 0.5-0.8132-1.4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (110), or chartaceous (35), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1), or coriaceous (4); with undifferentiated margins (139), or hyaline margins (8), or membranous margins (2), or scarious margins (2); without keels (105/150), or 1-keeled (45/150); 3-5-13 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (145), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (7); glabrous (126), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (29), or pilose (5), or hirsute (3), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (10/145), or acute (85/145), or acuminate (54/145), or attenuate (1/145), or setaceously attenuate (3/145); muticous (137), or mucronate (15), or awned (7); 1 -awned (5/5). Upper glume awn terminal (20/22), or subapical (2/22).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma linear (1/149), or lanceolate (55/149), or elliptic (27/149), or oblong (66/149), or ovate (7/149), or trullate (7/149), or obovate (5/149), or oblanceolate (1/149); laterally compressed (5/5); chartaceous (129/149), or herbaceous (15/149), or coriaceous (5/149); of similar consistency above (142), or much thinner above (9); of similar consistency on margins (110), or much thinner on margins (41); without keel (124/149), or keeled (32/149); 3-7-13 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (146), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (2); eciliate (149), or pubescent (2). Lemma lateral veins obscure (6/22), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (4/22), or distinct (7/22), or prominent (5/22). Lemma surface smooth (126), or asperulous (3), or scaberulous (24), or scabrous (7); glabrous (95), or puberulous (18), or pubescent (61), or pilose (16), or hirsute (8), or villous (2), or hispidulous (1), or woolly (1); hairy on back (90/94), or on veins (3/94), or between veins (1/94). Lemma margins flat (145), or involute (6); eciliate (129), or ciliate (12), or pubescent (12), or pilose (1). Lemma apex entire (78), or erose (1), or dentate (75), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (76/77), or 3 -fid (1/77); incised 0.1-0.1583-0.25 of lemma length; emarginate (2/29), or truncate (1/29), or obtuse (7/29), or acute (17/29), or acuminate (5/29); muticous (6), or mucronate (2), or awned (149); 1 -awned (145/149), or 3 -awned (4/149). Principal lemma awn apical (5/149), or subapical (135/149), or from a sinus (5/149), or dorsal (5/149); straight (139/149), or curved (18/149), or geniculate (2/149); 0.2-0.7833-1.2 length of lemma. Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (2/2). Palea embraced by lemma (149), or gaping (1), or readily splitting down midline (1); 0.6-0.8776-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (2/2). Palea keels separated (150), or contiguous above a sulcus (1); smooth (141), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (8); eciliate (90), or ciliolate (43), or ciliate (19). Palea surface glabrous (144), or puberulous (8), or pubescent (4). Palea apex erose (2/3), or dentate (1/3); muticous (148), or with excurrent keel veins (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped; 3-4 in number (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (140/140); membranous (139/139). Anthers 2 (1/150), or 3 (150/150). Stigmas 2 (2/2). Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex (147/147).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (144/144); linear (14/31), or lanceolate (1/31), or fusiform (4/31), or ellipsoid (9/31), or oblong (3/31), or oblanceolate (1/31); flattened (2/2); concavo-convex (3/3); apex fleshy (137/137). Hilum linear (132/132); 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (40), or Africa (29), or Temperate Asia (80), or Tropical Asia (28), or Australasia (22), or Pacific (10), or North America (58), or South America (43), or Antarctica (3).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

    Extinct in:

    Jawa

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Algeria, Amur, Antipodean Is., Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, Kuwait, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Triticum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 10, 2017 Fabre, J.H.C. [s.n.], France K000979097
    Fabre, J.H.C. [s.n.], France K000979098
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3797], India K001117232
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3797], India K001117233

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 85 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 37 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 85 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0