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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Central Asia and NW. India, Ethiopia.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Between 10 and 20 species in the Mediterranean region and western Asia, more than half of them cultivated.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a linear raceme bearing solitary spikelets on a fragile or tough rhachis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3–9-flowered; glumes oblong to ovate, coriaceous, 5–11-nerved, 1–2-keeled (but sometimes becoming rounded below as the grain expands), obtuse, truncate or 2-toothed, the lateral nerves diverging into the teeth, mucronate or awned; lemmas rounded on the back or keeled near the tip, the tip similar to that of the glumes.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect (1/2), or geniculately ascending (1/2); 30-88.88-160 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; linear (13), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); bilateral; bearing 19-23 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis tough (9), or fragile at the nodes (8); flattened. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (3), or contiguous (14), or lax (2). Rhachis internodes indefinite (1), or oblong (14), or clavate (1), or cuneate (1); falling with spikelet alongside (1/8), or falling with spikelet above (7/8). Spikelets ascending (5/5); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (3), or 2 fertile florets (14), or 3 fertile florets (7), or 4 fertile florets (5), or 5 fertile florets (2), or 6 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (14), or ovate (4); laterally compressed; 7-13.25-30 mm long; persistent on plant (9), or falling entire (8); deciduous with accessory branch structures (8/8). Spikelet callus pilose (1/1). Floret callus pubescent (1/1).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (3), or 2 fertile florets (14), or 3 fertile florets (7), or 4 fertile florets (5), or 5 fertile florets (2), or 6 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong (14), or ovate (4); laterally compressed; 7-13.25-30 mm long; persistent on plant (9), or falling entire (8); deciduous with accessory branch structures (8/8). Spikelet callus pilose (1/1). Floret callus pubescent (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than spikelet (15), or reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (1). Lower glume lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or oblong (8), or ovate (6); 1-1.012-1.2 length of upper glume; membranous (1), or coriaceous (16); 1-keeled (4), or 2-keeled (13); wingless (14), or winged on keel (3); 3-4 -veined (1/16), or 5 -veined (16/16), or 6-7 -veined (15/16), or 8-9 -veined (14/16). Lower glume lateral veins distinct (16), or prominent (1). Lower glume surface glabrous (14), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (7), or pilose (3), or villous (1). Lower glume apex entire (3), or with a unilateral tooth (9), or dentate (5); 2 -fid (5/5); emarginate (1/9), or truncate (6/9), or acute (2/9); muticous (16), or awned (3). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (9), or ovate (6); 0.5-0.9033-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (1), or coriaceous (16); 1-keeled (4), or 2-keeled (13); wingless (15), or winged on keel (2); 3-4 -veined (1/16), or 5 -veined (16/16), or 6-7 -veined (15/16), or 8-9 -veined (14/16). Upper glume lateral veins divergent at apex. Upper glume surface glabrous (14), or pubescent (9), or pilose (2), or villous (1). Upper glume apex entire (2), or with a unilateral tooth (9), or dentate (6); 2 -fid (6/6); emarginate (1/8), or truncate (6/8), or acute (1/8); muticous (16), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic (13), or ovate (4); membranous (1), or chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (13); without keel (10), or keeled (7); 5 -veined (5/15), or 6-8 -veined (4/15), or 9 -veined (14/15), or 10-11 -veined (10/15), or 12-15 -veined (1/15). Lemma surface glabrous (14), or pubescent (3). Lemma apex entire (13), or dentate (4); 2 -fid (4/4); acute (7/7); muticous (3), or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (15), or from a sinus (2). Palea embraced by lemma (16), or readily splitting down midline (1); membranous (16), or coriaceous (1); 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless (13), or winged (4); eciliate (3), or ciliolate (14). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped; 1 in number (4/5), or 2 in number (2/5), or 3 in number (1/5).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (4/7), or oblong (2/7), or ovoid (1/7), or orbicular (1/7). Embryo 0.2-0.25-0.3 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (9), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (16), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (2).

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets pedicelled, solitary, 2-many-flowered, laterally compressed to a varying degree, usually compact; rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets; florets all hermaphrodite but the uppermost one usually reduced.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2, unequal, or very rarely equal, similar, persistent, keeled, membranous, with the apex subacute; the inferior 1-7-nerved; the superior 3-9-nerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemmas 5-9-(-13)nerved, keeled, membranous, lanceolate to lanceolate-elliptic, with the apex 2-dentate or 2-lobed, awned or mucronate from the sinus, usually scabrous along the keel and the nerves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Paleas c. as long as or slightly shorter than the corresponding lemmas, thinly membranous, 2-nerved, 2-keeled, linear or lanceolate, with the apex entire or 2-fid, ciliate or ciliolate or pectinate along the keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 2, entire or lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary obovate in outline, crowned by an apical pilose or villous appendage.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Styles 2, distinct, inserted laterally below the appendage, rather short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted (permanently enclosed in cleistogamic spp.).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis linear-oblong in outline, usually concave-convex in cross-section, adherent to the palea; embryo small, basal; hilum linear, stretching almost the entire length of the caryopsis.
Morphology General Habit
Annuals or perennials.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule membranous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a lax or contracted panicle (rarely reduced to a raceme).
Distribution
large genus of c. 100 spp., distributed throughout the temperate areas and the montane regions of the tropics.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (47), or perennial (105). Rhizomes absent (135), or short (9), or elongated (11). Culms erect (91/102), or geniculately ascending (58/102), or decumbent (5/102); robust (3/7), or slender (4/7); 4-64.66-200 cm long; without nodal roots (2/3), or rooting from lower nodes (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (17/18), or ample (1/18). Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length (10/10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (143), or erect (1), or falcate (12). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear; stiff (3), or firm (142), or flaccid (6). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes (1); exserted (150), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Peduncle cylindrical at apex (1/3), or tipped by a glumaceous appendage (3/3). Panicle open (133), or contracted (28). Primary panicle branches not whorled (148), or whorled at lower nodes (1), or whorled at most nodes (2). Racemes single (1/1); paucilateral (1/1). Spikelets appressed (1/3), or pendulous (2/3); solitary (148/149), or in pairs (1/149), or in threes (1/149). Fertile spikelets sessile (5/149), or pedicelled (145/149); 2-3 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels filiform (5/6), or clavate (1/6).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1-7-30 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (6/140), or lanceolate (39/140), or elliptic (14/140), or oblong (79/140), or ovate (19/140), or cuneate (16/140); laterally compressed (149), or subterete (2); 4-23.01-60 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (129), or pubescent (18), or pilose (4). Floret callus brief (147), or evident (4); glabrous (3/9), or pubescent (2/9), or pilose (4/9); obtuse (150), or pungent (1).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1-7-30 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (6/140), or lanceolate (39/140), or elliptic (14/140), or oblong (79/140), or ovate (19/140), or cuneate (16/140); laterally compressed (149), or subterete (2); 4-23.01-60 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (129), or pubescent (18), or pilose (4). Floret callus brief (147), or evident (4); glabrous (3/9), or pubescent (2/9), or pilose (4/9); obtuse (150), or pungent (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent (149/149); shorter than spikelet (149/149); thinner than fertile lemma (11), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (140); parallel to lemmas (146), or gaping (5). Lower glume linear (23), or lanceolate (117), or elliptic (3), or oblong (8), or ovate (6); 0.3-0.7744-1 length of upper glume; membranous (110), or chartaceous (35), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1), or coriaceous (4); without keels (106/150), or 1-keeled (44/150); 1 -veined (87), or 2 -veined (14), or 3 -veined (69), or 4 -veined (25), or 5 -veined (32), or 6-7 -veined (10), or 8-9 -veined (2). Lower glume lateral veins absent (83), or obscure (8), or distinct (66), or prominent (3). Lower glume surface smooth (146), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (6); glabrous (125), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (28), or pilose (5), or hirsute (6), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (4/145), or acute (78/145), or acuminate (66/145), or attenuate (1/145), or setaceously attenuate (3/145); muticous (146), or mucronate (6), or awned (3). Upper glume linear (2), or lanceolate (129), or elliptic (14), or oblong (2), or ovate (7); 0.5-0.8132-1.4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (110), or chartaceous (35), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1), or coriaceous (4); with undifferentiated margins (139), or hyaline margins (8), or membranous margins (2), or scarious margins (2); without keels (105/150), or 1-keeled (45/150); 3-5-13 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (145), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (7); glabrous (126), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (29), or pilose (5), or hirsute (3), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (10/145), or acute (85/145), or acuminate (54/145), or attenuate (1/145), or setaceously attenuate (3/145); muticous (137), or mucronate (15), or awned (7); 1 -awned (5/5). Upper glume awn terminal (20/22), or subapical (2/22).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma linear (1/149), or lanceolate (55/149), or elliptic (27/149), or oblong (66/149), or ovate (7/149), or trullate (7/149), or obovate (5/149), or oblanceolate (1/149); laterally compressed (5/5); chartaceous (129/149), or herbaceous (15/149), or coriaceous (5/149); of similar consistency above (142), or much thinner above (9); of similar consistency on margins (110), or much thinner on margins (41); without keel (124/149), or keeled (32/149); 3-7-13 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (146), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (2); eciliate (149), or pubescent (2). Lemma lateral veins obscure (6/22), or with distinct primaries but obscure intermediates (4/22), or distinct (7/22), or prominent (5/22). Lemma surface smooth (126), or asperulous (3), or scaberulous (24), or scabrous (7); glabrous (95), or puberulous (18), or pubescent (61), or pilose (16), or hirsute (8), or villous (2), or hispidulous (1), or woolly (1); hairy on back (90/94), or on veins (3/94), or between veins (1/94). Lemma margins flat (145), or involute (6); eciliate (129), or ciliate (12), or pubescent (12), or pilose (1). Lemma apex entire (78), or erose (1), or dentate (75), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (76/77), or 3 -fid (1/77); incised 0.1-0.1583-0.25 of lemma length; emarginate (2/29), or truncate (1/29), or obtuse (7/29), or acute (17/29), or acuminate (5/29); muticous (6), or mucronate (2), or awned (149); 1 -awned (145/149), or 3 -awned (4/149). Principal lemma awn apical (5/149), or subapical (135/149), or from a sinus (5/149), or dorsal (5/149); straight (139/149), or curved (18/149), or geniculate (2/149); 0.2-0.7833-1.2 length of lemma. Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (2/2). Palea embraced by lemma (149), or gaping (1), or readily splitting down midline (1); 0.6-0.8776-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (2/2). Palea keels separated (150), or contiguous above a sulcus (1); smooth (141), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (8); eciliate (90), or ciliolate (43), or ciliate (19). Palea surface glabrous (144), or puberulous (8), or pubescent (4). Palea apex erose (2/3), or dentate (1/3); muticous (148), or with excurrent keel veins (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped; 3-4 in number (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (140/140); membranous (139/139). Anthers 2 (1/150), or 3 (150/150). Stigmas 2 (2/2). Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex (147/147).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (144/144); linear (14/31), or lanceolate (1/31), or fusiform (4/31), or ellipsoid (9/31), or oblong (3/31), or oblanceolate (1/31); flattened (2/2); concavo-convex (3/3); apex fleshy (137/137). Hilum linear (132/132); 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (40), or Africa (29), or Temperate Asia (80), or Tropical Asia (28), or Australasia (22), or Pacific (10), or North America (58), or South America (43), or Antarctica (3).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Extinct in:

Jawa

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Algeria, Amur, Antipodean Is., Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greenland, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, Kuwait, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Triticum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 10, 2017 Fabre, J.H.C. [s.n.], France K000979097
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3797], India K001117233
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3797], India K001117232
Fabre, J.H.C. [s.n.], France K000979098

First published in Sp. Pl.: 85 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6 Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 37 (1754).
  • Sp. Pl. 85 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0