1. Family: Sapindaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Dodonaea Mill.
      1. Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq.

        Hopbush is a highly variable evergreen shrub or small tree with several subspecies and varieties. It occurs around most of the southern hemisphere, and its numerous useful properties have been discovered independently by people of different continents. The flowers are relatively unspectacular but its winged fruits can become red or purple as they mature, making it an attractive garden plant in the tropics and subtropics. One cultivated variety also develops purple leaves when grown in direct light. The scientific name, Dodonaea, refers to Rembert Dodoens (a 16th century Flemish royal physician, botanist and professor), viscosa to the stickiness of its leaves.

    [KSP]
    General Description
    A highly variable, extremely widespread plant with numerous medicinal uses, hopbush is known by over 50 different common names.

    Hopbush is a highly variable evergreen shrub or small tree with several subspecies and varieties. It occurs around most of the southern hemisphere, and its numerous useful properties have been discovered independently by people of different continents. The flowers are relatively unspectacular but its winged fruits can become red or purple as they mature, making it an attractive garden plant in the tropics and subtropics. One cultivated variety also develops purple leaves when grown in direct light. The scientific name, Dodonaea, refers to Rembert Dodoens (a 16th century Flemish royal physician, botanist and professor), viscosa to the stickiness of its leaves.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Widely distributed through the southern hemisphere including Australia, New Zealand, South and Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America; also occurring in the southern United States. It is tolerant of drought and can grow in coastal environments. It is intolerant of frost and does not grow well in shade.

    Description

    Hopbush is an evergreen shrub or small tree, which grows up to about 5 m in height. The leaves are variable in shape, from elongated to spoon- or wedge-shaped, are sometimes reddish or purplish, and are usually shiny and sticky to the touch. They generally have conspicuous veins and their edges may be weakly toothed or undulating. The flowers, which grow at the ends of the branches, are either male or female, and individual plants generally bear one or the other (in which case plants of both sexes are required for successful reproduction). In other cases, however, they may bear flowers of both sexes. The pollen is transported by the wind, and the lack of petals maximises exposure to the breeze. The female flowers, after pollination, develop into 3 or 4 winged papery capsules, each with 2-3 black seeds. These capsules turn red or purple as the fruit matures.

    More common names for this species

    'A'ali'i, 'a'ali'i kü makani ("'a'ali'i upright in the wind") [Hawai'i]; ake, akeake, akerantangi [Nz]; alipata [Philipines (Tagalog)]; 'apiri [Tahiti]; bandari [India]; calapinai [Philipines (Tagalog)]; candlewood, dogwood [Bahamas]; chacataya [Bolivia]; chamana [Ecuador, Peru]; chamiso [Argentina]; chanamo, hayuelo [Colombia]; chapuliztle, cuerco de calva, granadina [Mexico]; chulita [Guatemala]; florida, hopbush, hopshrub [England]; gansies [Afrikan]; gelampaya, serengan laut [Malaya]; gitaran [Puerto Rico]; granadillo, hayo [Venezuela]; hopbush, native hop [Australia]; hopwood [England]; kabunda [Congo]; kankerbos [Afrikan]; kayu berthi. letup letup [Malaya]; kayu mesen, kisig, mesen [Java]; kharata [India]; mai pek [Thailand]; manglier petites feuilles [Haiti]; mukusao, umusasa [Congo]; native birch, native lignum vitae [Tasmania]; sanatha [Pakistan]; sanatta [Sanskrit]; switch sorrel [Jamaica]; vassoura vermelha [Brazil]; vrali [Spain]; walaytinahndi [Hindi]; yxichapulin [Aztec].

    Uses

    To list the many uses of this plant around the world would be a huge task. However, Kew’s Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) has undertaken a comprehensive collation of uses recorded in available scientific literature. In the western part of the island of New Guinea, for example, Yali highlanders use the wood for house construction and firewood, and apply heated leaves as plasters for wounds. D. viscosa is also used for house construction elsewhere in Southeast Asia, West Africa and Brazil.

    Hopwood is also used in New Guinea for making tools and fish traps, for stimulating lactation in mothers, as incense for funerals, and as a remedy for dysentery. Various parts of the plant are used traditionally in Africa and Asia for treating digestive system disorders, infections, rheumatism, respiratory complaints and skin problems. Early settlers in Australia used D. viscosa as a substitute for hops for brewing beer (as reflected in some of common names of this plant), a use also recorded from Iraq. Hopwood leaves have been reported to be chewed as a stimulant in some parts of the world (such as in Colombia and Peru, where the leaves are sometimes mixed with coca, Erythroxylum coca).

    Dodonaea viscosa readily colonizes open areas and secondary forest, and is tolerant of salinity, drought and pollution. It is therefore useful for dune stabilization, restoring degraded lands and for reforestation. Its fast growth and tolerance of strong winds make it an excellent hedge and windbreak, and it is planted as a decorative shrub (e.g. in South Africa, Australia and southern U.S.A.).

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds:Black, 2-3 mm in length and firm when ripe, contained in three- or four-winged capsules that become brittle when mature.Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:20.Seed storage behaviour:Orthodox (the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)Germination testing:100% germination when chipped with scalpel (on 1% agar, at 15, 20 and 25 oC, 8/16). 49-67% germination (pre-sowing treatment = 80% sulphuric acid for 4 minutes) on 1% agar under range of temperature & lighting conditions.Composition values: 7.6-19% oil content (entire seed/nut). 20.4-21.4% protein content (entire seed/nut).

    Cultivation

    Hopbush is cultivated in the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. It is grown from seed; some sources recommend pre-treatment of the seed in very hot water. Kew’s general potting mix is used, which consists of coir and Silvafibre, with screened loam, Osmacote and Kieserite. Alternatively, a light, well-drained soil could be used. 

    Hopbush can also be propagated by taking cuttings; this method can be used to obtain female plants for the aesthetic value of their winged fruits. At Kew, hopbush is grown in a glasshouse zone where the minimum temperature is 16˚C, and is kept under natural light. Hopbush will tolerate lengthy dry periods and does not require heavy feeding. Occasional mealy bug and whitefly infestations are dealt with using biological controls and, if necessary, by chemical sprays.

    Hopbush at Kew

    Hopbush is cultivated in the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew.

    Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of hopbush are held in the Herbarium, and details of some of these specimens can be seen in the online Herbarium Catalogue.

    Specimens of hopbush are also held in the Economic Botany Collection.

    South Africa Landscape - Kew at the British Museum

    Between April and October 2010, Kew and the British Museum brought a small corner of South Africa to the heart of London. The South Africa Landscape celebrated a shared vision to strengthen cultural understanding and support biodiversity conservation across the world.

    Dodonaea viscosa(hopbush) was one of the star plants featured in the Landscape.

    Distribution
    Australia, New Zealand, USA
    Ecology
    Generally occurring in open habitats, including open woodland, on well-drained soil in tropical and subtropical climates.
    Conservation
    Not threatened.
    Hazards

    Contains low levels of toxic chemicals known as cyanogenic glycosides. Although there are no recorded cases of human poisonings it should be treated with caution. It is known to cause liver damage in cattle.

    [FWTA]
    Habit
    A plant
    Ecology
    Of sandy coastal areas
    Note
    At least one other form is commonly grown as a hedge plant inland.
    [FZ]
    Habit
    Small tree up to 10 m. tall or shrub; branchlets angular, glabrous, resinous.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, spirally arranged; petiole up to 6 mm. long, glabrous; lamina up to 10 × 3 cm., narrowly elliptic, glabrous, resinous, apex acute and usually acuminate, margin entire, base narrowly cuneate and decurrent into the petiole; lateral nerves numerous (usually up to c. 20 pairs).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence usually c. 2 cm. long, terminal or subterminal, somewhat corymbose; peduncle short (rarely more than 5 mm. long).
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish-yellow (often bisexual fide Radlkofer); pedicels up to 5 mm. long (accrescent to 12 mm. long in fruit), filiform, glabrous.
    Androecium
    Stamens usually 6; anthers 3 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary (2)3(4)-locular; style 4–6 mm. long, (2)3(4)-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit up to 2 × 2 cm., 2–3(4)-locular, subcircular in outline, emarginate at apex and base, with 2–3 glabrous membranous wings c. 4–6 mm. broad, very shortly stipitate.
    Seeds
    Seed black, 3 × 2 mm., lenticular, glabrous.
    [FTEA]
    Habit
    Monoecious or dioecious semi-prostrate shrub or small tree, 0.5–9 m. tall; bark black or brown, ± rough; twigs black or reddish brown, glandular, glabrescent, ridged and developing vertical fissures.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, variable; blades oblanceolate or broadly to narrowly elliptic, (1–)4–13 cm. long, (0.4–)1.3–4.2 cm. wide, widest at or above the midpoint, obtuse and minutely apiculate at apex, gradually narrowed below the middle to a narrowly cuneate base; margin entire, recurved (in dried specimens); both surfaces glabrous and glandular, coated especially when young with viscid glandular exudate; lateral nerves 15–20(–30), often indistinct; petioles 0–2.5 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish yellow, unisexual or bisexual, in loose thyrsoid panicles at the ends of twigs; pedicels 0.8–1.5 cm. long in flower and fruit, glabrous and glandular. Bisexual flowers similar: sepals 3–4, greenish yellow, ovate, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; anthers 1.6–1.9 mm. long. Female flowers: calyx green, cup-like but sepals free; staminodes lacking or with anthers ± 1.5 mm. long; ovary green, oblong in outline, flattened, bilobed, glandular; style 2–3-lobed, equalling the ovary; disk inconspicuous. Male flowers: sepals 3–4, straw-coloured or greenish yellow, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; stamens 7(–9); anthers 2–3 mm. long; ovary rudiment minute.
    Male
    Male flowers: sepals 3–4, straw-coloured or greenish yellow, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; stamens 7(–9); anthers 2–3 mm. long; ovary rudiment minute.
    Female
    Female flowers: calyx green, cup-like but sepals free; staminodes lacking or with anthers ± 1.5 mm. long; ovary green, oblong in outline, flattened, bilobed, glandular; style 2–3-lobed, equalling the ovary; disk inconspicuous.
    Hermaphrodite
    Bisexual flowers similar: sepals 3–4, greenish yellow, ovate, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; anthers 1.6–1.9 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit disk-shaped, the body 1.5–2.3 cm. long, 8–11 mm. wide, with an encircling papery venose wing 3–7 mm. wide or a few with 3(–4) locules and wings.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 per locule, black, subspherical, or somewhat compressed with a raised dorsal rim, 2–3 mm. diameter, 1.5–3 mm. thick.
    [UPPd]
    Ornamentals
    Artesanal. Unspecified plant parts - Malezas de México Ornato. Entire plant - Malezas de México
    Fuelwood
    Combustible. Unspecified plant parts - Malezas de México
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal. Unspecified plant parts - Malezas de México
    Plant Pest Control
    Plant Pest Control - Pesticida. Unspecified plant parts - Malezas de México
    Soil Improvers
    Se recomienda para la reforestación de terrenos degradados. Entire plant - Malezas de México

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Andaman Is., Angola, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Northeast, Burundi, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chatham Is., Chatham Is., Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Ecuador, Eritrea, Fiji, Florida, Florida, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, Haiti, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Maldives, Maluku, Marshall Is., Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Peru, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Queensland, Rwanda, Rwanda, Samoa, Samoa, Senegal, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced Into:

    Chagos Archipelago, Easter Is., Easter Is., Spain

    Common Names

    English
    Hopbush

    Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Pennington, T.D. [12323], Peru 53644.000
    Patel, H. [7243], Mozambique K000545204
    s.coll. [s.n.], Indonesia K000701357
    Spruce, R. [4987], Ecuador K000201209
    Linden [2070], Cuba K000586269

    First published in Enum. Syst. Pl.: 19 (1760)

    Accepted in:

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    • [3] (2014) Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C..
    • [4] (2012) Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167
    • [5] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [7] Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012) Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies) , ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • [12] (2009) Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de México 84: 13-23
    • [13] Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009) Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036 . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [14] (2008) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500
    • [15] (2008) Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • [16] Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008) Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela . Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • [17] Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • [18] Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007) Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • [20] Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006) Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau . Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • [22] Govaerts, R. (2000) World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141
    • [24] Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999) Ecology of the Chagos archipelago . Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • [27] (1994) Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223
    • [28] (1994) Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • [33] (1988) Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203
    • [34] (1987) Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33
    • [42] (1948-1963) Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10:

    Literature

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    • [10] (2011) The Orchid Review 119: 32-41
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    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    [C] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [D] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [E] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [F]

    Project MGU – Useful Plants Project (UPP) database
    [G]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [H] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [I] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
    [J] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0