According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Sapindaceae, Davies & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1998
- Monoecious or dioecious semi-prostrate shrub or small tree, 0.5–9 m. tall; bark black or brown, ± rough; twigs black or reddish brown, glandular, glabrescent, ridged and developing vertical fissures.
- Leaves simple, variable; blades oblanceolate or broadly to narrowly elliptic, (1–)4–13 cm. long, (0.4–)1.3–4.2 cm. wide, widest at or above the midpoint, obtuse and minutely apiculate at apex, gradually narrowed below the middle to a narrowly cuneate base; margin entire, recurved (in dried specimens); both surfaces glabrous and glandular, coated especially when young with viscid glandular exudate; lateral nerves 15–20(–30), often indistinct; petioles 0–2.5 mm. long.
- Flowers greenish yellow, unisexual or bisexual, in loose thyrsoid panicles at the ends of twigs; pedicels 0.8–1.5 cm. long in flower and fruit, glabrous and glandular. Bisexual flowers similar:sepals 3–4, greenish yellow, ovate, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; anthers 1.6–1.9 mm. long. Female flowers:calyx green, cup-like but sepals free; staminodes lacking or with anthers ± 1.5 mm. long; ovary green, oblong in outline, flattened, bilobed, glandular; style 2–3-lobed, equalling the ovary; disk inconspicuous. Male flowers:sepals 3–4, straw-coloured or greenish yellow, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; stamens 7(–9); anthers 2–3 mm. long; ovary rudiment minute.
- Male flowers:sepals 3–4, straw-coloured or greenish yellow, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; stamens 7(–9); anthers 2–3 mm. long; ovary rudiment minute.
- Female flowers:calyx green, cup-like but sepals free; staminodes lacking or with anthers ± 1.5 mm. long; ovary green, oblong in outline, flattened, bilobed, glandular; style 2–3-lobed, equalling the ovary; disk inconspicuous.
- Bisexual flowers similar:sepals 3–4, greenish yellow, ovate, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; anthers 1.6–1.9 mm. long.
- Fruit disk-shaped, the body 1.5–2.3 cm. long, 8–11 mm. wide, with an encircling papery venose wing 3–7 mm. wide or a few with 3(–4) locules and wings.
- Seeds 2 per locule, black, subspherical, or somewhat compressed with a raised dorsal rim, 2–3 mm. diameter, 1.5–3 mm. thick.
According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Sapindaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966
- Small tree up to 10 m. tall or shrub; branchlets angular, glabrous, resinous.
- Leaves simple, spirally arranged; petiole up to 6 mm. long, glabrous; lamina up to 10 × 3 cm., narrowly elliptic, glabrous, resinous, apex acute and usually acuminate, margin entire, base narrowly cuneate and decurrent into the petiole; lateral nerves numerous (usually up to c. 20 pairs).
- Inflorescence usually c. 2 cm. long, terminal or subterminal, somewhat corymbose; peduncle short (rarely more than 5 mm. long).
- Flowers greenish-yellow (often bisexual fide Radlkofer); pedicels up to 5 mm. long (accrescent to 12 mm. long in fruit), filiform, glabrous.
- Stamens usually 6; anthers 3 mm. long.
- Ovary (2)3(4)-locular; style 4–6 mm. long, (2)3(4)-lobed.
- Fruit up to 2 × 2 cm., 2–3(4)-locular, subcircular in outline, emarginate at apex and base, with 2–3 glabrous membranous wings c. 4–6 mm. broad, very shortly stipitate.
- Seed black, 3 × 2 mm., lenticular, glabrous.
According to Kew Species Profiles[KSP]
Kew Species Profiles
- General Description
A highly variable, extremely widespread plant with numerous medicinal uses, hopbush is known by over 50 different common names.
Hopbush is a highly variable evergreen shrub or small tree with several subspecies and varieties. It occurs around most of the southern hemisphere, and its numerous useful properties have been discovered independently by people of different continents. The flowers are relatively unspectacular but its winged fruits can become red or purple as they mature, making it an attractive garden plant in the tropics and subtropics. One cultivated variety also develops purple leaves when grown in direct light. The scientific name, Dodonaea, refers to Rembert Dodoens (a 16th century Flemish royal physician, botanist and professor), viscosa to the stickiness of its leaves.
- Species Profile
Geography and distribution
Widely distributed through the southern hemisphere including Australia, New Zealand, South and Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America; also occurring in the southern United States. It is tolerant of drought and can grow in coastal environments. It is intolerant of frost and does not grow well in shade.Description
Hopbush is an evergreen shrub or small tree, which grows up to about 5 m in height. The leaves are variable in shape, from elongated to spoon- or wedge-shaped, are sometimes reddish or purplish, and are usually shiny and sticky to the touch. They generally have conspicuous veins and their edges may be weakly toothed or undulating. The flowers, which grow at the ends of the branches, are either male or female, and individual plants generally bear one or the other (in which case plants of both sexes are required for successful reproduction). In other cases, however, they may bear flowers of both sexes. The pollen is transported by the wind, and the lack of petals maximises exposure to the breeze. The female flowers, after pollination, develop into 3 or 4 winged papery capsules, each with 2-3 black seeds. These capsules turn red or purple as the fruit matures.More common names for this species
'A'ali'i, 'a'ali'i kü makani (""'a'ali'i upright in the wind"") [Hawai'i]; ake, akeake, akerantangi [Nz]; alipata [Philipines (Tagalog)]; 'apiri [Tahiti]; bandari [India]; calapinai [Philipines (Tagalog)]; candlewood, dogwood [Bahamas]; chacataya [Bolivia]; chamana [Ecuador, Peru]; chamiso [Argentina]; chanamo, hayuelo [Colombia]; chapuliztle, cuerco de calva, granadina [Mexico]; chulita [Guatemala]; florida, hopbush, hopshrub [England]; gansies [Afrikan]; gelampaya, serengan laut [Malaya]; gitaran [Puerto Rico]; granadillo, hayo [Venezuela]; hopbush, native hop [Australia]; hopwood [England]; kabunda [Congo]; kankerbos [Afrikan]; kayu berthi. letup letup [Malaya]; kayu mesen, kisig, mesen [Java]; kharata [India]; mai pek [Thailand]; manglier petites feuilles [Haiti]; mukusao, umusasa [Congo]; native birch, native lignum vitae [Tasmania]; sanatha [Pakistan]; sanatta [Sanskrit]; switch sorrel [Jamaica]; vassoura vermelha [Brazil]; vrali [Spain]; walaytinahndi [Hindi]; yxichapulin [Aztec].
To list the many uses of this plant around the world would be a huge task. However, Kew’s Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) has undertaken a comprehensive collation of uses recorded in available scientific literature. In the western part of the island of New Guinea, for example, Yali highlanders use the wood for house construction and firewood, and apply heated leaves as plasters for wounds. D. viscosa is also used for house construction elsewhere in Southeast Asia, West Africa and Brazil.
Hopwood is also used in New Guinea for making tools and fish traps, for stimulating lactation in mothers, as incense for funerals, and as a remedy for dysentery. Various parts of the plant are used traditionally in Africa and Asia for treating digestive system disorders, infections, rheumatism, respiratory complaints and skin problems. Early settlers in Australia used D. viscosa as a substitute for hops for brewing beer (as reflected in some of common names of this plant), a use also recorded from Iraq. Hopwood leaves have been reported to be chewed as a stimulant in some parts of the world (such as in Colombia and Peru, where the leaves are sometimes mixed with coca, Erythroxylum coca ).
Dodonaea viscosa readily colonizes open areas and secondary forest, and is tolerant of salinity, drought and pollution. It is therefore useful for dune stabilization, restoring degraded lands and for reforestation. Its fast growth and tolerance of strong winds make it an excellent hedge and windbreak, and it is planted as a decorative shrub (e.g. in South Africa, Australia and southern U.S.A.).Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage
Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.
Description of seeds: Black, 2-3 mm in length and firm when ripe, contained in three- or four-winged capsules that become brittle when mature.
Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: 20.
Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)
Germination testing: 100% germination when chipped with scalpel (on 1% agar, at 15, 20 and 25 oC, 8/16). 49-67% germination (pre-sowing treatment = 80% sulphuric acid for 4 minutes) on 1% agar under range of temperature & lighting conditions.
Composition values: 7.6-19% oil content (entire seed/nut). 20.4-21.4% protein content (entire seed/nut).Cultivation
Hopbush is cultivated in the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. It is grown from seed; some sources recommend pre-treatment of the seed in very hot water. Kew’s general potting mix is used, which consists of coir and Silvafibre, with screened loam, Osmacote and Kieserite. Alternatively, a light, well-drained soil could be used.
Hopbush can also be propagated by taking cuttings; this method can be used to obtain female plants for the aesthetic value of their winged fruits. At Kew, hopbush is grown in a glasshouse zone where the minimum temperature is 16˚C, and is kept under natural light. Hopbush will tolerate lengthy dry periods and does not require heavy feeding. Occasional mealy bug and whitefly infestations are dealt with using biological controls and, if necessary, by chemical sprays.Hopbush at Kew
Hopbush is cultivated in the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew.
Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of hopbush are held in the Herbarium, and details of some of these specimens can be seen in the online Herbarium Catalogue.
Specimens of hopbush are also held in the Economic Botany Collection.South Africa Landscape - Kew at the British Museum
Between April and October 2010, Kew and the British Museum brought a small corner of South Africa to the heart of London. The South Africa Landscape celebrated a shared vision to strengthen cultural understanding and support biodiversity conservation across the world.
Dodonaea viscosa (hopbush) was one of the star plants featured in the Landscape."
- Australia, New Zealand, USA
- Generally occurring in open habitats, including open woodland, on well-drained soil in tropical and subtropical climates.
- Not threatened.
Contains low levels of toxic chemicals known as cyanogenic glycosides. Although there are no recorded cases of human poisonings it should be treated with caution. It is known to cause liver damage in cattle.
According to Project MGU - Useful Plants Project (UPP) database[UPPd]
- Artesanal. Unspecified plant parts - Malezas de México Ornato. Entire plant - Malezas de México
- Combustible. Unspecified plant parts - Malezas de México
- Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
- Medicinal. Unspecified plant parts - Malezas de México
- Plant Pest Control
- Plant Pest Control - Pesticida. Unspecified plant parts - Malezas de México
- Soil Improvers
- Se recomienda para la reforestación de terrenos degradados. Entire plant - Malezas de México
Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil Northeast, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chatham Is., Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marshall Is., Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe
Chagos Archipelago, Easter Is., Spain
Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:
First published in Enum. Syst. Pl.: 19 (1760)
-  Sykes, W.R. (2016) Flora of the Cook Islands . National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii
-  Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015) The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan . Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
-  (2014) Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
-  (2012) Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167
-  (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
-  Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012) Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies) , ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
-  Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012) Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda . Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
-  Gardner, R.O. (2011) Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants . R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand
-  Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011) Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín
-  Onana, J.M. (2011) The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments . National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé
-  (2009) Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de México 84: 13-23
-  Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009) Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036 . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
-  (2008) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500
-  (2008) Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
-  Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008) Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela . Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela
-  Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
-  Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007) Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis)
-  Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006) Flore Analytique du Bénin . Backhuys Publishers
-  Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006) Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau . Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento
-  Boulos, L. (2000) Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo
-  Govaerts, R. (2000) World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141
-  Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999) Ecology of the Chagos archipelago . Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley
-  Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999) Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
-  (1998) Flora of Tropical East Africa , Dodonaea: 1-108
-  (1994) Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223
-  (1994) Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra
-  (1993) Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra
-  (1988) Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203
-  (1987) Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33
-  (1966) Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
-  (1948-1963) Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10: null
-  (2016) Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902
-  Prendergast, H.D.V. & Pearman, G. (2001). Comparing uses and collections - the example of
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. [Sapindaceae].
Economic Botany 55: 184-186.
-  Milliken, W. (1999). Ethnobotany of the Yali of West Papua. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh electronic publication.
-  F. Friedmann in Fl. Masc. 76: 3, t. 1/1–3 (1997).
-  (1995) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250
-  Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995) Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia . Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia
-  Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 417, map (1994).
-  Leenh. in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 11: 526 (1994).
-  Closs, J. & West, J. (1993). Dodonaea – The Hop Bush. Australian Plants 137.
-  (1991) Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108
-  Jones, M. (1991) A checklist of Gambian plants . Michael Jones, The Gambia College
-  (1985) Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329
-  J.G. West in Fl. Austr. 25: 120, fig. 28a (1985).
-  J.G. West in Brunonia 7: 30, fig. 22a (1984)
-  Leenh. in Blumea 28: 285, fig. 1a (1983).
-  Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982) Flora of the Bahama Archipelago . J.Cramer, Vaduz
-  Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 58 (1980).
-  Boulvert, Y. (1977) Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui
-  Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 542 (1966).
-  Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 724 (1958).
-  (1957) Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37
-  Jex-Blake, Gard. E. Afr., ed. 4: 111, 356 (1957).
-  (1954-1958) Flora of West Tropical Africa , ed. 2, 1: 1-828
-  J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 557 (1949).
-  R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 235 (1949).
-  Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 180, t. 195, 7–10.
-  Radlk. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV, 165: 1363 (1933).
-  Radlk. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Sapindac. 1363 (q.v. for infraspecific variants)
-  Chev. Bot. 154
-  F.T.A. 1: 433
-  Enum. Syst. Pl. Ins. Carib. 19 (1760)
-  Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl.: 19 (1760).
-  Australian Native Plants Society (Australia) - Dodonaea viscosa.
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
Project MGU - Useful Plants Project (UPP) database