1. Family: Pedaliaceae R.Br.
    1. Sesamum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa and Australasia..

    [FTEA]

    Pedaliaceae, A. Bruce. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

    Habit
    Annual or perennial, erect or procumbent herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile or petiolate, entire, lobed or partite, often varying on the same plant
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, shortly pedicellate, white, pink or purple, sometimes spotted within
    Calyx
    Calyx persistent or deciduous
    Inflorescences
    Pedicels usually short, with nectarial glands at the base
    Corolla
    Corolla foxglove-like, obliquely campanulate, limb sub-bilabiate, lowest lobe the longest
    Stamens
    Filaments slender; anthers dorsifixed, cells parallel, connective gland-tipped
    Disc
    Disc annular, regular
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-celled, subcylindrical; cells divided almost to the apex by a false septum; ovules numerous, 1-seriate in each division
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong or sub-obconical, grooved, beaked at the apex
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, obovate, compressed, winged or wingless, smooth or rugose.
    [FZ]

    Pedaliaceae, H. D. Ihlenfeldt. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

    Habit
    Annual or perennial, erect herbs, sometimes shrubs (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) Leaves sessile or petiolate, lamina entire, lobed or digitate, often varying on the same plant.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, shortly pedicellate with extra-floral nectaries (reduced flowers) at the base.
    Calyx
    Calyx persistent or deciduous.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, pink or purple, obliquely campanulate, limb sub-bilabiate, lowest lobe the longest.
    Anthers
    Anthers dorsifixed, thecae parallel, connective gland-tipped.
    Disc
    Disk annular, regular.
    Ovary
    Ovary bilocular, subcylindrical; loculi divided almost to the apex by a false septum; ovules numerous, uniseriate in each division.
    Fruits
    Fruits longitudinally dehiscent capsules, cultrate to narrowly oblong or obconical in lateral view, 4-sulcate, rostrate at the apex.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, obovate, compressed, winged or with a double, rarely single fringe, testa smooth or rugose.
    [FTEA]

    Pedaliaceae, A. Bruce. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

    Habit
    Perennial herb with trailing procumbent branches, very variable in leaf-shape, pubescence and indentation
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the leaf-axils, with nectarial glands at the base of the pedicels
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube obliquely campanulate, curved, limb sub-bilabiate, 5-lobed, upper and lateral lobes sub-equal, lowest lobe longest
    Stamens
    Anthers oblong, dorsifixed; filaments filiform, free from the corolla-tube
    Ovary
    Ovary slightly compressed, 2-celled and 2-horned at the apex, cells completely divided by a false septum into 4 compartments each containing 2 ovules
    Fruits
    Fruit woody, indehiscent, more or less disc-shaped with a raised 2-horned central portion on the upper surface
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 in each compartment.
    [FZ]

    Pedaliaceae, H. D. Ihlenfeldt. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

    Seeds
    Seeds dark brown to black, obovate to oblanceolate in outline, 2, (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) 3, (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) 4, or 5 seeds in each loculus.
    Habit
    Herb with a persistent woody main root, from which 5–7 prostrate annual stems bearing numerous lateral branchlets arise; whole plant subglabrous to villous and covered with mucilage-glands.
    Leaves
    Leaves very variable in shape, indument and indentation, long-petiolate to subsessile; lamina narrowly to broadly ovate, pinnatipartite to pinnatilobed or deeply crenate to serrate, the inferior surface very densely covered with mucilage-glands.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, pendent, on long erect pedicels carrying the flowers above the plane of the leaves; flowers white to pink or mauve, occasionally violet or yellow.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube obliquely campanulate, curved, slightly saccate at the base in the adaxial side; limb sub-bilabiate; the upper and lateral lobes subequal, the anterior lobe enlarged and with dark stripes or lines of dots running down into the tube.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, inserted near the base of the tube; staminodium absent; anthers of the shorter pair of stamens just included in the corolla tube, anthers of the longer pair of stamens just exserted from the corolla tube; thecae parallel.
    Ovary
    Ovary bilocular, false septa (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) present or absent.
    Fruits
    Fruit woody, indehiscent, longitudinally much compressed, therefore disk-like; the central portion distinctly or only indistinctly raised, with two erect conical spines from near the centre, and the fruit easily detachable (forming a "trample bur").
    [FTEA]

    Pedaliaceae, A. Bruce. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

    Habit
    Erect or decumbent herbs or small shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or sub-opposite, petiolate, lanceolate, elliptic or obovate, entire, dentate or lobulate
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the upper leaf-axils
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes persistent, subequal or the posterior smaller
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube shortly tubular at the very base then inflated and obliquely campanulate; limb sub-bilabiate; upper lip suberect, shortly 2-lobed; lower lip subhorizontal, 3-lobed with the central lobe the longest
    Anthers
    Anther-cells parallel; connective gland-tipped
    Ovary
    Ovary subverrucose, 2–4 celled; cells divided by false septa into 4–8 compartments with 1–3 erect ovules in each compartment; disc circular, rather unequally thickened
    Fruits
    Fruit indehiscent, ovoid to subglobose, beaked or not, hard and woody, densely covered with stout spines, divided into 4–8 compartments each containing 1–3 seeds
    Seeds
    Seeds erect, oblong to elongate-ovoid, sometimes subtriquetrous at the base; testa smooth or wrinkled.
    [FTEA]

    Pedaliaceae, A. Bruce. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

    Habit
    Erect or procumbent, annual or perennial herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves membranous, petiolate, often polymorphic
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the leaf-axils, shortly pedicellate, red, pink, lilac, mauve or yellow, with nectarial glands at the base of the pedicels (Fig. 6/6 & 7)
    Calyx
    Calyx often persistent
    Corolla
    Corolla obliquely campanulate; limb sub-bilabiate; upper and lateral lobes short subequal, lowest lobe the longest
    Stamens
    Filaments slender; anther-cells oblong, parallel
    Disc
    Disc annular, subequal
    Ovary
    Ovary subcylindrical, slightly compressed, 2-celled; cells divided by a false septum almost to the apex; ovules numerous, 1-seriate in each compartment
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong, compressed, rounded or truncate at the apex and horned at the angles (horns rarely suppressed), splitting loculicidally
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, compressed, obovate to suborbicular with a narrow margin and a smooth or wrinkled centre portion.
    [FZ]

    Pedaliaceae, H. D. Ihlenfeldt. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial herbs, or (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) small shrubs, erect, branched, sometimes semi-prostrate; leaves and stems more or less densely covered with mucilage-glands and hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, petiolate; lamina very variable, circular, ovate, cordate, reniform or lanceolate, hastate or tri-lobed, often polymorphic, margins nearly entire, crenate or serrate; (superior and inferior leaves often much smaller and simplified).
    Flowers
    Flowers shortly pedicellate, solitary in the leaf-axils, pendent, white, pink or lilac, the throat usually less intensively coloured.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube funnel-shaped, the base on the adaxial side slightly gibbous; limb sub-bilabiate; the upper and lateral lobes short and subequal, the anterior lobe enlarged, often yellow, with dark stripes or lines of dark spots running down into the throat.
    Stamens
    Stamens four, included, inserted near the base of the tube; staminodium absent; thecae parallel.
    Ovary
    Ovary bilocular, each loculus divided by a false septum almost to the apex, each compartment with numerous ovules, uniseriate.
    Fruits
    Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule, laterally compressed, obtuse or truncate at the apex, with two lateral horns (sometimes not very conspicuous) at the angles of the apex.
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, spreading or ascending, obovate in outline, usually black when ripe.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Andaman Is., Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Fiji, French Guiana, Galápagos, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Krym, Libya, Madagascar, Malaya, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Peru, Philippines, Qinghai, Saudi Arabia, South European Russi, Spain, Suriname, Tadzhikistan, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Sesamum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ash [522], Ethiopia 58525.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 634 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 550.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 282 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 634 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 282 (1754)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0