1. Family: Celastraceae R.Br.
    1. Maytenus Molina

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Celastraceae, N.K.B. Robson, N. Hallé, B. Mathew and R. Blakelock†. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual or unisexual, with ± well-developed staminodes and pistillode, pedicellate, with pedicels articulated at or above the base
    Calyx
    Sepals (4–)5(–7), unequal or equal, imbricate, ± united, with margin entire or ciliolate
    Corolla
    Petals (4–)5(–6), white to yellow or sometimes green or red, imbricate in bud, spreading
    Disc
    Disc intrastaminal, single, convex to shallowly concave, entire or shallowly (4–)5–10(–12)-lobed or -angled
    Stamens
    Stamens (4–)5(–6), with filaments thin or flattened, free or united with the base of the disc; anthers versatile or subbasifixed, introrse, usually reddish if sterile, persistent or deciduous, with separate thecae dehiscing longitudinally
    Pistil
    Ovary superior, sessile, almost free or up to half-immersed in the disc, 2–3(–4)-locular, with 2 erect collateral ovules in each locule; style short or ± elongated, cylindric, simple; stigma 2–3(–4)-branched
    Fruits
    Fruit capsular, coriaceous or woody to papyraceous or somewhat fleshy, without wings or emergences, dehiscing loculicidally to the base
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–6(–8), glossy, red-brown, with a yellow or more rarely white or purple aril forming a fleshy basal cupule or a partial or complete thin covering, not winged, with or without fleshy endosperm.
    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or rhizomatous shrublets, erect or scrambling or sarmentose, rarely scandent, rarely with latex, glabrous to ± pubescent; branches terete to lined or angular, sometimes ending in a spine, frequently condensed to form short shoots
    Leaves
    Leaves spiral or fasciculate (on short shoots), entire or not, petiolate or rarely subsessile (M. conferta); stipules free, small, persistent (M. conferta), caducous or absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence pedunculate or sessile, dichasial to monochasial or fasciculate, few–many-flowered, single in axils of foliage leaves or in clusters on short shoots, or rarely in axils of bracts forming “panicles”; bracts persistent
    [FZ]

    Celastraceae, N. K. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or rhizomatous shrublets, erect or scrambling or sarmentose or rarely scandent, rarely with latex, glabrous to ± pubescent; branches terete to lined or angular, sometimes ending in a spine, frequently condensed to form short shoots.
    Leaves
    Leaves spiral or fasciculate (on short shoots), entire or with margin denticulate, petiolate; stipules free, small, caducous or absent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence pedunculate or sessile, dichasial to monochasial or fasciculate, many- to few-flowered, single in axils of foliage leaves or in clusters on short shoots, or rarely in axils of bracts forming “panicles”; bracts persistent.
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual or unisexual with ± well-developed staminodes and pistillode, pedicellate, with pedicels articulated.
    Calyx
    Sepals (4)5(6), unequal or equal, imbricate, ± united, with margin entire or ciliolate.
    Corolla
    Petals (4)5(6), white to yellow or sometimes green or red, imbricate in bud, spreading.
    Disc
    Disk intrastaminal, single, convex to shallowly concave, entire or shallowly (4)5–10(12)-lobed or -angled.
    Stamens
    Stamens (4)5(6), with filaments thin or flattened, free or united with the base of the disk; anthers versatile or sub-basifixed, introrse, usually reddish if sterile, with separate thecae dehiscing longitudinally.
    Pistil
    Ovary superior, sessile, almost free or up to 1/2-immersed in the disk, 2–3(4)-locular, with 2 erect collateral ovules in each loculus; style short or ± elongated, cylindric, simple; stigma 2–3(4)-branched.
    Fruits
    Fruit capsular, coriaceous or woody to papyraceous or somewhat fleshy, without emergences, dehiscing loculicidally to the base.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–6(8), glossy, red-brown, with yellow or more rarely white or purple aril forming a fleshy basal cupule or a partial or complete thin covering, with or without fleshy endosperm.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China South-Central, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    California, Falkland Is., Myanmar, Tadzhikistan

    Maytenus Molina appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 2, 2000 Nascimento, F.H.F. [137], Brazil K001078280
    Nov 9, 1985 Rambo, B. [42290], Brazil K001072383
    Jan 1, 1980 Harley, R.M. [18395], Brazil K001078298
    Jan 1, 1978 Irwin, H.S. [48342], Brazil K001072376
    Jan 1, 1978 Irwin, H.S. [47486], French Guiana K001072377
    Jan 1, 1978 Irwin, H.S. [47983], Brazil K001072378
    Jan 1, 1978 Irwin, H.S. [48322], Brazil K001072379
    Nov 24, 1977 Ramos, J. [6708], Brazil K001072399
    Jan 1, 1975 Prance, G.T. [14477], Brazil K001072408
    Jan 1, 1971 Fróes, R.L. [21544], Brazil K001072389
    Jan 1, 1940 Ule, E. [6965], Brazil K001072391
    Harley, R.M. [PCD 6039], Brazil K001078273
    Harley, R.M. [PCD 6174], Brazil K001078268
    Harley, R.M. [CFCR 14197], Brazil K001078281
    Harley, R.M. [s.n.], Brazil K001078282
    Harley, R.M. [CFCR 14159], Brazil K001078283
    Harley, R.M. [CFCR 14352], Brazil K001078284
    Harley, R.M. [CFCR 14279], Brazil K001078285
    Harley, R.M. [CFCR 14279], Brazil K001078286
    Harley, R.M. [CFCR 7605], Brazil K001078292
    Pennington, T.D. [17085], Peru 64716.000
    Pennington, T.D. [17077], Peru 73400.000
    Plowman, T. [2754], Brazil K001072356
    Fay, J.M. [7325], Central African Republic 60363.000
    Taylor, N.P. [1597], Brazil K001078277
    Cheek, M. [10811], Cameroon 65007.000
    Ratter, J.A. [6924], Brazil K001072407
    Ratter, J.A. [6472], Brazil K001072418
    Ratter, J.A. [R 7332], Brazil K001078287
    Ratter, J.A. [6083], Brazil K001072405
    Lima, H.C. [4021], Brazil K001072410
    Hind, D.J.N. [71], Brazil K001072427
    Hind, D.J.N. [71], Brazil K001072428
    Hind, D.J.N. [71], Brazil K001078299
    Giulietti, A.M. [CFCR6754], Brazil K001078293
    Nic Lughadha, E. [6170], Brazil K001078276
    Nic Lughadha, E. [5963], Brazil K001078270
    Sano, P.T. [CFCR 14551], Brazil K001078275
    Pirani, J.R. [2847], Brazil K001078243
    Furlan, A. [CFCR 1636], Brazil K001078279
    Furlan, A. [CFCR 7520], Brazil K001078290
    Etuge, M. [3714], Cameroon K000437519
    Roque, N. [CFCR 14920], Brazil K001078295
    Roque, N. [CFCR 14920], Brazil K001078294
    Roque, N. [14920], Brazil K001072403
    Lucena, M.F.A. [46], Brazil K001078235
    Lucena, M.F.A. [46], Brazil K001078236
    Oliveira, M. [130], Brazil K001078233
    Oliveira, M. [49], Brazil K001078247
    Silva, L.F. [210], Brazil K001078252
    Gomes, A.P.S. [208], Brazil K001078224
    Blanchet [1541], Brazil K001072366
    Nadruz, M. [524], Brazil K001078241
    Rodal, M.J.N. [333], Brazil K001078227
    Rodal, M.J.N. [609], Brazil K001078253
    Rodal, M.J.N. [340], Brazil K001078265
    Rodal, M.J.N. [535], Brazil K001078263
    Marcon, A.B. [153], Brazil K001078248
    Marcon, A.B. [14], Brazil K001078222
    Lira, S.S. [85], Brazil K001078239
    Silva, D.C. [89], Brazil K001078256
    Silva, D.C. [37], Brazil K001078228
    Heringer, E.P. [7270], Brazil K001072425
    Heringer, E.P. [6103], Brazil K001072422
    Heringer, E.P. [17467-B], Brazil K001072423
    Heringer, E.P. [552], Brazil K001072424
    Agra, M.F. [665], Brazil K001072413
    Eiten, G. [8884-B], Brazil K001072386
    Eiten, G. [8362], Brazil K001072387
    Figueiredo, L.S. [103], Brazil K001078262
    Hora, M.J. [8], Brazil K001078259
    Pimentel, D.S. [2], Brazil K001078232
    Menezes, E. [77], Brazil K001078221
    Menezes, E. [77], Brazil K001078231
    Vauthier [150], Brazil K001072368
    Noblick, L.R. [2539], Brazil K001078278
    Silva, M.B. [93], Brazil K001072390
    Villarouco, F.M.O. [135], Brazil K001078238
    França, F. [1198], Brazil K001078291
    Saar, E. [5609], Brazil K001078267
    Saar, E. [PCD 5700], Brazil K001078271
    Laurênio, A. [267], Brazil K001078240
    Laurênio, A. [100], Brazil K001078249
    Laurênio, A. [208], Brazil K001078258
    Laurênio, A. [128], Brazil K001078260
    Laurênio, A. [128], Brazil K001078261
    Calderon, C.E. [2718], Brazil K001072415
    Silva, L.A.M. [196], Brazil K001078288
    Pereira, B.A.S. [1004], Brazil K001072409
    Pereira, B.A.S. [276], Brazil K001072426
    Gardner, G. [5693], Brazil K001078220
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001072373
    Krukoff, B.A. [5562], Brazil K001072392
    Dusén, P. [15124], Brazil K001072393
    Dusén, P. [11417], Brazil K001072395
    Dusén, P. [s.n.], Brazil K001072396
    Dusén, P. [10368], Brazil K001072397
    Dusén, P. [10316], Brazil K001072398
    Mosén [s.n.], Brazil K001072384
    Fróes, R.L. [23538], Brazil K001072417
    Swanson [s.n.], Brazil K001072372
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001072374
    Atkins, S. [CFCR 14723], Brazil K001078297
    Atkins, S. [s.n.], Brazil K001078266
    Atkins, S. [4594], Brazil K001078269
    Fiaschi, P. [564], Brazil K001078245
    Tschá, M.C. [215], Brazil K001078225
    Tschá, M.C. [215], Brazil K001078226
    Tschá, M.C. [13], Brazil K001078230
    Carvalho, A.M.V. [208], Brazil K001078289
    Inácio, E. [2], Brazil K001072412
    Inácio, E. [2], Brazil K001078229
    Tschá, M. [172], Brazil K001078254
    Tschá, M. [371], Brazil K001078223
    Gomes, A.I. [s.n.], Brazil K001072363
    Ferreira, C.A.C. [8046], Brazil K001072416
    Ferreira, C.A.C. [8028], Brazil K001072419
    Ferreira, C.A.C. [8028], Brazil K001072420
    Ferreira, C.A.C. [7699], Brazil K001072421
    Prance, G.T. [9144], Brazil K001072380
    Prance, G.T. [9154], Brazil K001072381
    Silva, S.S. [s.n.], Brazil K001072414
    Glaziou, A. [20219], Brazil K001072350
    Glaziou, A. [10466], Brazil K001072351
    Glaziou, A. [20220], Brazil K001072353
    Glaziou, A. [18185], Brazil K001072355
    Glaziou, A. [2511], Brazil K001072358
    Glaziou, A. [10470], Brazil K001072360
    Glaziou, A. [18991], Brazil K001072385
    Cunningham [s.n.], Brazil K001072357
    Ribeiro, R.D. [1004], Brazil K001078244
    Oldeman [962], French Guiana K001072406
    Leitão Filho, H.F. [10257], Brazil K001072411
    Leitão Filho, H.F. [s.n.], Brazil K001078246
    Krieger, L. [23989], Brazil K001072404
    Passos, L.C. [s.n.], Brazil K001078272
    Passos, L.C. [5772], Brazil K001078274
    Gardner [5381], Brazil K001072364
    Gardner [5693], Brazil K001072375
    Gardner [3638], Brazil K001072388
    Gardner [4491], Brazil K001072400
    Gardner [4491], Brazil K001072401
    Sales, M.F. de [330], Brazil K001078250
    Sales, M.F. de [663], Brazil K001078251
    Sales, M.F. de [343], Brazil K001078255
    Sales, M.F. de [313], Brazil K001078257
    Sales, M.F. de [312], Brazil K001078264
    Sales, M.F. de [330], Brazil K001078219
    Peron, M. [866], Brazil K001078242
    s.coll. [1000], Brazil K001072365
    s.coll. [994], Brazil K001072369
    s.coll. [1000], Brazil K001072370
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001072371
    Burchell [2721], Brazil K001072367
    Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K001072361
    Glaziou [18156], Brazil K001072352
    Glaziou [8326], Brazil K001072354
    Glaziou [8314], Brazil K001072359
    Glaziou [7571], Brazil K001072362
    Harley. [20778], Brazil K001078296
    Tschá, M.T. [438], Brazil K001078234
    Costa-Silva, M.B. [328], Brazil K001078237
    Hering, D.V. [18], Brazil K001072382
    Jönsoan, G. [95a], Brazil K001072394
    Willians, L.O. [7500], Brazil K001072402

    First published in Sag. Stor. Nat. Chili: 177 (1782)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Blakelock in Taxon 3: 196 (1954).
    • Exell & Mendonca Consp. Fl. Ang. 2: 1 (1954)
    • Loes. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 20B: 134 (1942)
    • Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 764 (1824–5)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Saggio Chile: 177 (1782).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Fl. Ethiopia 3: 331 (1990)
    • Sebsebe in Symb. Bot. Upsal. 25(2): 1–101 (1985)
    • Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 200 (1982)
    • N. Robson & Sousa in Fl. Moçamb. 48: 5 (1969)
    • in F.Z. 2: 358 (1966)
    • N. Robson in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 39: 6 (1965)
    • Marais in Bothalia 7: 381–386 (1960)
    • R. Wilczek in F.C.B. 9: 114 (1960)
    • Exell & Mendonça, C.F.A. 2: 1 (1954)
    • Loes. in E. & P. Pf., ed. 2, 20b: 134 (1942)
    • Saggio Chile: 177 (1782)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0