1. Family: Cyperaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Carex L.
      1. Carex simensis Hochst. ex A.Rich.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to E. DR Congo.

    [FTEA]

    Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

    Type
    Type: Ethiopia, Simien, Mt Buahit, Schimper II: 1180 (P, holo.; BM!, K!, S, UPS, iso.)
    Habit
    Tussock-forming rhizomatous perennial 15–60 cm tall; basal leaf sheaths short
    Leaves
    Leaf blades 3–40 cm long, 3–12 mm wide, plicate and keeled, smooth or scabrid on the margins
    Inflorescences
    Spikes 1–7(–10) cm long, 4–7 mm wide, the upper 1–2 male, the lower mostly female with few male flowers at base Inflorescence of 3–9 erect or slightly drooping spikes born singly or paired at nodes, the upper ± sessile, the lower pedunculate, the stalks 1–10(–20) cm long.
    Glume
    Glumes dark red-brown to ± black with green area consisting of midrib and extension on each side and often broadening at base, 5–8 mm long, shorter or equalling utricle or when long awned exceeding it
    Fruits
    Utricle speckled, pale, 5–6.2(–7) mm long (including 1.5 mm long beak), glabrous, finely ribbed, typically somewhat stipitate; beak bifid with distinct teeth
    Stigma
    Stigmas 2–3.
    Ecology
    Swampy areas in upland grassland and moorland, montane forest, Hagenia-Hypericum alpine belt; 1850–3900 m
    Note
    No one comments further (in print) on var. longistipitata but Nelmes’ label on the isotype states one of the B sheets has a culm with 9 spikes (some branched) exactly like the sheet at BR. Kükenthal distinguishes the variety as having terminal spikes male, and laterals often paired mostly female with few basal male flowers, the utricles long-stipitate finely veined not exceeding the glumes. The base is certainly distinctly narrowed and the beak narrowed, the utricles being 5.5 mm long including the 1.5 mm long beak. The glumes are much paler than typical simensis and the synonymy is dubious. Apr. 1932, Oliver 13 are not separable from C. petitiana, differing from C. simensis in having narrower leaves and glumes with dense coppery elongate spots rather than solid dark colour. Hedberg 1043 is very similar to the type. Nelmes said of Haarer 1156 ‘differs from C. simensis only in the longer awns’. The mucronate glumes are much longer than the utricles. The material from T 7 has very narrow leaves. The Ethiopian type has utricles 6.5 mm long and distinctly stipitate and leaves 1 cm wide. The relationship of C. simensis to C. petitiana, both described by A. Richard in 1850, is one of the problems needing solution. Specimens with dark blackish brown glumes with broad yellowish or green keels and broad leaves, paired spikelets and stipitate utricles match the type of C. simensis but some specimens annotated by Nelmes e.g. Toro District: Ruwenzori Mt, Haines & Lye (Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 382 (1983) give C. fisheri as a synonym of C. petitiana but Lye (Fl. Eth. 6: 508 (1997)) gives C. fisheri as a synonym of C. simensis.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U2 U3 K3 K4 T2 T7 Range: Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Ethiopia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Zaïre

    Carex simensis Hochst. ex A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 10, 2006 Polhill, E. [12023], Kenya K000363677

    First published in Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 514 (1850)

    Accepted by

    • Escudero, M. & Luceño, M. (2011). Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae) Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 68: 225-247.
    • Gehrke, B. (2011). Synopsis of Carex (Cyperaceae) from sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 166: 51-99.
    • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
    • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Gehrke, B. (2011). Synopsis of Carex (Cyperaceae) from sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 166: 51-99.
    • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 6: 508, fig. 212.86 (1997).
    • Haines & Lye, Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 383, fig. 790 (1983)
    • Journ. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. 24 (106): 11, fig. 40 (1963)
    • A.V.P.: 60 (1957)
    • F.P.N.A. 3: 294 (1955)
    • F.D.O.-A.: 540 (1938)
    • F.T.A. 8: 514 (1902)
    • Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 514 (1850)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0