1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Medicago L.
      1. Medicago sativa L.

        Alfalfa, also called lucerne (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in many countries throughout the world. Alfalfa belongs to the plant family Leguminosae, also known as Fabaceae and, like all legumes, it has the ability to fix nitrogen from the air. As a result, alfalfa is incredibly high in protein. Beyond its use in animal feed, the seeds of alfalfa can be sprouted and eaten by humans. 

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Alfalfa, also called lucerne (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in many countries throughout the world. Alfalfa belongs to the plant family Leguminosae, also known as Fabaceae and, like all legumes, it has the ability to fix nitrogen from the air. As a result, alfalfa is incredibly high in protein. Beyond its use in animal feed, the seeds of alfalfa can be sprouted and eaten by humans. 

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Alfalfa is thought to have originated in Iran and it has been used as a fodder crop since Roman times.

    The largest producer of alfalfa today is North America, followed by Europe, South America and Asia. Alfalfa is grown in many other parts of the world, from China to Spain, Sweden to North Africa. Outside of cultivation alfalfa occurs as a weed throughout Asia, Europe and America.

    Description

    Overview: Medicago sativa is a perennial herb living for several years. It has erect stems up to 60 cm tall with many branches. 

    Leaves: The leaflets are 5-20 mm long and dentate (toothed) at the apex and sometimes at the base. 

    Flowers: The flowers, which are violet to pale lavender, are clustered along an unbranched axis (known as a raceme). The flowers are papilionaceous, typical of species belonging to the subfamily Papilionoideae, and resemble, for example, the pea flower. The calyx, the outer whorl of floral organs, has teeth which are as long as the floral tube (corolla). The corolla is composed of petals fused into a tube which is 6-12 mm long. 

    Fruit: A curved or loose spiral seed pod containing 10 to 20 seeds which are yellow to brown in colour. 

    Uses

    Alfalfa is one of the most nutritious forage crops available and in addition to its high protein content, is an important source of important vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin A and calcium. This multi-purpose forage crop is harvested mainly as hay but can also be processed into silage and meal, or grazed on. Pelleted alfalfa meal is used in mixed feeds for cattle, poultry and other animals.

    Alfalfa is sometimes grown as a cover crop to reduce soil erosion and often increases yields of succeeding crops such as potatoes, rice and tomatoes.

    The seeds of alfalfa can be sprouted and prepared in salads or sandwiches for human consumption. Care should be taken because when consumed raw, alfalfa seeds and sprouts contain the amino acid canavanine which can have a toxic effect in primates, including humans, and can result in lupus-like symptoms in susceptible individuals. The effects can be reversed by stopping the consumption of alfalfa. In parts of Russia and China tender alfalfa leaves serve as a vegetable.

    Alfalfa can be used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments for example, in India and China the plant has been used for centuries to relieve fluid retention and to treat kidney stones.

    In folklore, it is believed that alfalfa offers protection and the ashes of burnt alfalfa are scattered around a property to guard against negative influences. In pagan rituals alfalfa is used to protect the home from poverty and hunger.

    Other uses include manufacturing paper from alfalfa fibre and extracting a yellow dye from the seeds.

    Crop wild relatives of alfalfa

    The Millennium Seed Bank and the Global Crop Diversity Trust are engaged in a ten-year project, called 'Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change'. The project aims to protect, collect and prepare the wild relatives of 29 key food crops, including alfalfa, so that they are available to pre-breeders for the development of new varieties that are more resilient to the effects of climate change.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The  Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plants worldwide, focusing on those plants which are under threat and those which are of most use in the future. Once seeds have been collected they are dried, packaged and stored at -20°C in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds: Average 1,000 seed weight = 2 g

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: Three

    Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant can be dried to low moisture contents without significantly reducing their viability. This means they are suitable for long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

    Germination testing: Successful

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of Medicago sativa are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details and images, of some of these specimens can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    USA
    Ecology
    Alfalfa grows best in deep well-drained soils which are neutral to slightly alkaline. It is a relatively drought-tolerant crop. However, the crop’s yield is reduced in times of water shortage. The optimum temperature range is 15-25°C.
    Conservation
    Widespread in cultivation.
    Hazards

    Raw alfalfa seeds and sprouts contain the amino acid canavanine which can have a toxic effect in primates, incl humans, and can result in lupus-like symptoms in susceptible individuals. The effects can be reversed by stopping the consumption of alfalfa.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Fodder, grazing, hay, human food, medicinal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Transcaucasus

    Introduced Into:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil South, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Crozet Is., Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Illinois, India, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Magadan, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Victoria, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Common Names

    English
    Alfalfa

    Medicago sativa L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Jan 1, 2015 Brummitt, R.K. [20296], Mexico K001041103
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5945], India K001122607
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5945], India K001122608
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5945], India K001122609
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5945] K001122610
    Moorcroft, W. [Cat. no. 5945], India K001122616
    Rico, L. [1204], Bolivia K000295120
    Reid, D.J. [49236], Iran 32860.000
    Reid, D.J. [49236], Iran 32870.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 778 (1753)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] Ackerfield, J. (2015) Flora of Colorado . BRIT Press
    • [2] Bailey, C. & al. (2015) Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee . University of Tennessee press
    • [3] Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015) The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan . Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [4] (2014) Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • [5] (2014) Australian Plant Census (APC) . Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html
    • [6] (2014) Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285
    • [7] (2014) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303
    • [8] (2014) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156
    • [9] Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014) Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF) . DESIGNPOST
    • [10] Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014) Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide , ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale
    • [11] Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013) Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh , Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh
    • [12] (2012) Flora Neomexicana , ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico
    • [13] (2012) Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167
    • [14] (2012) Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève
    • [15] (2012) Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84
    • [16] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [17] Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012) Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies) , ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
    • [18] (2011) Norrlinia 24: 1-166
    • [19] Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011) Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama . Botanical reseach institute of Texas
    • [22] (2009) Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40
    • [23] (2009) Willdenowia 39: 165-177
    • [24] (2008) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden
    • [25] (2008) Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
    • [28] Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008) Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas . SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
    • [30] (2007) Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220
    • [31] (2005) Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72
    • [32] Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004) Legumes of Malesia a Check-List . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [33] (2003) Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
    • [34] Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003) Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [35] Boulos, L. (1999) Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo
    • [36] Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999) Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador . Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis
    • [37] Wood, J.R.I. (1997) A handbook of the Yemen Flora . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [38] Lee, W.T. (1996) Lineamenta Florae Koreae . Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok
    • [39] Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996) Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [41] MacKee, H.S. (1994) Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie , ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris
    • [42] (1993) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden
    • [43] Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993) Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [46] (1990) Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris
    • [47] (1989) Med-checklist 4: 1-458. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève
    • [48] Lock, J.M. (1989) Legumes of Africa a check-list . Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [49] Milgahid, A.M. (1989) Flora of Saudi Arabia , ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    • [50] (1988) Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch
    • [51] (1984) Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien
    • [53] (1974) Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad
    • [55] (1946) Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History

    Literature

    • [20] Beentje, H. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [21] Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010) Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis)
    • [26] Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008) Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela . Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela
    • [27] Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • [29] Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2008). Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.
    • [40] Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994) Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti
    • [44] Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993) Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press
    • [45] Montanaro A. & Bardana E.J. Jr. (1991) Dietary amino acid-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 17(2):323-32.
    • [52] Duke, J. A. (1981). Handbook of Legumes of World Economic Importance. New York: Plenum Press.
    • [54] Quézel, P. (1958) Mission Botanique au Tibesti . Université d'Alger

    Sources

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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