1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Medicago L.
      1. Medicago sativa L.

        Alfalfa, also called lucerne (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in many countries throughout the world. Alfalfa belongs to the plant family Leguminosae, also known as Fabaceae and, like all legumes, it has the ability to fix nitrogen from the air. As a result, alfalfa is incredibly high in protein. Beyond its use in animal feed, the seeds of alfalfa can be sprouted and eaten by humans. 

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Alfalfa, also called lucerne (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop in many countries throughout the world. Alfalfa belongs to the plant family Leguminosae, also known as Fabaceae and, like all legumes, it has the ability to fix nitrogen from the air. As a result, alfalfa is incredibly high in protein. Beyond its use in animal feed, the seeds of alfalfa can be sprouted and eaten by humans. 

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Alfalfa is thought to have originated in Iran and it has been used as a fodder crop since Roman times.

    The largest producer of alfalfa today is North America, followed by Europe, South America and Asia. Alfalfa is grown in many other parts of the world, from China to Spain, Sweden to North Africa. Outside of cultivation alfalfa occurs as a weed throughout Asia, Europe and America.

    Description

    Overview: Medicago sativa is a perennial herb living for several years. It has erect stems up to 60 cm tall with many branches. 

    Leaves: The leaflets are 5-20 mm long and dentate (toothed) at the apex and sometimes at the base. 

    Flowers: The flowers, which are violet to pale lavender, are clustered along an unbranched axis (known as a raceme). The flowers are papilionaceous, typical of species belonging to the subfamily Papilionoideae, and resemble, for example, the pea flower. The calyx, the outer whorl of floral organs, has teeth which are as long as the floral tube (corolla). The corolla is composed of petals fused into a tube which is 6-12 mm long. 

    Fruit: A curved or loose spiral seed pod containing 10 to 20 seeds which are yellow to brown in colour. 

    Uses

    Alfalfa is one of the most nutritious forage crops available and in addition to its high protein content, is an important source of important vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin A and calcium. This multi-purpose forage crop is harvested mainly as hay but can also be processed into silage and meal, or grazed on. Pelleted alfalfa meal is used in mixed feeds for cattle, poultry and other animals.

    Alfalfa is sometimes grown as a cover crop to reduce soil erosion and often increases yields of succeeding crops such as potatoes, rice and tomatoes.

    The seeds of alfalfa can be sprouted and prepared in salads or sandwiches for human consumption. Care should be taken because when consumed raw, alfalfa seeds and sprouts contain the amino acid canavanine which can have a toxic effect in primates, including humans, and can result in lupus-like symptoms in susceptible individuals. The effects can be reversed by stopping the consumption of alfalfa. In parts of Russia and China tender alfalfa leaves serve as a vegetable.

    Alfalfa can be used medicinally to treat a variety of ailments for example, in India and China the plant has been used for centuries to relieve fluid retention and to treat kidney stones.

    In folklore, it is believed that alfalfa offers protection and the ashes of burnt alfalfa are scattered around a property to guard against negative influences. In pagan rituals alfalfa is used to protect the home from poverty and hunger.

    Other uses include manufacturing paper from alfalfa fibre and extracting a yellow dye from the seeds.

    Crop wild relatives of alfalfa

    The Millennium Seed Bank and the Global Crop Diversity Trust are engaged in a ten-year project, called 'Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change'. The project aims to protect, collect and prepare the wild relatives of 29 key food crops, including alfalfa, so that they are available to pre-breeders for the development of new varieties that are more resilient to the effects of climate change.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The  Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plants worldwide, focusing on those plants which are under threat and those which are of most use in the future. Once seeds have been collected they are dried, packaged and stored at -20°C in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds: Average 1,000 seed weight = 2 g

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: Three

    Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant can be dried to low moisture contents without significantly reducing their viability. This means they are suitable for long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

    Germination testing: Successful

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of Medicago sativa are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details and images, of some of these specimens can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    USA
    Ecology
    Alfalfa grows best in deep well-drained soils which are neutral to slightly alkaline. It is a relatively drought-tolerant crop. However, the crop's yield is reduced in times of water shortage. The optimum temperature range is 15-25°C.
    Conservation
    Widespread in cultivation.
    Hazards

    Raw alfalfa seeds and sprouts contain the amino acid canavanine which can have a toxic effect in primates, incl humans, and can result in lupus-like symptoms in susceptible individuals. The effects can be reversed by stopping the consumption of alfalfa.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Cultivated
    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Herb
    Vernacular
    Aidama Bede, Alfalfa, Alfalfa Rustica, Arvuit Tzanovi, Beda, Blalusern, Blaue Luzerne, Chveulebrivi Iondzha, Ekin Garayoncha, Erba Medica, Harilik Lutsern, Lasan, Lasunghas, Lucerna, Lucerna Siewna, Lucerne, Lucherne Albastre, Luzerna, Luzerne, Luzerne Cu
    [KSP]
    Use
    Fodder, grazing, hay, human food, medicinal.
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Chemical products, Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, East European Russia, France, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krym, North Caucasus, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Crozet Is., Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Illinois, India, Ireland, Irkutsk, Japan, Jawa, Kentucky, Kerguelen, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Magadan, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Yemen

    Common Names

    English
    Alfalfa

    Medicago sativa L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2015 Brummitt, R.K. [20296], Mexico K001041103
    Rico, L. [1204], Bolivia K000295120
    Reid, D.J. [49236], Iran 32860.000
    Reid, D.J. [49236], Iran 32870.000
    Botteri, M. [709], Mexico K001294265
    Usteri, P.A. [98b], Brazil K000931820
    Graham, G.J. [175], Mexico K001294262
    Parry, C.C. [245] K001294264
    Moorcroft, W. [Cat. no. 5945], India K001122616
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5945], India K001122607
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5945], India K001122608
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5945], India K001122609
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5945] K001122610
    Edwards (Dr.) [B], Mexico K001294477
    Stiffers [68], Spain K001294478

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 778 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Small, E. (2011). Alfalfa and relatives. Evolution and classification of Medicago: 1-727. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) (1989). Med-checklist 4: 1-458. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R. & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
    • Rechinger, K.H. & al. (1984). Papilionaceae II Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Beentje, H. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2008). Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.
    • Montanaro A. & Bardana E.J. Jr. (1991) Dietary amino acid-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 17(2):323-32.
    • Duke, J. A. (1981). Handbook of Legumes of World Economic Importance. New York: Plenum Press.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) (1989). Med-checklist 4: 1-458. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
    • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R. & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. Botany division, D.S.I.R., Christchurch.
    • Rechinger, K.H. & al. (1984). Papilionaceae II Flora Iranica 157: 1-499. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Yakovlev G, Sytin A & Roskov Y (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jain, S. K. (1991). Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany
    • Stace, C. (1991). New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge Univ. Press
    • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
    • Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). The Illustrated Flora of Britain & Northern Europe
    • Small, E. & Jomphe, M. (1989). A Synopsis of the genus Medicago. Can. J. Bot 67:3260-3294
    • Ulziykhutag, N. (1989). Bobovye Mongolskoi Narodnoi Respubliki, Vol. 2. Doct. Thes.
    • Boulos, L. (1988). Candollea 43:559-585. A contribution to the fl. of S. Yemen.
    • Nikitin, V. V. & Geldikanov, A. (1988). Opredelitel rastenyi Turkmenistana. Leningrad. (Rus)
    • Webb, C. J. et al. (1988). Flora of New Zealand Vol IV
    • Dominguez, E. (1987). Pap. in Flora Vasc. de Andalucia Occ. Ketres, Barcelona
    • Horn, P. E. & Hill, G. D. (1987). What Legume is That?
    • McVaugh, R. (1987). Flora Novo-Galiciana 5:1-786. Leguminosae
    • Shetty, B. V. & Singh, V. (1987). Flora of Rajasthan Vol. 1. Flora of India Series 2
    • Sokolov, P. D. (1987). Rastitelnye resursy SSR. (Vol 4). Leningrad(Rus.)
    • Vassilczenko, I. T. (1987). In: Flora Partis Europaeae URSS, Vol. 6. Leningrad. (Rus)
    • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
    • Geideman, T. S. (1986). Opredelitel vysshikh rasteni Moldavskoi SSR, 3rd ed.
    • Kolakovsky, A. A. (1985). Flora Abkhazii [Flora of Abkhazia], 2nd ed., Vol. 3. Tbilisi.
    • Langhe, J.-E. de et al. (1983). Nouvelle Flore.. Belgique, .. Luxembourg, .. Nord de la France...
    • Thulin, M. (1983). Opera Botanica 68:1-223. Leguminosae of Ethiopia
    • Batanouny, K. H. (1981). Ecology & Flora of Qatar. Alden Press; for Uni. of Qatar.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1979). A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Office of Forests, Lae, PNG
    • Ali, S. I. (1977). Papilion. In: Flora of West Pakistan, No 100.
    • Moussavi, M. (1977). Min. of Agric. & Rural Develop. Dept. of Bot. Pub. No. 12.
    • Seitler, H. (1977). Die Flora des Furstentums Liechtenstein
    • Townsend, C. C. & Guest, E. (1974). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 3. Baghdad.
    • Gillett, J. B. et al. (1971). Papilionoideae. In: Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Milne-Redhead & Polhill
    • Stancevicius, A. (1971). In: Lietuvos TSR flora, Vol. 4. Vilnius. (Lit)
    • Balashev, L. L., Ed. (1970). Dictionary of useful plants in twenty european languages.
    • Bonnier G. & Layens G. (1970). Flore complete portative de la France de la Suisse et...
    • Kiselevski A. I. (1967). Latino-russko-belorusski botanicheski slovar. Minsk. 160 p.
    • Gabrielyan, E. Tz. (1962). In: Flora Armenii, Vol. 4. Jerevan. (Rus)
    • Quezel, P. & Santa, S. (1962). Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie et des regions desertiq. merid. 1
    • Goloskokov, V. P. (1961). In: Flora Kazakhstana Vol. 5. Alma-Ata. (Rus)
    • Talts, S. (1959). In: Eesti NSV floora Vol. 3. Tallinn. Papilionaceae. (Es)
    • Livena, Dz. (1957). In: Latvijas PSR flora Vol. 3. Riga. Leguminosae. (Latv)
    • Ubukeeva, A. U. (1957). In: Flora Kirgizskoi SSR, Vol. 7. Frunze. (Rus)
    • Golodkovsky, V. L. (1955). In: Flora Uzbekistanica, Vol. 3. Taschkent. (Rus)
    • Isaev, Ya. M. (1954). In: Flora Azerbaijana, Vol. 5. Baku. (Rus)
    • Visyulina, O. D. (1954). Leguminosae. In: Flora URSR, Vol. 6. Kiev. (Ukr)
    • Grossheim, A. A. (1941). In: Flora URSS Vol. 11. Mosqua, Leningrad. (Rus)
    • Hess, H. E. et al. (0). Flora Der Schweiz, Band 2. Birkhauser.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0