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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical, Ukraine to Temp. Asia.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

Morphology General Habit
Perennial plants, leafy or leafless.
Morphology Stem
Stems herbaceous or succulent, twining or not.
Morphology General Exudate
Latex white or very occasionally clear or yellowish
Morphology Leaves
Leaves when present (i.e not reduced to scales), opposite, with colleters at the base of the lamina; abbreviated short leafy shoots present in the leaf axils of several species giving the appearance of stipules.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences extra-axillary, sessile or pedunculate, umbelliform or clustered along an axis that develops with age
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla fused basally, glabrous or occasionally pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corolline corona absent Gynostegial corona in one or two whorls; inner whorl where present of free, fleshy, staminal lobes; outer whorl a variously developed tube of partially or completely fused staminal and interstaminal parts surrounding the gynostegium
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynostegium
Gynostegium sessile or stipitate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinia
Pollinia pendant in the anther cells
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Stylar head ± flat, conical, or with rostrate apical appendage
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles generally developing singly by abortion
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flattened, winged or not, smooth or sculptured, glabrous or pubescent; with a coma of white hairs.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Climbers or shrublets, leafless or leafy, glabrous or hairy; latex milky, white to yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla mostly glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Gynostegial corona present, either single, consisting of staminal and interstaminal parts fused for at least 1/4 of total corona length or double, with additional inner free staminal parts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers with apical appendages and clearly differentiated lateral anther wings consisting of a distal and proximal ridge or of a distal ridge only; pollinia pendulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles usually solitary, normally obclavate, sometimes winged, with mostly thin and smooth wall or rarely thicker and with protuberances
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brown, elliptic to pear-shaped, sometimes winged, smooth, sculptured or pubescent, crowned with a tuft of white hairs.
Distribution
About 255 species throughout the tropics and subtropics, with centres of distribution in Madagascar and southern China.

[FTEA]

Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

Morphology General Habit
Twining herbs with perennial rootstock and slender annual stems.
Morphology General Exudate
Latex white
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, herbaceous, petiolate, cordiform, colleters conspicuous at the base of the lamina; small leaves on short axillary shoots frequently giving the appearance of stipules.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences extra-axillary, cymose, pedunculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla lobes fused basally, recurved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Gynostegial corona generally consisting of a short tube and prominent free staminal parts, flat or laterally conduplicate, apically either conduplicate or provided with a horn-like ornament projecting towards the gynostegium; if corona fused for much of its length, then with vertical ‘suture marks’ Corolline corona absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynostegium
Gynostegium sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anther connectives with apical appendages
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinia
Pollinia pendulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Stylar head flat.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles mostly single, ellipsoid, rather thick-walled, with or without protruberances of variable length and density
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flattened, ovate, papillate or pubescent, with or without a marginal wing; with a coma of silky hairs.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinarium
Pollinaria with a pair of pendent pollinia attached to the corpusculum by slender caudicles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmatic head level with the top of the anthers or exserted beyond
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles single, inflated, with scattered, soft, spine-like processes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds compressed, ovate, with a tuft of hairs at one end.
Distribution
Four or five species bordering the Sahara and extending eastwards to Arabia, Iran, Baluchistan and Sind.
Note
The study by Liede & al. (2002) indicated that Glossonema, Odontanthera and Pentarrhinum are closely allied to each other and together form a subclade within Cynanchum.
Morphology General Habit
Dwarf perennial herbs branching from the base; latex white; all parts except the interior of the flower sparsely to densely tomentose with an indumentum of short white stiff spreading hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves subsessile or petiolate, linear-lanceolate to ovate with smooth or crisped margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences with 1 to many flowers in a sessile extra-axillary umbel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla-tube short; lobes spreading or suberect, often thickened below the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corolline corona arising from about half-way up the corolla-tube and alternating with the corolla-lobes, adnate to the corolla-tube below, with 5 free lobes above Gynostegial corona absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal column of 2 parts, a narrow stalk formed from the stamen filaments, dilating abruptly to a pentagonal drum; anther-appendages erect or inflexed, membranous

[FTEA]

Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

Morphology General Habit
Dwarf perennial herbs with white latex
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, subsessile or petiolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences lateral or subaxillary, 1–many-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx of 5 free sepals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corollatube short; lobes spreading or suberect, often thickened below the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Gynostegial corona absent. Corolline corona arising from about half-way up the corolla-tube and alternating with the corolla-lobes, adnate to the corolla-tube below, the lobes free above
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anther-appendages erect or inflexed, membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinarium
Pollinaria with a pair of pendant or subhorizontal pollinia attached to the corpusculum by slender translator arms
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Apex of stylar head level with the top of the anthers or exserted beyond
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles inflated, with scattered, soft, spine-like processes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds compressed, ovate, with a coma of silky hairs.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Dwarf perennial herb with deep tap-root; latex white; all parts except the flower tomentose with an indumentum of short white stiff spreading hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, suborbicular to reniform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences extra-axillary, long-pedunculate, umbelliform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla united into a tube for c. 2/3 of its length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corona
Corona appearing corolline, adnate to the corolla-tube for most of its length, the free portion fused into a toothed ring, the longer teeth alternating with the corolla-lobes Gynostegial corona absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Staminal column long-stipitate; anther-appendages inflexed, membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollinarium
Pollinaria with a pair of pendent pollinia attached to the corpusculum by slender caudicles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmatic head level with the top of the anthers or exserted beyond
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles single, inflated, with scattered soft spine-like processes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds compressed, ovate, with a tuft of hairs at one end.
Note
Monotypic, but somewhat dubiously distinct from Glossonema.

[FSOM]
Use
The fruits are eaten locally.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Hawaii, Iowa

Cynanchum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 1, 2011 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 348], Vietnam K000577234
Peru 44860.000
Bruyns, P. [5965a], Madagascar 59651.000
Wood, J.R.I. [10519], Bolivia 61565.000
Wood, J.R.I. [18092], Bolivia 62430.000
Wood, J.R.I. [10297], Bolivia 62678.000
Wood, J.R.I. [10313], Bolivia 62681.000
Ollerton, J. [187], Guyana 72779.000
Ollerton, J. [212], Guyana 72778.000
Wood, J.R.I. [15550], Bolivia 74187.000
Wood, J.R.I. [15800], Bolivia 74245.000
Wood, J.R.I. [18690], Bolivia 74232.000
Rico, L. [1293], Bolivia K000295041
Wood, J.R.I. [15438], Bolivia 74248.000
Lemos, J.R. [175], Brazil K001062097
Bally, P.R.O. [12213], Kenya Sarcostemma 29811.000
Troupin, G. [2835], Uganda Sarcostemma 3442.000
Robson, N.K.B. [1496], Malawi Sarcostemma 37042.000
Lavranos [1446], Yemen Sarcostemma 3758.000
Radcliffe-Smith, A. [4623], Yemen Sarcostemma 39900.000
Bally, P.R.O. [9437], Somalia Sarcostemma 4047.000
Lavranos, J. [12562], Kenya Sarcostemma 40668.000
Wood, J.R.I. [2048], Yemen Sarcostemma 43083.000
Collenette, I.S. [2828], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 44119.000
Collenette, I.S. [2828], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 44144.000
Bally, P.R.O. [10667], Tanzania Sarcostemma 44168.000
Fearn, B [4226-03] Sarcostemma 44181.000
Wood, J.R.I. [2067], Yemen Sarcostemma 45968.000
Wood, J.R.I. [s.n.], Yemen Sarcostemma 46115.000
Collenette, I.S. [4667], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 47189.000
Collenette, I.S. [4645], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 47781.000
Collenette, I.S. [4730], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 48030.000
Collenette, I.S. [4753], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 48066.000
Collenette, I.S. [5513], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 49440.000
Collenette, J.S. [8269], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 49943.000
Tanner, R.E.S. [557], Tanzania Sarcostemma 5370.000
Collenette, I.S. [7843], Saudi Arabia Sarcostemma 56446.000
Turner, A. [8419], Kenya Sarcostemma 58622.000
Fortie, M. [S174], Tanzania Sarcostemma 6770.000
Collenette, I.S. [6882], Saudi Arabia Glossonema 53237.000
Collenette, J.S. [9247], Saudi Arabia Glossonema 58512.000

First published in Sp. Pl.: 212 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by S. Liede-Schumann [updated by S. Liede-Schumann 2008]
  • Liede & Kunze in Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 2: 239–269 (2002).
  • Liede in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 283–345 (1996)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 283 (1996)
  • E.J. 114: 503 (1993)
  • Sp. Pl. 212 (1753)

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0