1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Ponerorchis Rchb.f.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Poland to Japan and N. Indo-China.

    [O-EM]
    Distribution

    A genus of about 20 species in the Himalayas, China, and Japan. (PC).

    General Description

    Small to medium-sized, glabrous, terrestrial herbs with spherical or oblong tubers. Leaves one or two, usually basal. Inflorescence laxly to sub-densely flowered; bracts lanceolate, glabrous. Flowers pink or purple, rarely yellow, often spotted with darker purple on the lip. Dorsal sepal entire, often adnate to the petals forming a hood over the column. Lateral sepals similar but spreading. Petals entire, smaller than the dorsal sepal. Labellum three-lobed, ecallose, spurred at the base; spur more or less as long as the ovary. Column short, erect; anther with two more or less parallel loculi; pollinia sectile, clavate; viscidia two, borne in two delicate bursicles; rostellum triangular; stigma concave. Ovary subsessile, glabrous. (PC).

    Ecology

    Members of the genus Ponerorchis are inhabitants of grasslands and open shrubland. Cribb (1994) for example, observed Ponerorchis chusua (D. Don) Soo growing in meadows on the eastern slopes of the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain in north-west Yunnan, China. The species was said to occur frequently at this locality and grew with other orchids including Cypripedium species, Habenaria glatucifolia Burean & Franch., Gymnadenia orchidis Lindl., and Satyrium nepalense D. Don. Ponerorchis can grow from sea level to between 2400 and 4700 m on mountain slopes and flowers from September to October (Polunin and Stainton 1984, noted for Ponerorchis chuma). It perennates by means of tubers. (RN, PC).

    [O-EM]
    Ecology

    Symphyosepalum is recorded from bamboo forest on calcareous substrate between 3600-3900 m . (JW).

    General Description

    Perennial sympodial herbs. Rootstock tuberous, tubers subglobose, 0.5-1 cm in diameter. Stem 10-13 cm high, erect, angular, with scale-like cataphylls at base. Leaves two, grouped above base, elliptic-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, unspotted. Inflorescence densely many-flowered, erect; peduncle with a leafy bract; rachis 3-5 cm long; floral bracts leafy, long-acuminate, margin minutely papillose-ciliate, lowermost longer than flowers. Flowers resupinate, colour not noted, but probably white or pink. Sepals connate for a third of their length, 5 mm long, acuminate. Petals free, linear-lanceolate, acute, slightly shorter than sepals, 1 mm wide. Labellum spurred, porrect to deflexed, three-lobed, about 4 mm long, papillose, lobes obtuse, median longer than lateral, spur narrowly conical to cylindrical, obtuse, approximately 4 mm long, pendulous, with a somewhat horseshoe-shaped swelling at the entrance. Column short and broad; rostellum prominent, forming a narrow projecting roof; anther elliptic, erect, loculi parallel; pollinia not seen; a solitary bursicle possibly present. Ovary sessile. (JW).

    Distribution

    A monospecific genus distributed in south-western China. (JW).

    [O-EM]
    Ecology

    Members of the genus Amitostigma are terrestrial herbs with tuberous roots, which often grow in mountainous situations among wet, moss-covered rocks next to streams, on shaded rocky cliffs, and in bogs (Ohwi 1965; Rasmussen 1995). In north-west Yunnan, A. tibeticum has been observed growing in meadows with other orchids, such as Cypripedium species, on the eastern slopes of the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain (Cribb 1994), whereas on Okinawa, A. lepidum is reported to be common in fields (Walker 1976). Amitostigma flowers between March and August, the exact period varying between species, and the plants are 'summer-green' (Rasmussen 1995). (RN).

    Distribution

    About 30 species distributed in India (Sikkim), China (including Tibet), Japan, Kurile Islands, Taiwan, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand, the majority occurring in China. (JW).

    General Description

    Perennial herbs . Tubers small, ellipsoid. Stem with two cataphylls. Leaves solitary, oblong or narrowly elliptic, acute, unspotted. Inflorescence one- to few-flowered, erect, terminal; peduncle naked or with a sheathing sterile bract; rachis short; floral bracts mostly shorter than or equalling ovary. Flowers resupinate, white, pink, mauve, purple, or rarely yellow, labellum often with deeper purple markings. Sepals and petals free, often connivent, obtuse. Labellum spurred, variously three-lobed, somewhat cuneate at base, mid-lobe often bilobed, spreading, often with spots or lines on disc, spur cylindrical to narrowly conical, short, or elongate (e.g. A. pinguicula). Column short; stigma solitary, narrow, sessile, positioned under the anther, with strongly diverging, filiform lateral stigmatic lobes adnate to the lower margins of the labellum; staminodes clear and elongate; rostellum small, low; anther sessile, horizontal, loculi parallel; pollinaria short, pollinia two, subsessile, with minute caudicles sitting directly on naked viscidia; viscidia positioned in roof above spur entrance; bursicles absent; pollen falling loosely in tetrads. Ovary sessile or shordy pedicellate. Capsule cylindrical. (JW).

    [O-EM]
    General Description

    Slender herbs. Rootstock tube rous, tubers two, oblong or ellipsoid, often somewhat concave. Stem with several sheathing bracts. Leaves two, basal, unspotted. Inflorescence few - to many-flowered, rarely with a solitary flower, lax, often secund; floral bracts herbaceous. Flowers resupinate, pink or purple. Sepals and petals connivent, forrning a hood. Labellum spurred, three-lobed, usually papillose above, spur often incurved, conical. Column suberect, rostellum three-lobed; pollinia two, with very short caudicles; viscidia placed close together and parallel above the tigma; bursicles absent. Ovary subsessile, cylindrical to fusiform, gently twisted, glabrous. (JW).

    Ecology

    Neottianthe plants grow in the deep, damp, acid soils of prime coniferous forests, especially in damp, mossy places, where it is in semi-shade or shade. Less often it grows in mixed woods or oak woods and normally at elevations of not more than 500 m. Occasionally it occurs in mountain meadows and has been recorded from alkaline marshes in Japan at up to 2000 m (Rawat and Pangtey 1985; Davies et al. 1988; Delforge 1995). Flowering of Neottianthe cucullata is most often seen in July and August but can occur from May to October in different parts of the range. It perennates by means of ovoid tubers and has two basal leaves. It often flowers at the same time as another orchid of coniferous woodlands, Goodyera repens (L.) R.Br. It is regarded as local and rare throughout its distribution. (RN).

    Distribution

    Approximately 11 species distributed in north-east Europe and temperate Asia from the Baltic states east to China, Japan, and the Himalayan region. (JW).

    [O-EM]
    Use

    Ponerorchis graminifolia, a variable species in its floral morphology and coloration, is widely cultivated, especially in Japan. (PC).

    [O-EM]
    Use

    In China Neottianthe plants are collected for use in herbal medicine to improve blood circulation (Chen and Tang 1982). (RN).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Altay, Amur, Assam, Baltic States, Belarus, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Inner Mongolia, Irkutsk, Japan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., Manchuria, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Poland, Primorye, Qinghai, Sakhalin, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Tuva, Ukraine, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia

    Ponerorchis Rchb.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Linnaea 25: 227 (1852)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2001). Orchidoideae (Part 1) Genera Orchidacearum 2: 1-416. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Orchideae: e-monocot.org
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