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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum betaceum Cav.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food and for dessert and food.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
    Habit
    Arbusto, arbolito
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type a plant cultivated in the Hortus Botanicus Matritensis, Madrid (Spain), raised from unknown origin.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes ± axillary or supra-axillary, nodding or pendulous, 2–13 cm long, simple or 2–3 times branched, ± densely spreading pubescent Cymes ± axillary or supra-axillary, nodding or pendulous, 2>i>–13 cm long, simple or 2>i>–3 times branched, ± densely spreading pubescent.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 7–12 mm long, slender, thickened upwards; in fruit much elongated and thicker
    Corolla
    Corolla white, ± pink tinged, in bud purple gradually changing to greenish-pink with a dark stripe on the back of each lobe, moderately thick, rotate-campanulate; limb 14–18 mm across; lobes 6–9 mm long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, densely ciliolate, reflexed Corolla white, ± pink tinged, in bud purple gradually changing to greenish-pink with a dark stripe on the back of each lobe, moderately thick, rotate-campanulate; limb 14>i>–18 mm across; lobes 6>i>–9 mm long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, densely ciliolate, reflexed.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 1–1. 5 mm long; anthers 4.5–5 mm long, oblong in outline, the connective strongly thickened, dorsally callous or gibbous along the length of the anther Stamen filaments 1>i>–1.5 mm long; anthers 4.5>i>–5 mm long, oblong in outline, the connective strongly thickened, dorsally callous or gibbous along the length of the anther.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1–1. 5 mm long, conical, ± glabrous.
    Style
    Style 5–7 mm long
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow to red or purple, 3–5.5 (or more) cm long, ovoid or slightly ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous, somewhat acid, edible, the dissepiment moderately thick, with fleshy, sub-reniform placentas adnate to the middle Fruit yellow to red or purple, 3>i>–5.5 (or more) cm long, ovoid or slightly ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous, somewhat acid, edible, the dissepiment moderately thick, with fleshy, sub-reniform placentas adnate to the middle.
    Seeds
    Seeds yellowish, 4–5 × 3–4 mm, obovate or elliptic in outline or ± reniform Seeds yellowish, 4>i>–5 × 3>i>–4 mm, obovate or elliptic in outline or ± reniform.
    Ecology
    Quite widely naturalized in forest regions of Africa. Forest, mountain slopes, Pinus plantations, ruderal places and other areas of disturbance particularly near roadsides in damp soil; sunny or partly shady places; up to 1158 m (1750 m in Angola).
    Note
    R.E. Fries, loc. cit., records this species also from Zambia (Mporokoso). Common name: "Tree Tomato". Recent molecular studies find Cyphomandra, formerly comprising about 35 species, nested within Solanum and with a number of species showing transitional features, so that it now seems best included as a subgenus of Solanum, see Spooner, Anderson & Jansen in Amer. J. Bot. 80: 676–688 (1993) and Bohs in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995).
    Distribution
    Originally from Peru, now widely distributed all over the world in warm but also in temperate regions, often cultivated as a food crop mainly in the Andean Region. Zimbabwe Malawi ZIM E, MAL C
    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, up to 6(7) m high, usually covered with small white, sub-circular or linear spots, somewhat softly and shortly pubescent with simple hairs and papillose glandular hairs to ± glabrous. Shrub or small tree, up to 6(7) m high, usually covered with small white, sub-circular or linear spots, somewhat softly and shortly pubescent with simple hairs and papillose glandular hairs to ± glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or rarely geminate; petiole 1.5–11.5 cm long, initially clasping at the base; lamina somewhat fleshy or sub-coriaceous, 4>i>–36 × 1.5>i>–27 cm, cordate or ovate-lanceolate, base cordate and often unequal-sided, apex acute or obtuse, often ± acuminate, entire to slightly 3-lobed (elsewhere sometimes pinnatisect), densely ciliate, finely pubescent, paler and sometimes sub-velvety beneath, with 3–8 pairs of lateral nerves. Leaves solitary or rarely geminate; petiole 1. 5–11. 5 cm long, initially clasping at the base; lamina somewhat fleshy or sub-coriaceous, 4–36 × 1. 5–27 cm, cordate or ovate-lanceolate, base cordate and often unequal-sided, apex acute or obtuse, often ± acuminate, entire to slightly 3-lobed (elsewhere sometimes pinnatisect), densely ciliate, finely pubescent, paler and sometimes sub-velvety beneath, with 3–8 pairs of lateral nerves
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant; pedicels 7>i>–12 mm long, slender, thickened upwards; in fruit much elongated and thicker. Flowers fragrant.
    Calyx
    Calyx 3.5>i>–4.5 mm long, bowl-shaped or sub-campanulate, shortly spreading pubescent; lobes 1>i>–2 mm long, broadly ovate, somewhat acute or obtuse, in fruit enlarged and strongly thickened. Calyx 3.5–4.5 mm long, bowl-shaped or sub-campanulate, shortly spreading pubescent; lobes 1–2 mm long, broadly ovate, somewhat acute or obtuse, in fruit enlarged and strongly thickened
    Pistil
    Ovary 1>i>–1.5 mm long, conical, ± glabrous; style 5>i>–7 mm long.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.
    Distribution
    Cultivated in Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    Habit
    Shrub.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated in Hortus Madrid from seed of unknown origin in 1798–9, Cavanilles s.n. (MA, lecto. designated by Bohs in Flora Neotropica, 63: 51 (1994))
    General
    Shrub or small tree to 7 m high, rarely herbaceous, often malodorous; younger parts hispid, with a mixture of small spreading simple eglandular- and glandularheaded hairs, older parts glabrescent and often with small whitish spots
    Leaves
    Leaves usually solitary and alternate, rarely opposite, simple, coriaceous, often dark green, often foetid when bruised, broadly ovate to cordate, 10.8–40 × 5.6–26 cm, bases usually cordate occasionally unequal sometimes auriculate with overlapping or clasping lobes, margins entire , apices acuminate, surfaces prominently veined and softly hispid with hairs denser on lower surfaces, midribs and veins; petioles 2.4–13 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal pendulous lax long (–60 cm) cymes, simple, forked or branched arising from stem fork or leaf axil and often appearing axillary, (5–)10–50(–100)-flowered, up to 15 cm long; flowers often fragrant, actinomorphic; peduncles 1.5–2.2 cm long in flower and 1.8–5 cm in fruit; pedicels always pendulous, 6–16 mm long in flower, ± hispid, 1.6–5.2 cm long in fruit when woody and thickened, articulate at or near the base leaving rachis scars
    Calyx
    Calyx fleshy, cyathiform, 2.5–4.5 mm long, sparsely hirsute with glandular hairs externally, with five broadly triangular acute or apiculate lobes 1–2.5 × 1.9–3 mm, slightly accrescent and persistent in fruit when 1.5–4 × 2.5–5 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla white, pink or pale purple, stellate, fleshy, 1.3–2 cm diameter, tube 1.5–3 mm long; lobes narrowly triangular, usually spreading after anthesis with apices recurved, 7–11 × 2–4 mm, acute to acuminate, lobe margins densely pilose internally, otherwise glabrous
    Stamens
    Stamens usually equal, connivent; filaments pale pink, free for 1.5–2 mm, glabrous; anthers bright yellow or orange, 4.5–6 × 1.3–2.9 mm, dehiscing by small apical pores, with broad connective forming darker gibbose thickened band (0.7–1.2 mm) along backs
    Ovary
    Ovary greenish-white, 4 × 2–3 mm, glabrous, bilocular; style greenish-white, 5–6(–7) × 0.7–0.8 mm, glabrous, exserted up to 2 mm; stigma greenish-white, truncate to subcapitate, sometimes bilobed, 0.6–0.7 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Fruit pendulous, sub-fleshy, orange to dark red or purple, dull, ovoid to ellipsoidal, (2.2–)5–10 × 2–5 cm, with acute or acuminate apex, pericarp thick and smooth, softly pubescent to glabrous, bilocular; fruiting calyx lobes adherent becoming reflexed basally
    Seeds
    Seeds numerous, pale reddish-brown, discoid, (3–)4–4.2 × (2.5) 3–3.8 mm, rugose, shallowly reticulate-foveate with narrow winged margin; sclerotic granules sometimes present
    Ecology
    Introduced and naturalised (following bird dispersal) on roadsides, drier and moist forest types , often in deep shade, clearings or on wet ground; 1050–2050 m
    Note
    Commonly known as the tree tomato or tamarillo, the fruits are eaten raw, stewed or made into jam which has a pleasant fragrant taste, though the unripe fruits are considered slightly toxic. The fruits have a high vitamin content, with large amounts of ascorbic acid and vitamin D and they are very rich in carotene, making them good sources of pro-vitamin A. Despite the inflorescences bearing large numbers of flowers, only 1–5 fruits mature on each infructescence; these are predominantly bird-dispersed. The natural range and place of origin of S. betaceum remains conjectural (cf. Bohs, 1989). Truly wild populations are unknown though there are tentative reports of them occurring in Bolivia and NW Argentina; the plants are almost always associated with human habitation, with its possible depiction on pre-Colombian Peruvian pottery vessels suggesting that this species might have been domesticated by prehistoric inhabitants of the Andes (Bohs, 1989). This, however, has been disputed by some researchers who favour the relatively recent domestication of this species. It is now widely cultivated for both culinary and ornamental purposes in subtropical countries throughout the world including India, SE Asia, New Zealand and Australia as well as Africa.  Hunziker (Genera Solanaceae: 320 (2001)) summarized the alkaloid mixture isolated from ‘ Cyphomandra betacea’ roots, surmising that this seemed to be the first reported species of a plant with atropine-like alkaloids and edible fruits. Amines and amides have also been found in ‘ C. betacea’ (Bohs, 1989). Medicinal uses of this species include the use of warmed leaves in poultices for sore throats, fruit pulp in poultices for inflammed tonsils. The leaves have also been used as a source of dyes (cf. Bohs, 1989). This is the only species of ‘ Cyphomandra’ found in the FTEA region where it is universally known as C. betacea (Cav.) Sendtn. This genus has largely been separated from Solanum on the basis of a thickened connective separating the two anther thecae – which appears as a thickened column on the backs of the anthers. Indeed the generic name is derived from the Greek kyphos meaning a tumour or curve and andros meaning male and referring to this curved thickened anther connective. The volatile perfumes produced in the epidermal cells of this connective attract pollinating male euglossine bees (cf. Hunziker, 2001).
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U2 U4 T2 T3 T7 Range: Probably native to Bolivia or NW Argentina Range: Cultivated, often naturalised in Ghana, Congo, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Angola, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Natal) and Madagascar Range: Tropical and subtropical South and Central America, the West Indies, Spain, India, China, Papua New Guinea, Australia
    [UPB]
    Animal Food
    Eaten by birds and insects (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Food
    Infructescences - The fruit is used to make juices (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Fruits Dessert Fruits
    Infructescences - Edible fruit, used for desserts (Romero Castañeda 1961).
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Ghana, Great Britain, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Niue, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vietnam, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Pepino de árbol, tomae, tomate de árbol.

    Other Data

    Solanum betaceum Cav. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2004 Jacobs, M. [4440] K000096574
    May 1, 2004 Johnson, L. [8350], Australia K000096577
    May 1, 2004 Afriastini, J.J. [772] K000096573
    May 1, 2004 Clute, W.N. [220], Jamaica K000096569
    May 1, 2004 Gay, H. [20945], New Caledonia K000096578
    May 1, 2004 Frodin, D.G. [657] K000096575
    May 1, 2004 Hernández, A.C. [49], Mexico K000096542
    May 1, 2004 Tweedie [s.n.] K001058084
    May 1, 2004 Glaziou [7789], Brazil K001058085
    Gillett, J.B. [17583], Tanzania K001157064
    Dawkins, H.C. [D721], Uganda K001157067
    Eggeling, W.J. [3094], Uganda K001157065
    Eggeling, W.J. [s.n.], Uganda K001157066
    Morton, J.K. [K852], Cameroon K001155898
    Stauffer, H.U. [537], Congo K001155897
    Streimann, H. [8710], Papua New Guinea K001153715
    Friis, I. [2187], Ethiopia K001156081
    Strey, R.G. [10907], South Africa K001159002
    Strey, R.G. [10907], South Africa K001159003
    Vink, W. [16343], Papua New Guinea K001168398
    Lehmann, F.C. [6433], Ecuador K001163042
    Lehmann, F.C. [7818], Ecuador K001163049
    Raynal, T. [20565], Rwanda K001155899
    Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158456
    Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158457
    Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158458
    Beaman, J.H. [9453], Malaysia K001153395
    Steyermark, J.A. [95189] K001163048
    Nee, M. [38493], Bolivia K001163058
    Eyerdam, W.J. [25355], Bolivia K001163054
    Chase, M.W. [12267K], Guatemala K001168402
    Eggers, H. [15069], Ecuador K001163050
    Holton, I.F. [s.n.], Colombia K001163043
    Sperling, C.R. [5406], Bolivia K001163056
    Klug, G. [4192], Peru K001163053
    Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157068
    Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157069
    Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157071
    Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157072
    Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157073
    Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157074
    McLean [s.n.], Peru K001168401
    Goudot [101] K001163045
    Gamble, J.S. [16860], India K001168396
    Wilde, W.J.J.O. de [10241] K001168400
    Cabrera, A.L. [27868], Argentina K001167945
    Solomon, J.C. [14408], Bolivia K000441080
    Solomon, J.C. [11227], Bolivia K001163057
    Solomon, J.C. [11050], Bolivia K001163059
    Solomon, J.C. [14408], Bolivia K001163060
    Little Jr., E.L. [6173], Ecuador K001163051
    Sigara [297], Kenya K001157059
    Sigara [297], Tanzania K001157062
    Bruijn, J. de [1439], Venezuela K001163047
    Wendelberger [34], Uganda K001157070
    Venugopal, N. [22422] K001168395
    Bang, A.M. [2337], Bolivia K001163055
    Drummond, R.B. [2408], Kenya K001157061
    Drummond, R.B. [2408], Tanzania K001157063
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000195203 Unknown type material
    Kalbreyer, W. [1019], Colombia K001163044
    Gay, H. [20945], New Caledonia K001155369
    s.coll [7272], Indonesia K001168397
    s.coll [4418], India K001168399
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168403
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168404
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168406
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168407
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168409
    s.coll [H2445/61], United Kingdom K001168411
    s.coll [H2445/61], United Kingdom K001168412
    s.coll [94289] K001157060
    s.coll [s.n.] K001163046
    Silva, M. de [3421], Angola K001029817
    Martin, R. [1727], Peru K001163052
    Tweedie [s.n.] K001168408
    Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001168410
    Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [924], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212619
    Oct 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1803], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212620
    Oct 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1041], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212622
    Oct 1, 2003 Biye, E. [79], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212621
    Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [34], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000109664
    Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3603], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000339144
    Cyphomandra betacea 7102.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [721], Uganda Cyphomandra betacea 2535.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Anales Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
    • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
    • Romero Castañeda, R. (1961). Plantas útiles de Colombia. Volumen I. San Juan Eudes, Bogotá.

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Taxon 44: 584 (1995). TAB. 14.
    • Ann. Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.Z. 8(4): 75 (2005).
    • Solanaceae IV: 293 (1999)
    • Taxon 44: 584 (1995)
    • Rev. Hort.: 150 (1880)
    • Gen. Hist. Dichl. Pl. 4: 108 (1837)
    • Synopsis: 7 (1816)
    • Dunal, Hist. Solanum: 169 (1813)
    • Hort. Kew, ed. 2(1): 400 (1810)
    • Icon. 6: 15, t. 524 (1800)
    • Anal. Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/