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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to W. Pacific.
Thrixspermum pulchellum

General Description

Epiphytic, lithophytic, or rarely terrestrial herbs. Stem ascending, climbing or pendent, simple, either with several closely spaced leaves or many well-spaced leaves. Leaves distichously arranged, flat, conduplicate, coriaceous, terete or laterally compressed, articulate to a tubular, sheathing base. Inflorescence lateral, axillary, borne on or between nodes of stem, perforating the leaf-sheaths, racemose, erect or ascending, few- to rarely many-flowered, a few opening at a time; rachis either fractiflex with the flowers biseriate, or straight and congested with flowers omnilateral; floral bracts laterally compressed or not, either distichous and persistent on a flattened rachis or facing all ways on terete rachis. Flowers resupinate, mostly developing sequentially with 1–3 undergoing anthesis at a time, ascending, usually ephemeral, often fully open for only half a day, from a few mm to several cm across. Sepals and petals free, subsimilar, spreading. Lateral sepals decurrent along column foot. Labellum rigidly attached to column foot by a broad base, trilobed, concave, saccate but not truly spurred, side lobes erect, midlobe frequently thick and fleshy distally, disc usually with a partly hairy or papillose front-wall apical callus or with one or more thickenings at various locations. Column sometimes winged, not dilated distally, foot well developed, usually broad, frequently concave, not sharply differentiated from base of labellum, clinandrium shallowly excavate; anther cap terminal, operculate, hardly or not rostrate, pollinia four, in two unequal pairs, waxy, semi-globular or linear-oblong, attached by a common stipe, viscidium solitary, often peltate; rostellum shortly bidentate; stigma directly below rostellum, deeply recessed.


Thrixspermum includes about 168 species collectively distributed from Sri Lanka and the Himalayan region and Taiwan, southeast through Malesia to northern Australia and the Pacific islands, and east to Fiji and Samoa. The centre of distribution appears to be Sumatra.


Species of Thrixspermum are epiphytes or lithophytes, rarely terrestrials, occurring in rain forests, peat swamp forests, roadside vegetation, and broad-leaved deciduous, riverine, and wet evergreen forests at 0–3400 m.


No uses have been reported for Thrixspermum. Several species are cultivated by amateur growers.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam

Thrixspermum Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 1, 2012 Yong, R. [43], Sarawak K000718577
Jan 1, 1998 Yong, R. [43] 70746.000
Jan 1, 1998 Yong, R. [164], Malaysia 70968.000
Cumberlege [529], Thailand 23892.000
Mason, L.M. [1823], New Guinea 28634.000
Kidman Cox, J. [141], Indonesia 30883.000
Douglas, G. [K/7], Solomon Is. 31704.000
Kerr, A.D. [ADK. 1221], Laos 32321.000
Collenette, S. [2334] 42413.000
Lamb, A. [AL 411/85] 49333.000
Lamb, A. [AL415/85], Sabah 72809.000
Lamb, A. [AL412/85], Sabah 72810.000
Lamb, A. [AL401/85], Sabah 72830.000
Lamb, A. [AL419/85], Sabah 72831.000
Lamb, A. [AL416/85], Sabah 72833.000
Lamb, A. [AL413/85], Sabah 72834.000
Lamb, A. [AL410/85], Sabah 72835.000
Lamb, A. [AL414/85], Sabah 72836.000
Lamb, A. [AL1521/92], Sabah 72861.000
Lamb, A. [AL811/87], Sabah 72875.000
Lamb, A. [AL671], Sabah 72880.000
Lamb, A. [s.n.], Sabah 72891.000
Lamb, A. [AL126/83], Sabah 72923.000
Yong, R. [43], Malaysia 77571.000

First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 519 (1790)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2014). Genera Orchidacearum 6: 1-544. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.