1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Tragia Plum. ex L.
      1. Tragia volubilis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America, Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A scandent, usually sparingly pubescent and hirsute urticating perennial herb up to 2 m. high when supported.
    Leaves
    Petiole (0.5–)1–6 cm. long, evenly to sparingly pubescent; blade oblong-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, (2–)4–10(–12) cm. long, 0.7–5 cm. wide, acute, cuneate, rounded, truncate or very shallowly cordate, serrate, sometimes shallowly so, thinly chartaceous, 3–5(–7)-nerved from the base, lateral nerves 5–9 pairs, sparingly hirsute along the midrib and main nerves above and beneath, otherwise ± glabrous, sometimes purplish tinged.
    Stipules
    Stipules lanceolate, 4–5 mm. long, acute, ± glabrous except on the margins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences lateral and/or supra-axillary, (1.5–)2.5–4.5 cm. long, lax-flowered; axis slender, sparingly pubescent; ♂ and ♀ bracts lanceolate, 1 mm. long, sparingly pubescent, persistent; bracteoles resembling the bracts.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:pedicels 1.5–2 mm. long, persistent; calyx-lobes 3, ovate, 0.75 mm. long, ± glabrous, reddish; stamens 0.3 mm. long, filaments short, thick, anthers minute, extrorse, yellowish; pistillode minute or 0. Female flowers:pedicels 2–4 mm. long, densely pubescent at first, rapidly extending to 2–4(–5) cm. long in fruit, and becoming sparingly pubescent; calyx-lobes 6, lanceolate, 1.5 mm. long, accrescent to 2 mm. in fruit, subglabrous, reddish, persistent; ovary trilobate, 1 mm. diameter, densely setose; styles 3, 1.5 mm. long, united for ± half their length, glabrous, the lobes recurved, stigmatic surfaces papillose.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels 1.5–2 mm. long, persistent; calyx-lobes 3, ovate, 0.75 mm. long, ± glabrous, reddish; stamens 0.3 mm. long, filaments short, thick, anthers minute, extrorse, yellowish; pistillode minute or 0.
    Female
    Female flowers:pedicels 2–4 mm. long, densely pubescent at first, rapidly extending to 2–4(–5) cm. long in fruit, and becoming sparingly pubescent; calyx-lobes 6, lanceolate, 1.5 mm. long, accrescent to 2 mm. in fruit, subglabrous, reddish, persistent; ovary trilobate, 1 mm. diameter, densely setose; styles 3, 1.5 mm. long, united for ± half their length, glabrous, the lobes recurved, stigmatic surfaces papillose.
    Fruits
    Fruits dimorphic; normal fruits strongly trilobate, 3 mm. long, 6 mm. diameter, with the keel of each coccus slightly gibbous, evenly setose and pubescent, the keels purplish; allomorphic fruits monococcous, each provided with 3 strongly developed sharp spinous outgrowths.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 mm. diameter, reddish brown, mottled buff.
    Habitat
    Along footpaths and roads in forest; 1170–1220 m.
    Distribution
    Sierra Leone eastwards to Sudan (Equatoria) and Zaire and south to Angolaalso widespread in the New World tropics from Mexico and Cuba south to Argentina and UruguayPrain (1913) considers it to be introduced into Africait belongs to a different section from African Tragias, and all its closest allies are American U4
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A slender twiner
    Indumentum
    Armed with stinging hairs.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 550 - 2000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Trepadora
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Liberia, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Sierra Leone, Southwest Caribbean, Sudan, Suriname, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Tragia volubilis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2010 Cheek, M. [11783], Cameroon K000678378
    Jul 1, 1997 Cascante, A. [1307], Costa Rica K000716414
    Harley, R.M. [16499], Brazil K001205048
    Reitz [8820], Brazil K001205056
    Reitz [7192], Brazil K001205057
    Spruce, R. [4850], Peru K000600738
    Spruce, R. [4850], Peru K000600739
    Lucena, M.F.A. [136], Brazil K001205061
    Kallunki, J.A. [704], Brazil K001205041
    Smith, L.B. [11747], Brazil K001205047
    Santos, J.U. [705], Brazil K001205044
    Mueller, F. [201], Brazil K001205046
    Ekman, E.L. [12448], Dominican Republic K000716415
    Miers, J. [3770], Brazil K001205043
    Miers, J. [4216], Brazil K001205045
    Miguel [s.n.], Suriname K001205055
    Traill, J.W.H. [769], Brazil K001205042
    Anderson [s.n.], Suriname K001205053
    Combs, R, [39], Cuba K000716416
    s.coll. [1770/4], Brazil K001205040
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001205049
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001205051
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001205054
    Burchell [1220], Brazil K001205050
    Burchell [1809], Brazil K001205052
    Hassler, E. [7766], Paraguay Tragia volubilis var. guaranitica K000648448 Unknown type material

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 980 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barberá, P., Velayos, M. & Aedo, C. (2013). Annotated checklist and identification keys of the Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Phytotaxa 140: 1-25.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Araújo, D. & Alves, M. (2010). Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil) Phytotaxa 8: 1-24.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot, 583.
    • Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 9: 47–50 (as var genuina), fig. 14
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 969
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Barberá, P., Velayos, M. & Aedo, C. (2013). Annotated checklist and identification keys of the Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Phytotaxa 140: 1-25.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 411 (1958).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 469 (1948).
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 102, t. 47 (1921).
    • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(9): 47, t. 14 (1919).
    • Prain in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 969 (1913).
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 935 (1866).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 980 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0