1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Ocimum L.
      1. Ocimum americanum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Lectotype, see Paton, loc. cit. (1992): America, Linnean Herbarium 749.9 (LINN!, lecto.)
    Habit
    Aromatic annual or short-lived perennial herb, 10–50(–80) cm tall
    Stem
    Stems roundedquadrangular or quadrangular, erect or ascending, sometimes with erect flowering shoots coming from a decumbent stem, woody at base, sometimes with epidermis peeling in strips, branched above; indumentum of short, appressed or retrorse hairs, becoming denser on the inflorescence axis, with or without sessile glands
    Leaves
    Leaves sometimes folded along midrib on drying, with or without axillary fascicles of younger leaves; blade narrowly ovate or elliptic, 0.5–2.5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, entire to shallowly serrate, apex acute, base cuneate, glabrous to slightly pubescent above, pubescent with longer hairs on midrib and veins beneath, glandular-punctate; petiole 2–15 mm long, with appressed hairs and usually with longer patent hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence lax, verticils ± 10 mm apart; axis densely pubescent with retrorse hairs; bracts often erect above forming a small coma around apex, deciduous or not, ovate, 3–4 mm long, entire, pilose; pedicels 1–2 mm long, ± erect, slightly flattened, curved
    Calyx
    Calyx ± downward-pointing, 1.5–2 mm long at anthesis, indumentum of long patent hairs and sessile glands, interior of tube with a dense ring of hairs at throat; posterior lip rounded at tip, decurrent, median teeth of anterior lip lanceolate, acuminate, teeth of lateral lobes deltate, cuspidate; fruiting calyx 2–4 mm long, throat open; posterior lip accrescent, wider at tip, decurrent; lateral and median teeth of anterior lip ± convergent or not
    Corolla
    Corolla white or pale mauve, 4–5 mm long; tube straight, funnel-shaped
    Stamens
    Stamens exceeding corolla by 1–2 mm, posterior pair with fleshy, flattened, glabrous outgrowth near base
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous
    Fruits
    Nutlets black, ovoid, longer than broad, 0.8–1 mm long, minutely tuberculate, mucilaginous when wet.
    Ecology
    Cultivated and disturbed ground, grassland, grassland prone to flooding; sea-level to 1800 m
    Conservation
    Least concern
    Note
    Morton in J.L.S. 58: 231 (1962) suggests that the type specimen of this species is an immature form of O. basilicum. However, this specimen has an indumentum and small flowers typical of this taxon. O. basilicum never has a short, appressed indumentum with long hairs on the stem nodes and leaf veins. Therefore the correct name for this taxon is O. americanum. O. americanum is close to O. forskolei but can be separated from the latter by the less woody habit, smaller corolla and fruiting calyx, more shortly exserted stamens, and often a less densely hairy calyx. However, mature fruiting specimens can be confused with O. forskolei. O. americanum can also be confused with O. basilicum and O. africanum from which it differs by having a smaller fruiting calyx. Morton in J.L.S. 58: 231 (1962) reports different chromosome numbers in O. americanum [ canum] and O. basilicum and suggests that the two taxa are genetically isolated. They do, however, hybridise, see O. africanum below.
    Distribution
    Range: Widespread in tropical and South Africa, also from China and India to Brasil and in Australia Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K3 K4 K (5 fide U.K.W.F.), K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z P
    [FWTA]

    Labiatae, J. K. Morton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Diagnostic
    Similar to O. basilicum but smaller in all its parts and having a more pungent odour
    Note
    Perhaps not native
    Cytology
    Diploid.
    [FWTA]
    Use
    Commonly cultivated for medicinal purposes

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Honduras, Mexico Southeast, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Queensland, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

    Ocimum americanum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    May 1, 1985 Powell, D.A. [551], Australia K000897314
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7772], Tanzania 27369.000
    Bogdan, A. [AB1643], Kenya K000434846
    Afriastini, J.J. [774], Indonesia K000897312
    Elmer, A.D.E. [8067], Philippines K000897242
    Zollinger, H. [111], Indonesia K000897313
    Bourobou Bourobou, H.P. [667], Gabon K000479668

    First published in Cent. Pl. I: 15 (1755)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Manikandan, R., Chandrasekar, K. & Srivastava, S.K. (2012). Life form analysis of the family Lamiaceae in Jammu & Kashmir, India Phytotaxonomy 12: 7-19.
    • Morales, R. (2011). Les Labiadas (Lamiaceae) de Guinea Ecuatorial Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 68: 199-223.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
    • Khanam, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2008). Lamiaceae Flora of Bangladesh 58: 1-161. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Manikandan, R., Chandrasekar, K. & Srivastava, S.K. (2012). Life form analysis of the family Lamiaceae in Jammu & Kashmir, India Phytotaxonomy 12: 7-19.
    • Morales, R. (2011). Les Labiadas (Lamiaceae) de Guinea Ecuatorial Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 68: 199-223.
    • Khanam, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2008). Lamiaceae Flora of Bangladesh 58: 1-161. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 571 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 337 (2006).
    • Ryding in Fl. Somalia 3: 337 (2006).
    • K.B. 60: 28 (2005)
    • Holm & Hiltunen, Ocimum: 25 (1999), pro parte
    • Holm & Hiltunen, Ocimum: 25 (1999), pro parte
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 296 (1994)
    • K.B. 47: 424 (1992), pro parte, excl. var. pilosum
    • K.B. 47: 424 (1992), pro parte, excl. var. pilosum
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 326 (1985)
    • F.W.T.A. 2: 285 (1931)
    • Fl. Cap. 5(1): 235 (1910)
    • Cent. Pl. 1: 15 (1755)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    [A] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [B] © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [C] © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0